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Japan. Japan: the basics Area –Germany < Japan < California Population –127 million (~ 4 times California ’ s) –life expectancy: 84 (87 for female) –24%

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Presentation on theme: "Japan. Japan: the basics Area –Germany < Japan < California Population –127 million (~ 4 times California ’ s) –life expectancy: 84 (87 for female) –24%"— Presentation transcript:

1 Japan

2 Japan: the basics Area –Germany < Japan < California Population –127 million (~ 4 times California ’ s) –life expectancy: 84 (87 for female) –24% are 65 or above constitutional monarchy

3 Japan in history Oldest continuous monarchy feudal rule under shogun ( ) U.S. Commodore Matthew Perry –forced Japan to open to trade (1853) Meiji Restoration (1868) –centralized government under Emperor –industrialization and trade

4 Japan in World War II Invasion and annexation of Northeast China (Manchuria) ( ) full-scale aggression in China ( ) alliance with Nazi and fascists (1940) Pacific War ( ) –every country and colony in East and Southeast Asia was invaded

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7 The Occupation Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers (SCAP) - General Douglas MacArthur Two main tasks: –demilitarization –democratization

8 Demilitarization Purged almost all wartime officers and politicians Disbanded almost all militaristic associations and parties Prosecuted almost all war criminals –The issue of Yasukuni Shrine Dismantled almost all war industries

9 War Criminals Yasukuni Shrine was built in Meiji 2 (1869) Japan’s Pacific War criminals have been worshiped in it since 1978 Strong protests from other Asian countries

10 The "Peace Clause" Article 9 in the 1947 constitution: “ the Japanese people forever renounce war as a sovereign right of the nation and the threat or use of force as means of settling international disputes “ land, sea, and air forces, as well as other war potential, will never be maintained ”

11 Korean War ( ) Economic turning point for Japan: –war supplies to Korea –industrial resurgence –foreign currency growth rate: 9.4% growth rate: 10.9% 1952 Japan ’ s GDP matched prewar high

12 Korean War ( ) Political turning point for Japan U.S. started to regard Japan as a vital link in the “ arc of containment ” against communism Demilitarization gave way to reconstituting a military force –Self-Defense Force

13 U.S. Strategic Change General peace treaty in San Francisco in September 1951 –China and Soviet Union were excluded –formally ended the Occupation in 1952 U.S.-Japan Mutual Security Treaty –U.S. troops and military base in Japan

14 “Arc of Containment”

15 Japan’s Economic Growth

16 High Growth of Large investment in heavy industry Imports of energy and raw materials Government’s economic goals: –achieve economic self-sufficiency –achieve full employment –improve export competitiveness –keep domestic demand high

17 High Growth of Government’s “doubling income” plan –Large-scale infrastructure construction Labor-intensive to capital-intensive –Technological improvement and facility modernization under government protection Aggressive export strategy –Businesses compete with foreign counterparts under government protection

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20 Bubble burst

21 More shocks in 1990s Large and rising government deficit and public debt (now more than 200% of GDP) Aging population (median age now at 45) Banking crises and non-performing loans Asian financial crisis ( ) “ Hollowing out ” of industry Natural disasters and terrorist attacks

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23 Suggested Readings Japanese Prime Minister’s website: Journals in the UM library: –Japan Echo –Japan Quarterly Books and videos in the UM library


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