5 4.1 Manage Solution Scope & Requirements Purpose – Maintain consensus among key stakeholders regarding the overall solution scope & the requirements that will be implemented.Input :Requirement Management PlanSolution ScopeStakeholder List, Roles, ResponsibilitiesStakeholder, Solution, Transition Requirements (Communicated or Traced)Output:Requirements - ApprovedInputRMP – Defines the process to be followed in managing the sol’n scope and requirementsSol’n Scope – Requirements must support the solution scope in order to be approved.Stakeholder list – defines who is involved in reviewing/ approving requirementStakeholder/Solution/ Transition Req – Stakeholder approval restricted to validated/ verified requirementsOutput – Requirements agreed by stakeholders and ready for implementation efforts
6 4.1 Manage Solution Scope & Requirements Elements:Solution Scope Management:Assess stakeholder and solution requirements to ensure they are within solution scope.Additional stakeholder requirements may be added if the solution can support.If not supported by solution scope, the BA needs to resolve.Conflict & Issue Management:Facilitate communication between stakeholders who are in conflict over requirements.Conflicts must be resolved before requirements can be approved.Presenting Requirements for Review:Requirements are presented to Stakeholders formally (written/ structured walkthrough) or informally ( ).Approval:Ensure the stakeholders understand and accept the requirements.Maintain a record of the decision, parties involved, decision.Presenting – need to assess the audience to determine the level of formality. There needs to be enough formality to support the methodology.
7 4.1 Manage Solution Scope & Requirements Techniques:General Technique:(9.20) Problem Tracking – manage issues identified with requirements by stakeholders and ensure they are resolved.Baselining:Once requirements are approved they are baselined. All future changes are recorded, tracked and must follow change control process.Signoff:Signed off requirements formalizes the agreement from the stakeholder stating that they requirements are accurate and complete.Typically requires a face to face review of the requirements
8 4.1 Manage Solution Scope & Requirements Stakeholders:Domain SMEImplementation SMEProject Manager – responsible and accountable for the project scope. If a requirement is not approved, they must define the risk to the project.Sponsor
9 Questions for Task 4.1A BA who is working on a project that employs a plan-driven approach is asked to add one new requirement that is outside the approved solution scope. Which one of the following actions is LEAST likely?Select one:a. Facilitate communication and change the business analysis approach.b. Change the business analysis approach to be more change- driven.c. Amend the new requirements which are conflicting.d. Amend the approach which is change-driven.The correct answer is: (B) Change the business analysis approach to be more change-driven.BABOK General.
11 4.2 Manage Requirements Traceability Purpose – Maintain relationships between business objectives, requirements, other deliverables, and solution components.Input :Requirements – all requirements may be traced to other requirements.Requirements Management Plan – define how and whether traceability is being performed.Identifies the tools to be used to support traceabilityIdentifies the processes that will be used.Output:Requirements – Traced. These have clear relationships to other requirements within the solution scope.
12 4.2 Manage Requirements Traceability Description: Requirements are related to other requirements, solution components and other artifacts, such as test cases.It assist in the following:Scope and change managementRisk managementTime managementCost managementCommunication managementUsed to detect missing functionalitySupports the followingImpact AnalysisChange ManagementRequirements AllocationTracing links business requirements toTraceability ensures solution conform to requirements, stakeholder and solution requirements.Impact Analysis – when a requirement changes, the bus analyst can view related requirements/ sw components to understand the’impact’
13 4.2 Manage Requirements Traceability Elements: RICRelationship:After organizing requirements, you need to record the dependencies. This helps in determining the sequence requirements are to be addressed.Common relationships:Necessity – It makes sense to implement a particular requirement when a related requirement is implemented. Unidirectional or bi-directional.Effort – When a requirement is easier to implement if a related requirement is implementedSubset – When a requirement is decomposed outcome of another requirementCover – When a requirement includes the other requirement.Value – When including a requirement affects the desirability of a related requirement.Impact Analysis:Use to assess or evaluate the impact of change.When a requirement changes, its relationships to other requirements can be viewed.Configuration Management:A special tool is needed to trace large numbers of requirements.Presenting – need to assess the audience to determine the level of formality. There needs to be enough formality to support the methodology.Cover – a special case of subset. Where the top level requirement is the sub of the sub requirementsQuestion – how do you create your traceability? what tools do you use for traceability?
14 4.2 Manage Requirements Traceability Techniques:Coverage Matrix:This is a table or spreadsheet used to manage tracing.Used when there are few requirements or when tracing is limited to high level requirements.Stakeholders:Implementation SME – they must be able to link the requirement to the solution components.Project Manager -Tester – they need to understand how and where the requirements are implemented when creating test cases. They trace test cases to requirements.
15 Questions for Task 4.2Mary, while eliciting and analyzing the requirements figures, finds that if the preferred supplier list is set up in the new system, it will be easier during purchase activity, which fits the scope. What kind of requirements dependency is she looking at?Select one:a. Necessityb. Effortc. Coverd. SubsetThe correct answer is: (B) EffortBABOK This relationship exists when a requirement is easier to implement if a related requirement is also implemented.
16 Questions for Task 4.2Janet is piloting requirements traceability on a few projects. Which is the best place for her to indicate this?Select one:a. Requirements management planb. Risk plan and management planc. Requirement management & communication pland. BA approach documentThe correct answer is: (A) Requirements management plan (RMP)BABOK The requirements management plan defines how and whether traceability is being performed (tools and processes).
18 4.3 Maintain Requirements for Re-Use Purpose – To manage requirements following their implementation.Input :Organizational Process Assets – Setting standards to determine when and how requirements should be maintained for re-use.Requirements –Re-use requirement – describe the use to the organization beyond the lifetime of the initiative.Maintenance– describe the actual current state of an organizationOutput:Requirements (Maintained and Reusable) -
19 4.3 Maintain Requirements for Re-Use Elements:Ongoing Requirements:Requirements an organizational unit must meet on a continuous basis.These include:Contractual ObligationsQuality StandardsService Level AgreementBusiness RuleBusiness ProcessesSatisfied Requirements:Maintaining requirements helps with enhancements and future system changes.Questions – provide examples of ongoing requirements
20 4.3 Maintain Requirements for Re-Use Techniques:NoneStakeholders:Business AnalystDomain SMEImplementation SME
21 Questions for Task 4.3Which is an output from Requirements Management & Communication?Select one:a. Requirements (Approved).b. Requirements (Specified).c. Requirements (Documented).d. Requirements (Elicited).The correct answer is: (A) – Requirements Approved.
22 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package BACP – also defines the level of formalityOutput may contain all requirements or a sub- package.Description – Requirements should be presented in formats that are understandable by the stakeholders and to the extent needed to assure clear understanding by the team.Primary goal is to convey information clearly and understandable.
23 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package Purpose – Structure requirements to ensure they are effectively communicated, understood, and useable by the stakeholders.Input :Business Analysis Communication Plan – describes the stakeholder groups, their communication plan and whether a single or multiple requirement package is required.Organizational Process Assets – include templates that may be used to package requirements.Requirements – BA must understand which requirement to include in each package.Requirements Structure – the package should contain a consistent, cohesive and coherent set of requirements.Output:Requirements Package – A document, presentation for stakeholder review.BACP – also defines the level of formalityOutput may contain all requirements or a sub- package.Description – Requirements should be presented in formats that are understandable by the stakeholders and to the extent needed to assure clear understanding by the team.Primary goal is to convey information clearly and understandable.
24 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package Elements:Work Products:a document, collection of notes, or diagrams used by the BA during the requirements development process.It may or may not become a deliverable. Used by the BA to share with the stakeholder to clarify requirements.Examples:Meeting agendas and minutesInterview questions and notesFacilitation session agendas and notesIssue LogWork Plan, Status ReportsTraceability MatrixDeliverables:The output of the BA process that the analyst agreed to produce.It’s used as a basis for solution design and implementation.
25 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package Elements:Format:The format may have been selected during the BA communication plan.A requirement package will likely be a combination of many formats.More than one requirement package may be created for the same project, in order to present the material to convey a cohesive message.Each organization may have standards that the BA will follow.The requirement package must be complete if its created with the intent of obtaining formal approval.Each package may have a table of contents
26 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package Techniques:Requirements Documentation – requirements are captured in a formal document. The most common types of requirement documents are:Business Requirement DocumentProduct RoadmapSoftware/System Requirement Specification (SRS)Supplementary Requirement SpecificationVision DocumentRequirements for Vendor Selection – If the potential solution is available from an outside source:RFI – Request for InformationOrganization is open to a number of alternative solution and seeking informationRFQ – Request for QuoteSeeks vendor to implement solution. Less formal than RFPRFP – Request for ProposalSeeks vendor to implement solution
27 4.4 Prepare Requirements Package Stakeholders:Domain SME & End UserImplementation SMEProject MangerRegulatorsSponsorTester
28 Questions for Task 4.4Sally is a business analyst in at a bank. She is currently working on a project that will transform the bank's customer relationship management (CRM) system. Based on her discussion with John, the project sponsor, she learns that there is enough in the current fiscal year budget for them to invest in a cloud CRM or build an in-house application using web methods. What is Sally most likely going to do next?Select one:a. One possibility is to create an RFZ.b. One possibility is to create an RFI.c. One possibility is to create an RFP.d. Plan to define all requirements and then create an RFI.The correct answer is: (B) One possibility is to create an RFI.BABOK An RFI, or Request for Information, is generally used when the issuing organization is open to a number of alternative solutions and is seeking information to evaluate possible options. The cloud CRM is most likely a COTS system available on a subscription basis
29 Questions for Task 4.4Which of the following depicts the difference between a work product and a deliverable?Select one:a. The deliverable is a specific output of the business process improvement and the work product is the document or collection of notes or diagrams used by the business analyst during the requirements development process.b. The deliverable is a specific output of the business analysis process, and the work product is the document or collection of notes or diagrams used by the business analyst during the requirements development. process.c. The work product is a specific output of the business analysis process, and the deliverable is the output of the project and is used by the project manager during the requirements development process.d. The deliverable is a specific output of the business analysis process, and the work product is the document or collection of requirements samples used by the business analyst during the requirements development process.The correct answer is: (B) The deliverable is a specific output of the business analysis process, and the work product is the document or collection of notes or diagrams used by the business analyst during the requirements development. process.BABOK A work product is a document or collection of notes or diagrams used by the business analyst during the requirements development process. The work product may or may not become a deliverable. A deliverable is a specific output of the business analysis process that the business analyst has agreed to produce.
30 4.5 Communication Requirements Description – Communication requirements includes note, conversations, documents, presentation and discussion
31 4.5 Communication Requirements Purpose – Essential for bringing stakeholders to a common understanding of requirements.Input :Business Analysis Communication Plan – defines what, who and when information is communicated.Requirements – any requirement may be communicatedRequirement Package – If requirement package created it must be distributed, reviewed and communicated to stakeholder.Output:Communication Package – stakeholders should understand what the requirements are and their current state.Description – Communication requirements includes note, conversations, documents, presentation and discussion
32 4.5 Communication Requirements Elements:General Communication:Requirement communication is performed iteratively.In many cases requirement communication may lead to elicitation of additional requirementsEnterprise Analysis Task – business case and solution scope communicatedElicitation Task- communication of requirements useful during elicitation and may result in other related requirementsRequirements Analysis Task – requirements are refined, modified and clarifiedSolution Assessment & Validation – assessment of solution must be communicatedPresentation:Formality of presentation is driven by the audience.Formal CommunicationEnsure project quality standards are adhered toEnsure cross fit with other process areasObtain delivery , testing sign-offPrioritize requirementsInformal CommunicationStatus checkCommunicate to the delivery to ensure there is noambiguityCommunicate to other project team
33 4.5 Communication Requirements Techniques:Requirements Workshops (9.23)– requirements may be presented as part of a workshop to familiarize all parties with solution scope.Structured Walkthrough (9.30) – begins with a review of the requirments to be discussedStakeholders:All
34 Questions for Task 4.5The technique that is used to help familiarize the project team with the existing solution scope:Select one:a. Requirements Workshopb. Structured Walkthroughc. Structured Walkthrough and Requirements Workshopd. Brainstorming using Requirements WorkshopThe correct answer is: (A) Requirements WorkshopBABOK Requirements may be presented as part of a requirements workshop to familiarize all parties with the existing solution scope and the current requirements.
35 Questions for Task 4.5Fill in the blank: Requirements communication is________.Select one:a. Performed during the initial stage of the project.b. Performed during the initial stage of the project and used when performing tasks in other knowledge areas.c. Performed iteratively and used when performing tasks in other knowledge areas.d. Performed iteratively and in a planned manner and used when performing tasks in other knowledge areas.The correct answer is: ( C) Performed iteratively and used when performing tasks in other knowledge areas.BABOK Requirements communication is an ongoing task and is used in conjunction with tasks from other knowledge areas