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RSS RtI Foundations Training Reading, Writing, & RtI Laurie Lee & Amy Roberts, Program Specialist and School Psychologist August 2010 Presentation adapted.

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1 RSS RtI Foundations Training Reading, Writing, & RtI Laurie Lee & Amy Roberts, Program Specialist and School Psychologist August 2010 Presentation adapted from NCDPI RtI Foundations Training



4 Differences in Learning to Read Able to read: Learn with ease: Learn with support: Learn with intensive support: Have pervasive reading disabilities: Adapted by B. Bursuck based on Lyon, 1998

5 Causes of Reading Difficulties 90% of poor readers have problems with Word reading accuracy Reading difficulty is related to Inherited brain differences Phonological processing problems are the cause of most reading difficulties: Phonological Awareness Rapid Naming/Word Retrieval Working Memory (Reading Foundations training)

6 Students with Phonological Awareness Problems..... Have difficulty segmenting words into sounds Have difficulty mapping sounds to letters or letter patterns May try to memorize words or over-rely upon context May be misdiagnosed as having comprehension problems (Reading Foundations training)

7 Students with Naming Problems... Difficulty quickly naming even familiar concepts such as colors, numbers, letters Red Blue Black Yellow Green (may use with students who do not yet know numbers and letters to test color-naming) Difficulty learning names Recall information in context, but not in isolation

8 Students with Naming Problems... Describe items rather than giving specific names Confuse names of items within categories: –(blue-green) –(here-there) Appear to learn names, but then “forget” (Reading Foundations Training)

9 Students with Working Memory Problems.... Have difficulty holding sounds in memory as they sound out a word May have difficulty holding words in memory to get the meaning of a sentence Remember: working memory is NOT exactly the same thing as short-term memory.

10 Double and Triple Deficits Student may have a combination of 2 or all 3 of these problems: –Phonological Awareness –Rapid naming/word retrieval –Working memory Double and triple deficits students are the MOST difficult to remediate (Reading Foundations training)

11 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR CONTEXT PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR Receives visual information from print Recognizes familiar patterns of letters Processes every letter Activates phonological image of word “hearing the word in your head” Activates all possible meanings of a word Selects appropriate meaning based on context (Adams, 1990) Skilled Reading Process

12 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR MEANING PROCESSOR CONTEXT PROCESSOR PHONOLOGICAL PROCESSOR cat “ cat” or |c|-|a|-|t| Previous sentence: “I felt something small brush against my foot.”cat Skilled Reading Process (Adams, 1990)

13 Foundation skills enable later skills accurate word reading fluency vocabulary strategies motivation Reading Comprehension Torgesen,

14 The Reader Reading Comprehension involves a combination of word recognition, language comprehension and executive processing abilities Research shows skilled readers are efficient at sight-word recognition and decoding of new words. This efficiency leads to fluent reading which leads to comprehension of text-length material (Stahl & Hiebert, in press, 2006)

15 The Big Emphasis Changes, K-3 Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness 321K Listening Reading Listening Reading Multisyllables Letter Sounds & Combinations Adapted from Simmons, Kame’enui, Harn, & Coyne (2003). Institute for beginning reading 2. Day 3: Core instruction: What are the critical components that need to be In place to reach our goals? Eugene: University of Oregon.

16 Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice. The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading (Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic increasingly strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes Torgesen,

17 Liz Crawford 2007) National Reading Panel (NRP) 5 Key Components of Reading Instruction Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Other areas investigated: Technology, Teacher Education and Teacher Preparation (Crawford, 2008)

18 Targeted Instruction – Focus on Learning Explicit – nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught directly Systematic – sequential steps are followed to take the student from limited or no mastery to complete mastery of a skill Direct – The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved Strategic – teaching students efficient ways to acquire, store and express information and skills (FCRR Glossary of terms, 2005)

19 Principles Of Reading Instruction For All Children Teach phonemic awareness and phonics explicitly, systematically, and early (kindergarten & grade 1). Provide frequent opportunities for guided, oral reading. Teach vocabulary and a variety of strategies for comprehension. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

20 Teaching At-Risk Children To Read Teach phonemic awareness skills early. Teach sound-spelling associations explicitly and in a careful sequence. Teach sounding out and blending directly. Use decodable text for practice. Read good literature to students for language comprehension. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

21 Characteristics of Effective Reading Interventions for At-risk Students Begin as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind Increase the intensity of instruction and practice Use direct, explicit, systematic instruction and practice with review Provide skillful instruction with error correction and immediate positive feedback and reward Guide instruction with student data and be responsive to data on student progress Ensure a positive atmosphere that is motivating, engaging and supportive (Torgesen, 2007)

22 Principles Of Remediation for students with persistent problems learning to read Base instruction on assessment. Use systematic, cumulative, explicit, direct, and multisensory instruction. Use guided discovery and guided practice. Teach for mastery and automaticity. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

23 Population Percentage* Journey to Reading Appropriate Instruction* 5Is easy (read before starting school) Assess reading achievement Systematic phonics to enhance spelling Provide vocabulary & comprehension 35Is relatively easy Assess reading achievement Build phonemic awareness Provide instruction in phonics for decoding and spelling Vocabulary and comprehension 40 Is a formidable challenge Do everything above plus… Base instruction on assessment Teach phonemic awareness Teach phonics explicitly Link decoding and spelling Use decodable text 20 Is one of the most difficult tasks to be mastered during schooling Require intensive, systematic, direct, multisensory instruction based on assessment Teach to automaticity *Estimates and recommendations are based on the work of Lyon and other NICHD researchers

24 Tier 1 Consultation Between Teachers - Parents Tier II Consultation With Other Resources AMOUNT OF RESOURCES REQUIRED TO MEET THE STUDENT’S NEEDS INTENSITY OF NEEDS Needs -circles-pub Tier IV IEP Consideration Tier III Student Study Team  Intensive Interventions 1-7%  Strategic Interventions 5-15%  Core Curriculum 80-90%

25 Example of Staggered Reading Blocks with “Walk and Read” TeamReadingWritingMathScience/S S Special Area Lunch K 8:45-10:3010:30-11:301:35-2:3512:15-12:5012:50-1:3511:30-12:15 1 8:45-10:3012-11-22-2:3011:15-1210:30-11:15 2 10:30-12:159:45-10:308:45-9:451:15-1:401:40-2:2512:30-1:15 3 10:30-12:159:30-10:301-22-2:308:45-9:3012:15-1 4 12:45-2:308:45-9:3510:20- 11:20 11:20-11:559:35-10:2011:55-12:40 5 12:45-2:309:45-10:258:45-9:4511:50-12:3510:25-11:1011:10-11:50 ( Crawford, fcrr.)

26 A mistake we often make in education is to plan the curriculum materials very carefully, arrange all the instructional materials wall to wall, open the doors of the school, and then find to our dismay that they’ve sent us the wrong kids. (Crawford, fcrr)

27 Research Based Reading Programs Direct, Explicit and Systematic Address the Big 5 Components of Reading Differentiated materials that address the needs of the students Flexible Grouping based on assessments

28 Interventions READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM READING GOAL: All students will improve their reading vocabulary

29 Using Assessment to Guide Accelerated Instruction Use the “big 5” to guide assessment: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency and Comprehension Informal assessment examples –AIMSweb/DIBELS –Children’s Progress –Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) –Basic Reading Skills Assessment (BRSA) –Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST) –Reading Inventories – (Ekwall-Shanker, Basic Reading Inventory by Jerry Johns, QRI, DRA) Use EOG/EOC scores if applicable

30 Creative Scheduling

31 Form Flexible Groups Based on Assessment

32 The Reading Block Whole Group Instruction Teacher-Led Instruction Homogeneous Flexible Differentiated Independent Student Centers Differentiated (Cooperative, Independent, Pairs)

33 Increasing the quality and power of teacher-led, small-group, differentiated instruction Instruction should be differentiated to meet the needs of individual students in at least four ways Frequency and duration of meeting in small groups – every day, three times per week, etc. Size of instructional group – 3 students, 6 students, 8 students, etc. Focus of instruction – work in phonemic awareness in phonics, work in fluency and comprehension, etc. Lesson format – guided reading vs. skills focused lessons

34 Ways that instruction must be made more powerful for students “at-risk” for reading difficulties. More instructional time More powerful instruction involves: Smaller instructional groups Clearer and more detailed explanations More systematic instructional sequences More extensive opportunities for guided practice More opportunities for error correction and feedback More precisely targeted at right level resources skill Foorman & Torgesen (2001)

35 The key to transforming students from struggling to competent learners is to put in place programs that bring a “laser-like” focus on teaching and learning. (Deshler, 2006)

36 It is difficult for the teacher to meet the needs of all the students. “Many students may require at least three or four times as much instruction as the average student if they are to maintain normal progress in learning to read” (Torgesen, 2007, p. 1).

37 It is difficult for the teacher to meet the needs of all the students. “ Some of our students may require four, to six, to eight times more instruction than others in order to learn all they need to learn each year.” ( Torgesen,fcrr)

38 That sounds great, BUT… How do we do it? “I only have an assistant part of the day!” “My students are in and out of class all the time for “specials”!” “I have so much to cover!” “The core series expects them to know much more than they actually know!” “And what about my advanced students?”

39 Uninterrupted 90 minute block No other personnel to assist during Learning Center time Core Reading Program Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class

40 Small group instruction for 50 minutes: Group 1: Implement an intervention program --25 min. daily Group 2: Implement phonemic awareness and phonics activities that will provide students extra practice with the content that was previously taught-- 10-15 min. daily Group 3: Use the decodable & leveled books from my core reading program to practice the decoding process and fluency--10-15 min. daily Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class: Teacher-Led Center

41 40 minutes will be devoted to whole class ii using core curriculum 50 minutes will be devoted to small group instruction: Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class: Teacher Led-Center MTWTHF G1HR 25 minutes 25 G2MR 1510151015 G3LR 1015101510

42 Structuring Independence to Facilitate Accelerated Learning The Daily Five Fostering Literacy Independence in the Elementary Grades “The Daily Five is more than a management system or a curriculum framework; it is a structure that will help students develop the habits that lead to a lifetime of independent literacy.” Stenhouse Publishing

43 One Example Reading Intervention Room Pull out setting Twenty 2 nd grade students for 90 minutes Four highly trained instructors An instructor is at each center –Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension, Word Work –Twenty minutes at each center, then rotate Stamey Carter, Watauga Co. Schools

44 Classroom AClassroom B Classroom DClassroom C Struggling Readers Grouped for Reading/Language Arts In Watauga County

45 Class- room Teacher Title I Teacher 1 Title I Teacher 2 Listening Comprehension, Vocabulary Word Study: Phonics, Phonemic Awareness, Spelling, Dictation Guided Reading/ Fluency/Leveled Books Assistant Basal Reading & Sight words TITLE I STUDENTS Students grouped by needs, 24 minute rotation at each station 96 minutes of intensive, on-level, small group instruction Flexible groups reorganized 3-4 times/year CLASSROOM D Stamey Carter, Watauga Co. Schools

46 Ashe County School-Wide Schedule

47 Another Example Small Group General Instruction Ashe County Grades 1-3 –Target Group 90 minute block with 4 rotations Writing Fluency Vocabulary and Comprehension Phonological Awareness/ Phonics Reg. Ed Teacher Literacy Specialist EC Teacher

48 Characteristics, Benefits, and Challenges of Upcoming Models Small group instruction during 90-minute block Provided by additional teacher(s) Groups of 3-5 students 30-60 minutes per group Targeted to specific student need Classroom teacher can work with other students. More opportunities for targeted intensive instruction More opportunities for student response More opportunities for corrective feedback and reinforcement Benefits Scheduling may not always be consistent. Classroom activities can be distracting. Additional teacher may not be available on daily basis. Instructional time may not be sufficient. Other activities in 90-minute block may not be at appropriate level. Challenges Crawford, fcrr (2007)

49 Essential Components of Reading Instruction Phonemic Awareness Intervention Activities Resources Phonics Intervention Activities Resources Fluency Intervention Activities Resources Vocabulary Intervention Activities Resources Comprehension Intervention Activities Resources

50 Phonological Awareness A general term which includes phonemic awareness. Phonological awareness activities include working with rhymes, words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Phonemic awareness is a part of phonological awareness. Syllables: word part that contains a vowel Onsets and rimes: smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes. The onset is the first part of the syllable containing the consonant or consonant cluster and the rime is the part of the syllable containing the vowel and the letters that follow it. Onset Rime b ag (bag) tr ap (trap)

51 Phonological Awareness Word Awareness Syllable Awareness Phonemic Awareness Full Phoneme Segmentation Partial Phoneme Segmentation Matching Alliteration & Rhyme Sensitivity To Rhyme Phoneme Manipulation

52 Phonemic Awareness …the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. phonemes: are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in the word’s meaning. The word, shop contains 3 phonemes: /sh/ /o/ /p/ Example: bag to rag is a result of changing the first phoneme in the word bag from /b/ to /r/ therefore changing the meaning of the word.

53 Phonemic Awareness Instruction Phoneme Blending- listening to separate phonemes and combining them to form a word –What word is /p/ /e/ /n/ ? Phoneme Segmentation- breaking a word into separate sounds –How many sounds are in the word: flag? Phoneme Deletion- recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from the word –What is farm without the /f/ ? Phoneme Substitution- substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word – The word is sip. Change the /p/ to /t/. What is the new word?

54 Phonemic Manipulation Video 2342307001?bclid=26524393001&bctid=72395 92001 2342307001?bclid=26524393001&bctid=72395 92001

55 Phonemic Awareness Practice How many phonemes? –badge ____ –thrill ____ –church ____ –smile _____ Change the first sound to last and the last sound to first to make a new word, e.g. cab = /c/ /a/ /b/. Change to /b/ /a/ /c/ = back dock _________tell __________ mash _________chip__________ 3 4 3 4 cod sham let pitch

56 Phonemic Awareness… Can be taught and learned Helps children learn to read and spell Can be taught using letters to increase effectiveness Is most effective when it focuses on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation More doesn’t always equal better –<20 hours per year for a typical student –This translates into around 5-10 minutes a day Different children will require different amounts of PA instruction

57 Phonemic Awareness To Review: Necessary for students to make meaningful sense of letter- sound correspondences To make sense of the print, students need to be aware of the phonemes in words Research shows strong correlation between phonemic awareness and success in reading Students who lack phonemic awareness have a greater amount of difficulty making sense of concepts involved in word identification

58 Interventions Phonological Awareness Activities Rhyme Alliteration Sentence Segmentation Syllable Segmentation and Blending Onset/Rime Phonemic Awareness Activities



61 Instant access to: Leveled Readers Benchmark Books and Running Records Lessons and Worksheets Phonics Program Phonemic Awareness Materials Poetry Books Alphabet Materials About UsAbout Us | Samples | Tell A Friend | Help | Contact Testimonials | Research | Usage Policy | Site Map | Members | My Account Home | All Books | Guided Reading | Phonics | Vocabulary | Fluency Poetry | Alphabet | Assessment | More Resources | SubscribeSamplesTell A FriendHelp Contact TestimonialsResearchUsage Policy Site MapMembersMy Account HomeAll BooksGuided Reading PhonicsVocabularyFluency PoetryAlphabetAssessmentMore ResourcesSubscribe Additional Books Posted Monthly Free Professional Development Visit all of our Websites

62 Phonemic Awareness Resources Adams, M. J, Foorman, B.R., Lundberg, I., Beeler, T., Phonemic Awareness in Young Children, Brookes Publishing, 1998 Blachman, Benita, Ball, E., Black, R., Tangel, Darlene, Road to the Code: A Phonological Awareness Program for Young Children, Brookes Publishing, 2000 Greene, Jane. Sounds and Letters, Phonemic Awareness Drills for Teachers and Speech Language Pathologist, Sopris West, 1997 Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Vadasy, Wayne, O’Connor, Jenkins, Pool, Firebaugh, Peyton, Sound Partners,Sopris West, 2005

63 Phonics Instruction “Phonics instruction teaches children the relationship between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language” “The goal of phonics is to help children learn and use the alphabetic principle…the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.”

64 Phonics Instruction The knowledge of relationships between letters and sounds helps children: Accurately recognize familiar words Learn to recognize words at an automatic level Decode words that are unfamiliar to them To read isolated words as well as words in context

65 Phonemic Awareness & Phonics (Post NRP ) Research indicates that: –When instruction in phonemic awareness is quickly paired with phonics instruction involving letters, it strengthens both the student’s phonological awareness skills as well as their knowledge of the alphabetic principle Crawford, fcrr (2008)

66 Types of Phonics Instruction Systematic and explicit Direct teaching Letter-sound relationships taught in a specifically selected sequence Includes significant practice Use decodable text Non-systematic No specific sequence used Informal Embedded in text Not directly taught

67 Good Phonics Instruction Should… Teach the relationship between letters and sounds Teach children how to connect letters and sounds Teach children how to blend and segment sounds Help children to apply what they learn about sounds & letters to their writing Help apply sounds and letters to read words, sentences, and text

68 Recognize this Child?

69 Phonics Video

70 Phonics Most common sound/letter correspondences taught first moving to least common –Names of letters –Map single consonant to most common letter –Map initial blends and then final –Map single sounds with more complex letter representations –Digraphs –Orthographic patterns – bonus letter, “ck” rule –Letter patterns – vowels, vowel teams, diphthongs, r- controlled

71 Phonics Structural Analysis skills necessary for reading beyond 3 rd grade Structural analysis is an advanced decoding skill that allows students to analyze words based on their parts These include: affixes compound words syllables – 6 syllable types; CLOVER contractions roots

72 Phonics Morphemes – smallest unit of meaning jumped teacher butter Roots –Port (to carry) export, airport, deport, import, etc. Prefixes and Suffixes –Prefixes: un = not; re = again; trans = across –Suffixes: s, ing, ly, er, ness

73 Phonics Practice The suffix –ed has three different pronunciations: /t/ /d/ or /ed/. Tell the correct pronunciation of the ending –ed in each of these words –seemed ___landed ____ camped ___ –rated ___ picked ____ liked ____ /d/ /ed/ /t/

74 Phonics Practice The suffix –ed has three different pronunciations: /t/ /d/ or /ed/. Tell the correct pronunciation of the ending –ed in each of these words –seemed ___landed ____ camped ___ –rated ___ picked ____ liked ____

75 Syllable Division For each word listed, identify the syllable division pattern: vccv, vcv, vcccv, or vv mascot _______ truant _______ rotate ________ instinct ______ monster ______ convoy ______

76 It is never too late to intervene…

77 Interventions Phonics Activities Letter/Sound Correspondence Onset/Rime Word Study Syllable Patterns Morpheme Structures



80 Phonics Resources Archer, Gleason, Vachon, Isaaconson, Rewards Plus, Sopris West, 2005 Bloom, Traub. Recipe for Reading, Educators Publishing Service, Inc, 2002 Enfield, Greene, Project Read Phonic Guides, Language Circle, 2006 Fox, Phonics for the Teacher of Reading, Pearson,2005 Moats, Louisa, Spellography, Sopris West, 2003 Rudginsky, How to Teach Spelling, Educators Publishing Service, Inc, 2002 Vadasy, Wayne, O’Connor, Jenkins, Pool, Firebaugh, Peyton, Sound Partners, Sopris West, 2005

81 Reading Fluency Reader’s Theatre

82 Reading Fluency - True/False 1.Students become fluent readers in 3rd grade. 2.Rereading the same text will make you faster at reading everything. 3.Fluency means reading with expression. 4.Fluency means reading fast. 5.Students need new things to read everyday to become fluent. 6.Reading aloud to students is only good to 6th grade. 7.Classroom teachers are the only ones who should read aloud to students. 8.Reading easy text is a waste of time - students should be working on new words each time they read. 9.Independent reading is a good instructional technique.

83 Fluency Instruction Fluency is the ability to read text accurately, quickly and with expression. Fluent readers: Read aloud with little effort, and naturally as if they were speaking Do not have to focus on decoding words Recognize words and comprehend at the same time Make connections with the text

84 Fluency Develops Gradually Children’s oral reading is slower in early stages of reading development because they are learning how to combine sounds and letters to make words Children must learn to break up text they are reading into meaningful chunks in order to read with expression. Fluency changes depending on the type of text being read and how familiar the words and topic is to the student.

85 Instructional Approaches Activities for Repeated Reading: 1.Student-adult reading 2.Choral reading 3.Tape-assisted reading 4.Partner reading 5.Reader’s Theater

86 Rhythm Intonation Expression Phrasing Prosody ABCD? EFG. HI? JKL. MN! OPQ. RST? UV! WX. YZ! AB. CDE? FG! HIJK. LMNO. P! QRS, TUV. W, X, Y, Z!

87 Interventions “Fluency development requires intentional well- designed practice." “The most effective practices involve repeated reading of letters, words, phrases and text.” (Birsh, 2005 p.248) Fluency Activities –Repeated Oral Readings –Automaticity: letters, sounds and words


89 Fluency Video - Shared Reading

90 Fluency Resources The Fluent Reader, by Timothy Rasinski (Scholastic) Soliloquy Learning Benchmark Education. Comprehensive set of scripts for students K-5. A Reader’s Theatre Treasure of Stories, by Win Braun (Calgary: Braun & Braun, 2000). Presenting Reader’s Theatre, by Caroline Feller Bauer (H. W. Wilson, 1991) Reader’s Theatre for Beginning Readers, by Suzanne Barchers (Teachers Ideas Press, 1993) The Best of Reader’s Theater, Vols. I and II, by Lisa Blau (One from the Heart, 2000) From Script to Stage (22 readers theater scripts from first grade through junior high school by Aaron Shepherd. Quick Reads, Modern Curriculum Press(Pearson Learning Group) Read 180, Scholastic Educational Materials Reader’s Theatre, Benchmark Education Time for Kids, Teacher Created Materials Real Deals, Jamestown Press LeapPad and LeapMat, Leapfrog Read Naturally, The Fluency Company Fluency First, Wright Group

91 Vocabulary (NRP) Themes or general categories of effective vocabulary instruction –direct and indirect instruction –multiple exposures to the words –learning opportunities in different contexts –tasks restructured for better comprehension when necessary –active engagement of the students –computer programs can be used as an alternative to teacher instruction in vocabulary lessons –vocabulary is also learned through incidental learning The NRP concluded that using only one method of instruction in vocabulary is not as effective as a combination approach.

92 Vocabulary Instruction Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to effectively communicate Types of vocabulary: Listening- words needed to understand what we hear Speaking- words used when speaking Reading- words needed to understand what we read Writing- words used in writing

93 Vocabulary Did you know…Children learn, on average, 3,000 new words a year with approximately 45,000 words known by the end of 12 th grade? (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) Three strategies for improving vocabulary: 1. Improve student’s overall reading skills 2. Read aloud to them 3. Direct instruction of vocabulary using a variety of strategies i.e. mapping, semantic feature analysis, variety of activities with small group of words

94 Vocabulary Instruction Research says… Most vocabulary is learned indirectly, but some must be directly taught. Indirect LearningDirect Learning Conversations Being read to Reading independently Explicitly taught words and word-learning strategies

95 Direct Vocabulary Instruction Specific Word Instruction Example: Before beginning a book/story, the teacher may: Choose a word or words and discuss the concept Read the sentence from the story that contains the word and have students try to determine the meaning from context Ask students to use the words in their own original sentences Use graphic organizers to look at the various aspects of a word

96 Direct Vocabulary Instruction Word learning Strategies Teachers may teach students: How to use dictionaries, glossaries, or thesauruses Meanings of common prefixes, suffixes, base words, and root words How to locate context clues (definitions, descriptions, examples, synonyms etc.)

97 Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary 1.Contextualize the word within the text just read 2.Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation 3.Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word 4.Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006)

98 Now You Try – Check the appropriate category WordKnow well- can explain it Know something about it Have seen or heard the word Do not know the word superfluous pusillanimous obstreperous

99 How Do I Choose Words? Instruction should Focus on three types of words: Important: necessary for understanding concept or the text Useful: words that students will encounter over and over Difficult: words with multiple meanings, idioms, etc.

100 Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002 Selecting Words For Vocabulary From Books Read to or by Students Tier 1 WordsTier 2 WordsTier 3 Words easy words, high frequency, meaning known by everyone words for mature language users; useful in a variety of situations not used often ; special to certain content subjects catch, when, believe benevolent, sinister, essential, endure isotope, lathe, tsunami

101 Decontextualize Vocabulary: Questions, Reasons, And Examples If you are traveling down the road and pass a state patrol officer you need to do drive cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously? What is something you can do to impress your mother? Why? What is something that you might do to impress your best friend? Which of these things might be extraordinary? Why or why not? –All children coming to school reading? –Students turning in their homework every day?

102 Interventions Vocabulary Activities Words in Context Word Meaning Word Knowledge Word Structure


104 Vocabulary Resources Marcia Henry,Unlocking Literacy: Effective Decoding and Spelling Instruction, Brooks Publishing, 2003 Beck, M. McKeown, & L. Kucan. Bringing Words to Life The Guilford Press, NY, 2002 Ebbers, Vocabulary Through Morphemes, Sopris West, 2004 Blachowicz, Fisher, Teaching Vocabulary in All Classrooms, Pearson, 2006 Estes, Larrick, Wordbuild, Dynamic Literacy, 2007 Moore, Moore, Latin and Greek Origins, McGraw Hill,1996

105 Comprehension (NRP) 7 Strategies were found to be effective: –Comprehension monitoring –Cooperative learning –Graphic organizers –Question answering –Question generating –Story structure –Summarizing Multiple Strategy Instruction (combination of 2 or more strategies)

106 Effective Comprehension Instruction Effective comprehension instruction should include: Direct teaching of strategies Modeling appropriate use of strategies Providing guided practice using strategies Allowing for independent practice of strategies

107 Generating Questions By generating their own questions, children have to process what they are reading Children can be taught to generate questions about: Main idea Character motives Story details Connections to the story

108 Summarizing In summarizing students are expected to pull out the important information and retell it in their own words. Instruction should focus on: Identifying main ideas Connecting ideas Differentiating between important and unnecessary information

109 Interventions Comprehension Activities -Sentence Structure and Meaning -Story Structure -Monitoring for Meaning -Main Idea/Summarizing

110 The Red Dress She went looking for a red dress. She saw a red dress that cost eighty dollars. She did not bring that much money with her. I did not have the money to loan her. So, she went to the next shop. She saw a nice dress. It looked almost the same as the first dress. It did not cost as much. It was only fifty dollars. She saved thirty dollars. So, she got out her cash and the dress was hers. They put it in a bag, we left the shop. Great Leaps by Kenneth U. Campbell, 1996, p.64

111 Reading Comprehension- Reciprocal Teaching hension hension

112 Comprehension Resources Developing Metacognitive Skills: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension. Neuhaus Education Center, 2004. Improving Reading Comprehension: Research-Based Principles and Practices (2002) by J. Carlisle & M. Rice. York Press, Baltimore, MD. “Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy” (2004) by C. Snow & G. Biancaruso. Can be downloaded from: or ordered from 1201 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 910, Washington, DC, Vocabulary Instruction, Research to Practice (2004) by J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui. The Guilford Press, NY. “Vocabulary and the Child with Learning Disabilities” Perspectives, Winter, 2004. Published by the International Dyslexia Association. Copies may be ordered online at

113 Writing

114 Writing

115 Struggling Readers = Struggling Writers Poor readers tend to be poor spellers Deficit in phonological awareness skills Poor PA skills makes memory of letter patterns difficult Cannot deal with several layers of language because no layer is automatic Improvement in reading often faster than improvement in spelling (Moats, 1996)

116 Why is Spelling More Difficult than Reading? Reading requires recognition of words. Spelling requires complete and accurate recall of letter patterns. (Moats, 1996)

117 Writing Linked to Reading Writing to Read is a new Carnegie Corporation report published by the Alliance for Excellent Education which finds that while reading and writing are closely connected, writing is an often- overlooked tool for improving reading skills and content learning. Writing to Read identifies three core instructional practices that have been shown to be effective in improving student reading: –having students write about the content-area texts they have read –teaching students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text –increasing the amount of writing students do. (Graham, S., and Hebert, M.A.(2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.)

118 How Do We Measure Writing? AIMSweb Curriculum Based Measures: Writing Spelling Written Expression: Group or individual administration Student given a story starter 1 minute to think and 3 minutes to write story

119 Story Starter Examples Story Starters Cross-Age Suitable for All Benchmark Grades 1. I couldn’t fall asleep in my tent. I heard this noise outside and … 2. My father sold his store last year and my whole family … 3. All during the day I was nervous. I ran home at 3:00. When I got home …

120 How is it Scored? Correct Writing Sequences A correct writing sequence refers to two adjacent writing units (word/word or word/punctuation) that are acceptable within the context of what is written. The term “acceptable” means that the writing sequence is syntactically and semantically correct.

121 Correct Writing Sequences

122 Comparing Writing using CBM Compared to.....

123 Spelling AIMSweb Spelling Curriculum Based Measurement


125 Writing/Spelling Interventions Handouts included in manual May be used with direct instruction at Tiers I, II, and III of RTI with progress monitoring using: –Correct Writing Sequences (CWS) –Words Spelled Correctly (WSC) –Total Written Words (TWW) Or Spelling Curriculum Based Measurement

126 NC Public Schools Mission Our ultimate goal is for all students in North Carolina to graduate prepared for work, education, and success in the 21 st century. (NC DPI) Teaching students to read is important to you. Being able to read is extremely valuable to the student. The ability to read is vital to the adult that student will become. An inability to read is the number one indicator of poverty in this country!



129 Resources available FREE to everyone Three documents related to this presentation are available at 1. Complete report 2. Executive summary for complete report 3. “Principal’s guide to intensive interventions for struggling readers in Reading First schools” To download a guidance document on differentiated reading instruction: small group alternative lesson structures, go to To download a guidance document on Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents, go to To download answers to frequently asked questions regarding reading instruction, go to

130 Resources Good & Kaminski: DIBELS Gary Germann and Mark Shinn AIMSWEB WWW.AIMSWEB.COMWWW.AIMSWEB.COM ; WWW.EDFORMATION.COMWWW.EDFORMATION.COM James Wright Vaughn-Gross Reading Center

131 Websites For Program Information or

132 Sample Websites www.bestevidenceencyclopedia.orgwww.bestevidenceencyclopedia.or

133 References Armbruster, B., Lehr, F. & Osborn, J. (2003) Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement funded by National Institute for Literacy. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instructions, New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Birsh, J.R.,ed. (2005). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills, 2 nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Birsh, J.R. & Carreker, S. (2005) Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Activity Book. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Bursuck, W. & Damer, M. (2007). Reading Instruction for Students Who are At Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson. Buehl, Doug (2004). Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. International Reading Association. Burns, Darci. Leading Literacy Change(2008) NC IDA Conference. Hanson Initiative for Language & Literacy (HILL)

134 References Campbell, K.U. (1996). Great leaps reading program: Grades 5 – 9 Middle/Jr. High School, 3 rd ed. Micanopy, FL: Diarmuid, Inc. 352-466-3878 Crawford, E. & Torgesen, J. (2007). Teaching all students to read: Practices from Reading First schools with strong intervention outcomes. Summary Document (complete report available at Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Greene, J.F. (1997) Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers. Longmont, Colorado: Sopris West Educational Services Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Teacher resource guide. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education. Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Resource guide glossary of terms. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education. Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Teacher resource guide Part 2. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education.

135 References Hall, S. (2006). I’ve DIBEL’d now what? Designing interventions with DIBELS data. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Hanson Initiative for Language & Literacy (HILL) MGH Institute of Health Professions Murphy, J., (2004) Leadership for Literacy: Research-based Practice, Pre- K3,Corwin Press, CA. (25-27) RAND Reading Study Group (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. http//www.- Stahl, K & Mckenna, M. (2006) Reading Research at Work. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Torgesen, J. (2007). A principal’s guide to intensive reading interventions for struggling readers in Reading First schools. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Torgesen, J. (2006). Research Corner: Successful interventions always increase the intensity of instruction. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Newsletter. (Oct. 2006 p 2- 4).

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