Presentation on theme: "Japanese History. Geography Mountainous archipelago 11% arable land Earthquake prone region Able to keep themselves fairly isolated from the rest of Asia."— Presentation transcript:
Geography Mountainous archipelago 11% arable land Earthquake prone region Able to keep themselves fairly isolated from the rest of Asia and the world.
Historical Government System 100 A.D. Local Clans ruled small areas of Japan Yamato Clan = most important (emperor) Japan’s emperor has always come from the Yamato Clan BUT the emperor’s power has fluctuated throughout history. Emperor = powerful leader Emperor = puppet of aristocrat (rich) clans Emperor = puppet of the shogun (military leader)
Japan Finally United Japan could not become a unified country if the Daimyo resisted. Daimyo – heads of the aristocrat clans Daimyos had their own samurai security forces (militaries) Samurai protected the Daimyo, his family, and patrolled the Daimyo’s vast estates Tokugawa Ieyasu = Daimyo of Edo He was able to bring the other Daimyos under his control to unify Japan (1603). He took the title Shogun.
Hostage System Ensured Loyalty Tokugawa shogun (ruler) created 250 hans or local communities in Japan. One Daimyo controlled each han. Daimyo had to keep 2 houses: One in their han. One in Edo (the capital city). When the Daimyo wasn’t in Edo, he had to leave his family there under the shogun’s control. This prevented the Daimyo from plotting against the shogun, because his family would pay the price.
Isolationism Ends For centuries, Japan kept to itself. This was easy for an island nation. They allowed some limited trade with Korea, China, and the Dutch. American Commodore Matthew Perry (1853) Arrived in Edo Bay (Tokyo) with 4 warships Japan agreed to Treaty of Kanagawa Trade access for Americans U.S. Consulate opened
Meiji Rule 1870s Meiji means enlightened rule Japanese government realized they needed to modernize. Visited and studied western countries. Land and government was reorganized. Emperor Mutsuhito = figurehead Prime Minister and Cabinet held power Two house legislative branch Focus on industrial development. Focus on military build-up.
Meiji Japan = Imperial Power Japan was an island nation with limited space and resources (similar to Europe). Japan followed expansion plans of the Europeans. Wanted sources of raw materials. Wanted markets for their industrial products. Japan took control of various islands, the Korean Peninsula, Port Arthur from China and Russia.
Meiji Military Meiji Rule transitioned into Military Rule. Invaded Manchuria in 1931 for its plentiful natural resources. Emperor Hirohito approved of the military’s rise to power. Goals were to assert Japanese dominance all throughout Asia. International community was against Japan’s expansionist policies, but Japan continued with them anyway. Japan and China started a war in 1937. Japan also aligned itself with rising Nazi Party Germany.
December 7, 1941 “A date that will live in infamy” Japanese military launched a simultaneous attack against: Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (American Territory) Philippines (American Colony) Malaya (British Colony) Dutch East Indies Various islands in the Pacific region
December 7, 1941 “A date that will live in infamy”
WWII – The Pacific Front Japan hoped the attack on the US fleet would remove them from the Pacific. Instead it made the Americans united and in favor of entering WWII. Island Hopping Campaign – U.S. Army, Marine, & Navy forces moved from island to island in the Pacific fighting and forcing the Japanese to retreat. U.S. forces fought all the way to the main Japanese islands…choice: Invade or Bomb?
The Atom Bomb President Harry S. Truman decided to drop the newly invented atom bomb on Japan instead of invading the main islands of Japan. His goal was the spare American lives. Hiroshima 8/6/45 Nagasaki 8/9/45 Japan surrendered 8/14/45
Postwar Reforms 1945 Allies wanted to make sure that Japan would no longer be a threat American General Douglas MacArthur appointed as commander of the occupation forces in Japan
MacArthur’s Goals End militarism Japanese armed forces disbanded Japan’s overseas empire was dismantled Building democracy Japan adopted a new constitution in 1947 Stripped the emperor of his power Gave power to the Diet (Legislature) List of Rights – similar to the American Bill of Rights Aid given to help Japan rebuild its industries