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The Benefits and Consequences of Dependency on Non-Renewable Energy

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1 The Benefits and Consequences of Dependency on Non-Renewable Energy
Yvonne Alley, Colleen Simpson, Jessica Truett

2 Unit Summary The British Petroleum Oil Spill in the Gulf of Mexico is of high interest to all, especially those located in the Gulf Coast Region. This incident is a current event that allows students the opportunity to explore the deeper issue of energy use and the need to find alternative sources. Students will be able to analyze the disaster from several different perspectives to include the economic, environmental, political and social impact this disaster will have on the Gulf Coast Region. Students will gain a broader understanding of the financial, economic and environmental issues related to energy use as well as how the consumption of oil directly affects their lives and local communities. Students will also develop their ability to work collaboratively to create alternative solutions for reducing the consumption of non- renewable resources that can satisfy demands whilst respecting the limits imposed by nature. Students will also develop their analytic, evaluative, and problem solving skills in accordance with Florida Sunshine State Standards and Blooms Taxonomy of thinking by investigating the consequences of depending on a non renewable resource such as oil and developing possible solutions to the problem. There is an abundance of past and current resources that can be used for this thematic unit across several disciplines of study. The theme is sufficiently broad enough to contain many subtopics and allow for student input for the selection of topics relative to each discipline. Students are already motivated to get involved and this thematic unit will allow them to become active participants in this current event and learn that their efforts can make a difference. The unit will also allow students opportunity for introspective global thought as they learn through their research that each individual has a civic responsibility for stewardship of the environment.

3 Major Concepts Language Arts Social Studies Science Math
Quality of life Informational/Expository Writing Global Warming Electronic Technology Vocabulary Building Compare/Contrast Inference/Generalizations: Science Oil cleanup methods Aquatic, Terrestrial, Animals Principles of Ecology Food Webs, Energy Flow, Interdependence, Limiting Factors Non-Renewable Energy Benefits & Consequences Renewable Energy Technology & Limitations Social Studies Social and Economic effects Supply and Demand of Natural Resources Social Responsibility Energy Awareness Geographic data Consequences of changing physical environment Math Data Analysis Estimation Proportions Computations Generalizations

4 Graphic Organizer Renewable Energy Estimation Generalizations
Energy Awareness Benefits & Consequences of Dependency on Non-Renewable Energy Mathematics Science Language Arts/Reading Social Studies Data Analysis Generalizations Estimation Computations Oil Clean Up Methods Principles of Ecology Non-Renewable Energy Geographic Data Supply and Demand of Natural Resources Consequences of Changing Physical Environment Social and Economic Effects Informational/Expository Writing Global Warming Graphic Organizers Electronic Technology Vocabulary Building Inference/Generalizations What the Future Holds Information Gathering/Analyze Changing our Lifestyles Food Webs Interdependence Benefits Consequences On the Beach On the Water On Animals Social Responsibility Compare/Contrast Non -renewable energy: the Human Cost Proportions Limiting Factors Limitations Energy Flow Renewable Energy Technology

5 Focus Questions What are renewable and non-renewable energy resources?
What are the environmental/economic and social consequences of depending on non-renewable resources such as oil? What are the benefits of renewable energy and how could they help reduce oil dependency? How has Gulf oil disaster influenced government responsibility and individual social responsibility relative to energy use? How can disasters such as the Gulf Oil Spill be prevented in the future?

6 Math Learning Goals To understand the economic and environmental impact of past and present oil spills. To learn how to solve problems related to the use of non-renewable energy resources. To learn how to create various graphs. To demonstrate how to collect and organize information. To learn how to create a survey, analyze data, and make generalizations. To understand and explore the safety of oil rigs. To explore and create a renewable energy source.

7 Social Studies Learning Goals
Extend and Refine use of various map forms and other geographic representations to acquire, process, and report geographic information. Know ways selected regions are interconnected and interdependent. Extend and refine understanding of environmental consequences of people changing the physical environment in selected regions. Understands the basic principles of economic supply and demand and how they apply to various economic systems in selected regions. Extend and refine knowledge of ways current issues affect political, social, and economic systems in selected regions.

8 Science Learning Goals
Differentiate non-renewable energy and renewable energy. Understand how non-renewable energy sources are harmful to the environment. Differentiate the different types of renewable energy and their limitations. Build a hydrogen fuel cell model. Understand the different methods for cleaning up and oil spill in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Identify basic principles of ecology, specifically the structure and energy flow of food web. Understand how all living organism are effected by each other and the limiting factors that exist in that ecosystem.

9 Language Arts Learning Goals
The student uses multiple strategies to develop grade appropriate vocabulary The student uses a variety of strategies to comprehend grade level text The student identifies, analyzes, and applies knowledge of a variety of nonfiction, informational and expository texts to demonstrate an understanding of information presented. The student will use prewriting strategies The student will write a draft appropriate to topic, audience, and purpose. The student will write a final product for the intended audience The student develops and demonstrates technical writing that provides information relative to real-world tasks. The student effectively applies listening and speaking strategies The student comprehends the wide array of informational text that is part of our day to day experiences The student uses a systematic process for the collection, processing, and presentation of information The student develops and demonstrates an understanding of media literacy as a life skill that is integral to informed decision making The student develops the essential technology skills for using and understanding conventional and current tools, materials and processes.

10 Student Learning Outcomes
Language Arts Students working in pairs will be able to find 8 of 10 meanings for assigned using the internet. Student working in pairs will be able to locate 8 out of 10 real world visual examples of the context vocabulary words are used. Students working in pairs and using assigned materials will create a chart that shows each word’s meaning and Students will each read assigned newspaper article on gulf oil spill and highlight minimum of 80% lesson vocabulary words. Students will each identify 80% of organizational text features used in assigned article. Each student will write a1 paragraph explaining why these organizational features are used and how they help the reader. Students working in pairs will use the internet to locate 3 primary and 4 secondary resources on the Exxon Valdez and Gulf Coast oil disaster  Students will each read their primary and secondary sources and identify a minimum of 4 main ideas about the human cost of each disaster from each source and record on assigned graphic organizer. Students working in pairs will create a front page newspaper article using power point, primary and secondary source main points that describes the human cost of oil dependency. Students will incorporate a minimum of 4 organizational text features in their article. Students working in pairs and using assigned internet sources will gather research information on 4 causes and 4 effects of global warming. Students will each select articles that illustrate 4 different types of text format and write 1 paragraph that explains the difference in the characteristics of each format

11 Student Learning Outcomes (continued)
Language Arts Using internet resources and working in pairs students will find 10 possible solutions to help reduce global warming, 1 solution will included reducing carbon footprint and 1 solution will include information on “going green.” Students working in pairs will create a technical booklet that explains 8 steps to take to convert to “going green.” Students working in groups of four and using previous internet research and previous activities will develop an informational documentary report on how non renewable energy use is contributing to global warming. Students in their groups will be able to select correct prewriting strategy to develop documentary main ideas using their primary and secondary sources. Students in their groups will use a minimum of 2 graphic organizers to organize their main ideas and supporting details relevant to their topic. Students in their groups will be able to draft scripts for documentary presentation by organizing information into a logical sequence that divides documentary into 4 distinct segments. Students in their groups will be able to prepare 4 scripts using assigned media technology in a format appropriate to communicate their message to the audience Students in their groups will be able to present a thesis statement, introduction to the problem, examples of effects on human and environment, and concluding predictions of what the future may look like if global warming continues.LA Students in their groups will be able to effectively deliver their speech to inform audience, using appropriate language eye contact, gestures la Students in their groups will develop a concluding statement based on their research by making 2 predictions on how continuing dependency on non renewable energy and reluctance to alter lifestyle will affect global warming outcomes for the future.

12 Student Learning Outcomes
Science The students will be able to differentiate between renewable energy resources and non-renewable energy resources. With the application of ecological principles, the students will be able to create a specific ecological food web with all the basic components identified. Using their constructed food webs, students will be able to predict how an oil spill will effect their ecosystems. Using knowledge of the environmental impacts that oil has on ecosystems, the students will be able to display how our local ecosystem will be effected by the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. With the aid of CNN's website, the students will be able to create a timeline on the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill. The students will be able to explain the different techniques used to clean oil spills. Using knowledge of oil spill clean up methods, the students will be able create a controlled oil spill and test cleanup techniques on a controlled oil spill. The students will be able to invent new techniques to clean up and prevent future oil spills. The students will be able to compare and contrast the benefits and limitations of alternative energy. Using knowledge of alternative energy, the students will be able to build a model that uses alternative energy. Applying all learning experiences from the unit, the students will be able to develop & write a R.A.F.T. to persuade the public to convert to alternative energy resources.

13 Student Learning Outcomes
Math The students will identify renewable and non renewable energy, and use this data to create a survey. Students will interpret, explain, and create displays of data in a graph or table with 80% accuracy. Using the information from the graph or table, students will present findings and make generalizations about the general populations. Using collected data, students will calculate with 80% accuracy, the amount of oil spilled in the Valdez oil spill compared to the Gulf oil spill. Students will calculate, compare, and report an estimation of the cost to clean up each oil spill. The students will research and record facts about solar power. Given material and plans, students will calculate and build a solar power oven and cook something in their oven. Students will collect, and analyze information about oil rig safety systems. Using oil rig data, students will design a prototype of an emergency cutoff system.

14 Student Learning Outcomes
Social Studies Students working in pairs will be able to identify all the states and capitals of the Gulf Coast region using an atlas. Students working in pairs will be able to label and color each of the states on a blank political map correctly, using colored pencils. Students working in pairs will identify a minimum of 5 resources associated with the gulf coast region. Students working in pairs will be able to label correctly the physical characteristics and natural resources of the Gulf Coast region on a blank physical map from an overhead list using colored pencils. Students will each be able to identify 8 of 10 Physical and Human characteristics of a place, by grouping them into respective categories on a worksheet, from overhead visual examples of characteristics. Students will each be able to write 3 inferences using the information from their categories worksheet on how a way of life may be affected as a result of changing the physical environment. Students will each be able to use their assigned internet resources to locate a minimum of 4 articles and 1 graph on economic development along the gulf coast over the past five years.

15 Student Learning Outcomes Social Studies (continued)
Students working in pairs will be able to create 1 power point comparison chart using their research information that illustrates the economic effects of the Gulf Oil Spill on the economy of the Gulf Coast Region. Students using their comparison chart information will each be able to write an expository essay describing in their own words 3 possible social or economic consequences of how dependency on non renewable energy resources can affect a way of life of any region. Students will each be able to locate research information on the social and economic benefits of 3 renewable energy resources from their assigned internet websites. In pairs students will be able to analyze their research and select a minimum of 6 main points and supporting details to prepare a 5 minute persuasive debate on the economic and social benefits of using renewable energy resources. In pairs students will present their debates to their peers and will be able to defend their argument by answering all questions made by their class peers in a 1 minute question response session. Students using materials provided by teacher will each be able to visually show the relationship between supply and demand by creating 1 cartoon that illustrates one or more examples of how an economy is either supported or diminished by economic supply and demand principles. Students in groups of four will design an energy awareness school wide campaign using computer graphics and software to create posters that show a minimum of 5 ways everyone can conserve energy. Students in groups of four will include at least 2 examples of how renewable energy resources can be used to decrease the demand for non renewable energy consumption. Students will each write a persuasive letter to the Governor using their research information to justify their argument or case either for or against off shore drilling.

16 Standards Language Arts
LA The student will use new vocabulary that is introduced and taught directly; LA The student will relate new vocabulary to familiar words; LA The student will use context clues to determine meanings of unfamiliar words LA The student will locate, use, and analyze specific information from organizational text features (table contents, headings, captions, italics, glossaries, indices, key words). LA The Student will use information from the text to state the main idea or provide relevant details LA The student will organize information to show understanding (representing main idea within text through charting, mapping, paraphrasing, summarizing or comparing/contrasting) LA The student will write in a variety of informational/expository forms (e.g., summaries, procedures, instructions, experiments, rubrics, how-to manuals, assembly instructions); LA The student will select and use appropriate available technologies to enhance communication. LA The Student will prepare writing using technology in a format appropriate to audience and purpose LA The student will use elements of spacing and design for graphics (tables, drawings, charts, graphics) when applicable to enhance the appearance of the document LA The student will select a topic, develop a prioritized search plan, and evaluative criteria to select appropriate resources for research. LA Student will write an informational report that includes a focused topic, appropriate facts and relevant details, a logical sequence, a concluding statement, and a list of sources used. LA The students will prewritten by using organizational strategies and tools (e.g., technology, outline, chart, table, graph, Venn Diagram, web, story map, plot pyramid) to develop a personal organizational style. LA The student will determine the main idea or essential message in grade-level or higher texts through inferring, paraphrasing, summarizing, and identifying relevant details.

17 Standards Science SC.7.E.6.6 Identify the impact that humans have had on Earth, such as deforestation, urbanization, desertification, erosion, air and water qualify, changing the flow of water. SC.7.E.6.Pa.d Distinguish between clean and dirty water SC.7.L.12.1 Explain and illustrate the roles of and relationships among producers, consumers, and decomposers in the process of energy transfer in a food web. SC.7.L.17.3 Describe and investigate various limiting factors in the local ecosystem and their impact on native populations, including food, shelter, water, space, disease, parasitism, predation, and nesting sites.

18 Standards Math MA.7.S.6.1 Evaluate the reasonableness of a sample to determine the appropriateness of generalization made about the populations. M.A.7.A.3.3- Formulate and use different strategies to solve one- step and two-step linear equations, including equations with rational coefficients. MA.7.S.6.2: Construct and analyze histograms, stem-and-leaf plots, and circle graphs. MA.7.A.1.4: Graph proportional relationships and identify the unit rate as the slope of the related linear function. MA.7.A.1.1: Distinguish between situations that are proportional or not proportional, and use proportions to solve problems

19 Standards Social Studies
Standard 1 Geography: Understand how to use maps and other geographic representations, tools, and technology to report Information. SS.7.G.1.1 Locate the states that constitute the Gulf Coast Region Standard 2 Geography: Understands physical and cultural characteristics of places. SS.7.G.2.3 Explain how major physical characteristics, natural resources and climate have influenced settlement and economy of Gulf Coast region Standard 3 Geography: Understands the relationship between the Earth’s Ecosystems and the populations that dwell within them. SS.7.G.3.1 Use maps to identify location and abundance of natural resources in Gulf Coast region Standard 5 Geography: Understand how human actions can impact the environment. SS.7.G.5.1 Use a choropleth or other map to geographically represent current information about issues of conservation or ecology in the local community  Standard 1 Economics: understand the fundamental concepts relevant to the development of a market economy. SS.7.E.1.3. Review the concepts of supply and demand as they relate to the development of a mixed market economy in the United States   Standard 2 Civics and Government: evaluate the roles rights and responsibilities of United States citizens and determine methods of active participation in society, government, and the political system. SS.7.C.2.12 Develop a plan to resolve a state or local problem by researching public policy alternatives, identifying appropriate government agencies to address the issue to.

20 Unit Schedule—Week 1 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Math
Compile renewable/non-renewable energy data presented in the power point Create a survey based on compiled data Complete survey in classroom and around school campus Graphing Lesson-Circle Graph Graphing Lesson-Stem-n-Leaf Graph using an estimated number of birds effected by oil Science PowerPoint - Renewable (brief) & Non-renewable energy (in detail). Video: Bill Nye: Energy (Segments 1 & 2) LAB – Density of Oil PowerPoint - Ch & 16/3 (ecological principles & energy flow) Video: Oceans Alive – Food Web Food Web Projects Limiting Factors & Relationships PowerPoint – Environmental Impacts Present ideas of how the local ecosystem is effected by oil. Social Studies Intro to unit Lesson on Regions and resources Political map Identify resources Physical map Location of resources in Gulf Coast Region quiz Direct Instruction Lesson Physical& Human Characteristics Category worksheet Internet research Economic development Gulf Coast Power point comparison chart economic effects Gulf Oil Spill Language Arts Intro to ITU Energy resources Internet Vocabulary Vocabulary Application chart Discussion on disasters Newspaper article Organizational features Primary and secondary resources Internet research Exxon Valdez & Gulf Oil Spill Prepare power point Newspaper article on the human cost of oil disasters

21 Unit Schedule—Week 2 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Math
Graphing Lesson-Histograms using the number of sea life animals effected by the oil. Create graph using data from survey-share results Quiz on graphs Research Valdez oil spill and Gulf oil spill Calculate amount spilled in each oil spill and compare/contrast amount and cost of clean up Incorporate your findings into the oil cleanup methods PowerPoint that you will create in science Science Food Web Presentations (simulated with oil spill) PowerPoint – Oil cleanup methods. LAB – Oily Bird PowerPoint - Alternative Energy Sources and their limitations. Video: Bill Nye: Energy (segments 3-11) LAB - Alternative Energy Lab : Build a Hydrogen Fuel Cell Model. Social Studies Presentation power point chart Assessment: Expository essay economic effects non renewable energy resources Internet research benefits renewable energy resources Start preparing debate Finish persuasive economic debate preparation Practice Debate presentations Economic consequences Lesson, supply & demand Create cartoon showing supply & demand relationship (finish at home) Language Arts Presentation of newspaper article How non renewable energy contributes to global warming Internet research Causes & Effects Continue Internet research Cause and effects solutions to global warming Create “how to” booklet Reduce energy consumption

22 Unit Schedule—Week 3 Monday Tuesday Wednesday Thursday Friday Math
Video about renewable energy resources Calculate materials and build a solar oven Quiz Collect, organize, and analyze oil rig safety information Design and sketch a prototype of an emergency cutoff system Presentations and Test Science Explore CNN’s Oil Spill Web Page Homework – Create Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Timeline Field Trip – Beach/Bay Homework – Persuasive RAFT paper. Present RAFT’s Persuasive speech. Student’s were assigned to be an advocate “for” or “against” clean energy. Teacher led debate on the benefits and consequences of dependency on non-renewable energy. Jeopardy Review Game Unit Test Social Studies Introduce Energy Awareness campaign Internet research Energy awareness campaign internet research Start preparing posters Finish posters Energy awareness poster presentations Peer evaluations Review what has been learned Explain government responsibilities Assessment: Persuasive letter to Governor on off shore drilling Language Arts Start preparing Informational Documentary on Global warming develop outline main points Write scripts and introduction Develop point of view Continue working on Documentary start video taping segments of documentary Finish video taping segments of documentary Presentations of informational documentary

23 Daily Schedule First Bell: 9:04 A.M. HR/First Period: 9:10 – 10:04
Second Period: 10:07 – 10:56 Third Period: 10:59 – 11:48 7th Grade Lunch: 11:48 – 12:17 Fourth Period: 12:20 – 1:09 Fifth Period: 1:12 – 2:01 Sixth Period: 2:04 – 2:53 Seventh Period: 2:56 – 3:45

24 Media List LCD Projector & Screen Laptop Computer Internet Access
DVD Player Computer Speakers LAB equipment Computer Lab Access Textbooks Microsoft Programs Document Camera Auditorium Access Stage Props

25 Lesson Plan Overview Language Arts
The focus of the theme for students is to develop their literary skills through real world application by taking on the role of investigative Journalists reporting on how energy use contributes to the problem of global warming. In week one students will be working on the vocabulary associated with energy use to establish basic knowledge and contexts in which the words apply. They will be applying reading and analysis skills to a variety of different text formats in their research to develop inferring paraphrasing and summarizing skills as well as understand how text structure affects overall meaning. They will focus their investigation on the human tragedy resulting from dependency on non renewable energy by examining the Exxon Valdez and Gulf Oil disasters and presenting their opinions in a front page news article. Week two they will focus on causes and effects, analysis of text, development of point of view, and possible solutions. Students will be using the topic of global warming to investigate how non renewable energy contributes to the problem and investigate the ways in which individuals can help alleviate global warming through simple modifications in energy habits. Students will demonstrate and develop their writing skills by creating an informational “how to” booklet that addresses ways in which individuals can become good consumers of energy. Week three is a culminating activity in which students will create an informative documentary from their research in week one and two that demonstrate their comprehension, analysis, perspective, inferring and communication skills relative to energy use and why it is important for society to alter lifestyles now to secure their quality of life in the future.

26 Lesson Plan Overview Science
The first week of the ITU will start off with the introduction of the topic, which would be non-renewable energy. They students will learn about the properties of oil through a PowerPoint presentation, Bill Nye video, & Oil Density Lab. The focus will shift in order to obtain more background information that will all be applied at the end of the unit. The basic principles of ecology will be taught, specifically food webs, limiting factors, interdependence, and energy flow. Students will construct a Food Web on poster board. The Environmental Impacts of an oil spill will be discussed and ideas will be presented on how our local ecosystem will be effected. The second week, the students will present their food web projects and simulate how their ecosystem might be effected by and oil spill. Oil clean-up methods will be discussed and simulated through the oily bird lab. Renewable Energy and its limitation will be presented through PowerPoint, a Bill Nye video, and the construction of a hydrogen fuel cell model. The final week, we will explore the CNN website on the oil spill and create a timeline. Everything to this point was background information that will be used for the final activities. The class will take a field trip to the Beach/Bay of a affected area in order get that “personal” experience of how the oil is effecting their local environment. Using all accumulated knowledge, students will write a persuasive RAFT speech. They will choose to be and advocate for or against non-renewable energy. Students will present speeches and the next day the class will have a debate based on the RAFTs. The debate will argue the benefits and consequences of non-renewable energy. A unit exam will be used as an assessment tool on the last day.

27 Lesson Plan Overview Math Survey Says
Students will learn about renewable and non-renewable energy sources. Using the collected information, students will create a survey that will be conducted in the classroom and throughout the school. Survey results will be used to make generalizations about the population. Graphing Students will learn how to create and read three different types of graphs. Students will learn how to create a circle graph, stem-n-leaf graph and histogram. Using the data compiled from the survey and two science lessons, student will use the graphs to display and present their findings to the rest of the class and make generalizations based on their findings. Valdez vs. Gulf Students will collect and organize information pertaining to the Valdez and Gulf oil spill. Student will then use the collected information to calculate, compare, and report an estimation of the cost to clean up each oil spill. Soak up the Sun Students will research and learn about solar power. Students will further their understanding by planning and calculating the amount of materials needed to build a solar oven. Students will build a solar oven that can be used to warm cookies. Safety First Students will learn how to compile information about oil rig safety systems. Using the compiled information, students will work in groups to design and sketch an emergency cutoff system for an oil rig.

28 Lesson Plan Overview Social Studies
In week one of the unit students will be focusing on learning about the physical geography of the Gulf Coast Region, which includes a direct lesson on the interdependent relationship between people and the physical environment; they will also begin research on the economic consequences of depending on non renewable energy. In week two students will be comparing and contrasting the economic benefits of alternative forms of renewable energy with the economic consequences of the Gulf Oil Spill and presenting their findings in a debate. Students will also learn about the principles of supply and demand and how it reinforces dependency on non renewable energy. In week three students will focus on individual responsibility through their culminating activity of developing an energy awareness campaign to highlight the long term economic benefits of using renewable energy. They will conclude their study by writing a letter to the Governor addressing their concerns, based on their research, on off shore drilling.

Students will create short skits to inform the audience about the importance of going green. The entire student body and their parents will be invited. Scene 1: Students will act out energy conservation based on their awareness campaign and share their documentary. Scene 2: What causes Global Warming? – Greenhouse Gases Scene 3: Mad Scientist Talks Environmental Concerns

30 Assessments Product Rubrics Test Quizzes Worksheets Oral Presentations
Self Evaluations Peer Evaluations Internet Logs Pretests Video Worksheets Writing Rubrics LABS R.A.F.T. Paper

31 References Science Science, (Print, Audio, Video), (Verbal, Visual, Vicarious, Simulation) Science, Print, Visual, Verbal Biggs, Alton, et al. (2006). Glencoe / McGraw Hill Companies, Inc. Science, Print, Verbal, Visual, Direct (Ch. 16, Sec. 1-3 & Ch.19, Sec. 1) ** html** Science, Print, Visual, Verbal Science, Print ,Visual, Verbal Science, Print, Visual, Verbal Dr. Richard Snyder, director of UWF's Center for Environmental Diagnostics and Bioremediation Science, Audio, Verbal, Simulated **** Science, Audio, Visual, Vicarious, Simulated, Direct **** Science, Print, Visual, Verbal Science, Print, Visual Science, Print, Visual, Verbal

32 References Language Arts

33 References Math Brooks, C. & Dickerson, L. (n.d). Statistics. Retrieved June 16, 2010, from Forcefield. (2010). Wind Power. Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Home Science Tools. (2010). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Martinello, M. L. & Gillian, C. E. (2000). Interdisciplinary Inquiry in Teaching and Learning. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall Non-Renewable Resources. (2006). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from Perez, J. (2007). Dale Resources. Retrieved June 17, 2010, from Powell, C.S. (n.d). We Did the Math: BP Oil Spill is Worse Than the Exxon Valdez. Retrieved June 17, 2010, from Roberts, P.L. & Kellough, R. D. (2008). A Guide For Developing Interdisplinary Thematic Units. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall State of Oregon. (2009). Retrieved June 20, 2010, from The New York Times. (2010). How Much Oil is on the Gulf Coast. Retrieved June 17, 2010, from The New York Times. (2010). The Drill on the Spill. Retrieved June 16, 2010, from United States Environmental Protection Agency. (2009). Environmental Kids Club. Retrieved June, 17, 2010, from

34 References Social Studies

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