Presentation on theme: "POST-WAR JAPAN STATE AND POLITICS. 1945 July Potsdam conference Aug 6 – Hiroshima Aug 9 Nagasaki August 8 Soviet entry into war Aug 15 – Japanese surrender."— Presentation transcript:
1945 July Potsdam conference Aug 6 – Hiroshima Aug 9 Nagasaki August 8 Soviet entry into war Aug 15 – Japanese surrender Sept. 2 Instrument of surrender signed 1945-1952 Occupation SCAP
2 Phases of the Occupation 1945-1948 Demilitarize, democratize 1948-1952 Reconstruction Korean war, Cold War in Asia Japan – cornerstone of US foreign policy in Asia Explain transition?
Occupation Reforms Unlike Germany, Japanese governing structure left intact (language, resources) Supreme Commander of Allied Powers Douglas MacArthur State remained a constitutional monarchy led by emperor – but no divine anymore State – Shinto – Jan. 1 1946 Rescript issued, renounced imperial divinity Institution through which to implement change
REFORMS Military personnel run reforms Trial of military/civilian personnel Tribunal – 27 trued, 7 were hanged (General Tojo) imprison for 7 yrs and life - later commuted, 200,000 bureaucrats were purged Contrast with Germany –Time/ detail
Meiji constitution 1889 Emperor was divine head replaced by 1947 constitution Emperor symbolic d=head of state – unity of people Diet – elections, Vote to all men and women over age of 20. Article 25 right to a livelihood Article 9 renounce war as instrument of national policy, no armed forces Written in English, re-draft in Japanese
Education Reform Zaibatsu – cartels –Military-economic –Froze accounts, 83 companies were broken up –Heavy industry (ship building, trucks) –Anti Monopoly law passed –1957, 1200 companies reviewed, only 9 affected
Labor reorgnaization Unionization – democratization Dec. 1945 Trade Union Law right to organize bargain and strike. 1946 – I million to 4.5 million members. Land Reform 2/3 of arable land – tenants rents, 1946 Land reform act – 5 million acres – redistributed in 2-5 years
1947 SCAP declared Japan was ready for a peace treaty. Communists in China 1948/ Korean war looming 1948 Diet passed a no strike law for civil and industrial workers Purge reversed, many reinstated War Ministry became MITI Industry allowed to manufacture ships/trucks
Korean war – injection Supply trucks, blankets, consumer durables Pegged dollar to yen 360Yen/1$ Cheap exports Elites and bureaucrats reinstated Pacification/democratization/demilitarize ENEMY - ALLY
ENEMY – ALLY - EXPLANATION? San Francisco Peace Treaty 1951 (anti- communist pact, ensure base in Asia) Military protection of USA Bases in Japan – Okinawa Real-Politik? Utopian idealism? – Peace, Justice, Democracy
View of the Other Monkey men, savages, apes, Know your Enemy Japan – not individuals Genocide/annihilation Racial paternalism Civilizing mission Duality in self and other
Japan – enemy – ally? Devastation of war. 40% assets seized Millions unemployed, hungry Reconstruction/rebuilding Atomic bomb American soldiers seen as helping in reconstruction
Role of Emperor Collective efforts to rebuild Internalisation of pacifism Japanese people embraced idea of peace much like Germans who had experienced directly consequences of fascism Old/younger generation divide in recolelction
Post war politics State strong – administrative guidance Yoshida Shigeru – first Prime Minister Liberal Democratic Party 1955 Democratic Socialist Party (DSP) Japanese Communist Party (JCP) Independent Judiciary Diet (Parliament)
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