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RSS RtI Foundations Training

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1 RSS RtI Foundations Training
Reading, Writing, & RtI Laurie Lee & Amy Roberts, Program Specialist and School Psychologist August 2010 Presentation adapted from NCDPI RtI Foundations Training

2 In 2009, the average score of fourth-grade students in North Carolina was 219. This was not significantly different from the average score of 220 for public school students in the nation. „The average score for students in North Carolina in 2009 (219) was not significantly different from their average score in 2007 (218) and was higher than their average score in 1992 (212). „In 2009, the score gap between students in North Carolina at the 75th percentile and students at the 25th percentile was 47 points. This performance gap was not significantly different from that of 1992 (50 points). „The percentage of students in North Carolina who performed at or above the NAEP Proficient level was 32 percent in This percentage was not significantly different from that in 2007 (29 percent) and was greater than that in 1992 (25 percent). „The percentage of students in North Carolina who performed at or above the NAEP Basic level was 65 percent in This percentage was not significantly different from that in 2007 (64 percent) and was greater than that in 1992 (56 percent).

3 Is this surprising? How do you think the reading NAEP scores compare to Math in North Carolina? Why do you think this is?

4 Differences in Learning to Read
Able to read: Learn with ease: Learn with support: Learn with intensive support: Have pervasive reading disabilities: How many children in a typical first grade class are likely to struggle learning to read. These figures are based on research sponsored by the national Institute of Child and Health and Development (NICHD;Lyon, 1998) About 5 % of students come to school already able to read. These children learn to read naturally without any formal instruction. Another 20-30% of students learn to read with ease, regardless of the approach to reading instruction used. For 20-30% of students, learning to read will take hard work, with some extra support needed. An additional 30% of students will only learn to read if they are given intensive support. These students require explicit systematic phonics instruction and extensive practice reading the new words they are learning. The remaining 5% of students have pervasive reading disabilities and will require explicit, systematic and direct instruction using multisensory strategies. Mastery will take longer for these students. They will require intensive instruction to help them overcome their difficulties. Adapted by B. Bursuck based on Lyon, 1998

5 Causes of Reading Difficulties
90% of poor readers have problems with Word reading accuracy Reading difficulty is related to Inherited brain differences Phonological processing problems are the cause of most reading difficulties: Phonological Awareness Rapid Naming/Word Retrieval Working Memory (Reading Foundations training)

6 Students with Phonological Awareness Problems. . . . .
Have difficulty segmenting words into sounds Have difficulty mapping sounds to letters or letter patterns May try to memorize words or over-rely upon context May be misdiagnosed as having comprehension problems (Reading Foundations training)

7 Students with Naming Problems. . .
Difficulty quickly naming even familiar concepts such as colors, numbers, letters Red Blue Black Yellow Green (may use with students who do not yet know numbers and letters to test color-naming) Difficulty learning names Recall information in context, but not in isolation

8 Students with Naming Problems. . .
Describe items rather than giving specific names Confuse names of items within categories: (blue-green) (here-there) Appear to learn names, but then “forget” (Reading Foundations Training)

9 Students with Working Memory Problems. . . .
Have difficulty holding sounds in memory as they sound out a word May have difficulty holding words in memory to get the meaning of a sentence Remember: working memory is NOT exactly the same thing as short-term memory. Discuss differences between short term memory and working memory and how working memory is strongly correlated to intellectual ability and academic readiness for reading and math because the brain is processing more than one task at a time. In reading, working memory is tapped into while the student is trying to think of the letter, attach a sound to the letter, remember the letter sound before it and begin to blend them all together AT THE SAME TIME. Short-term memory is related to doing one task at a time, rather than juggling many.

10 Double and Triple Deficits
Student may have a combination of 2 or all 3 of these problems: Phonological Awareness Rapid naming/word retrieval Working memory Double and triple deficits students are the MOST difficult to remediate (Reading Foundations training)

11 Skilled Reading Process
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR MEANING CONTEXT PHONOLOGICAL Selects appropriate meaning based on context Notes: This is based on Marilyn Jager Adams (1990) model as explained in Beginning to Read: Thinking and Learning About Print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Emphasize that these processors are working together since these processes are automatic in good readers. ```````````````````````````````````````````````````` Activates all possible meanings of a word Receives visual information from print Recognizes familiar patterns of letters Processes every letter Activates phonological image of word “hearing the word in your head” (Adams, 1990)

12 Skilled Reading Process
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROCESSOR MEANING CONTEXT PHONOLOGICAL Previous sentence: “I felt something small brush against my foot.” SUGGESTED SLIDE COMMENTS Click 1: The white page with the word cat on it represents the printed text that is being read. Click 2: The orthographic processors recognizes the letters as already stored forms. If the word is a ‘’sight word,” then the orthographic processor immediately recognizes the sequence of letters (but the orthographic processors does not give us the sound of the word or its meaning). This processor simply matches up the word to a familiar stored sequence of letters that may have links to the meaning processor and the phonological processor. Click 3: The phonological processor responds to the stimulus from the orthographic processor in one of two ways. If the word is a sight word, the “sound image” of the whole word is activated--think of this as saying the word in your head. If the word is not a sight word, the phonological processor may respond with sounds for letters or combinations of letters, such as sounding out the three sounds in cat or recognizing the /at/ pattern and then adding the /k/. Click 4: The meaning processor calls up all meanings associated with the “sound” and/or the sight image of the word. In this case, a house cat and a “big cat” may be briefly called up. We are not fully conscious of these multiple meanings but researchers have managed to tease out evidence of this fact. Click 5 & 6: It is at this point that the context processors comes into play. From the understanding of the story that has already been registered as well as the immediate context of the word, the context processor selects one of the meanings of the word and reinforces it, eliminating the meanings that do not fit the context. cat “cat” or |c|-|a|-|t| cat (Adams, 1990)

13 Foundation skills enable later skills
accurate word reading fluency fluency Reading Comprehension vocabulary This slide illustrates the dependency of growth on fluency on early establishment of strategies for accurately reading unfamiliar words in text. Children who become accurate readers early, and then read extensively, are more likely to become fluent readers. The development of reading comprehensions, of course, depends on solid growth in fluency, vocabulary, strategies and motivation. strategies motivation Torgesen,

14 The Reader Reading Comprehension involves a combination of word recognition, language comprehension and executive processing abilities Research shows skilled readers are efficient at sight-word recognition and decoding of new words. This efficiency leads to fluent reading which leads to comprehension of text-length material Sight words are any words that a reader knows automatically (Stahl & Hiebert, in press, 2006)

15 The Big Emphasis Changes, K-3
Comprehension Vocabulary Fluency Phonics Phonemic Awareness 3 2 1 K Listening Reading Multisyllables Letter Sounds & Combinations Changing Emphasis of Components  Our long-term goal is that all children will read independently gain meaning from text. To do this, certain skills have more importance at different times. Our charge is to emphasize what is important at critical points in time. Adapted from Simmons, Kame’enui, Harn, & Coyne (2003). Institute for beginning reading 2. Day 3: Core instruction: What are the critical components that need to be In place to reach our goals? Eugene: University of Oregon.

16 The Many Strands that are Woven into Skilled Reading
(Scarborough, 2001) BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE LANGUAGE STRUCTURES VERBAL REASONING LITERACY KNOWLEDGE PHON. AWARENESS DECODING (and SPELLING) SIGHT RECOGNITION SKILLED READING: fluent execution and coordination of word recognition and text comprehension. LANGUAGE COMPREHENSION WORD RECOGNITION increasingly automatic strategic Skilled Reading- fluent coordination of word reading and comprehension processes This slide comes from Joe Torgesen and can be found at It is a great way to show how all the components come together. Torgesen, Reading is a multifaceted skill, gradually acquired over years of instruction and practice.

17 National Reading Panel (NRP)
Liz Crawford 2007) 5 Key Components of Reading Instruction Phonemic Awareness Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension Other areas investigated: Technology, Teacher Education and Teacher Preparation The K-3 academies focused on presenting the findings from the National Reading Panel (NRP) in the five key components of reading: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Fluency, Vocabulary, Comprehension. It is important to point out too, as was stated directly in the NRP itself, that “The Panel’s silence on other topics should not be interpreted as indicating that other topics have no importance or that improvement in those areas would not lead to greater reading achievement. It was simply the sheer number of studies identified by Panel staff relevant to reading…that precluded an exhaustive analysis of the research in all areas of potential interest.” (NRP, 2000, p.1-3) So they focused on the five components listed here, sometimes referred to as the “Fab 5” of reading. In the next several slides we will focus on what the major findings were of the NRP as well as findings from more recent research in the 5 main areas, but we want to look at these findings through different lenses than you did during the K-3 academies. Today, we want to think of these findings in terms of interventions and working with those students who are struggling to learn to read so as you listen to some familiar information from the NRP, think about how it specifically applies to your struggling readers and the same for the Post NRP findings. (Crawford, 2008)

18 Targeted Instruction – Focus on Learning
Explicit – nothing is left to chance; all skills are taught directly Systematic – sequential steps are followed to take the student from limited or no mastery to complete mastery of a skill Direct – The teacher defines and teaches a concept, guides students through its application, and arranges for extended guided practice until mastery is achieved Strategic – teaching students efficient ways to acquire, store and express information and skills (FCRR Glossary of terms, 2005)

19 Principles Of Reading Instruction For All Children
Teach phonemic awareness and phonics explicitly, systematically, and early (kindergarten & grade 1). Provide frequent opportunities for guided, oral reading. Teach vocabulary and a variety of strategies for comprehension. Felton and Lillie have here very succinctly state the basic ingredients of reading instruction in ways that corresponds to the three major components just discussed. Emphasize that we are talking about ALL students. It is true that this type of instruction is not NECESSARY for all students – some students learn to read regardless of the quality, or lack thereof, of the reading instruction. However, this type of instruction provides the best opportunity for all students to become good readers. [This information is based on the findings of the National Reading Panel but you can simply say at this point that these findings are based on numerous studies.] First bullet: describes the type of instruction that is most effective for students’ development of decoding (word identification) skills. Second bullet: The connection may be less obvious for #2, but one of the principle reasons for frequent guided oral reading is to develop fluency. Third bullet: vocabulary and strategy instruction have been shown to be critical for comprehension. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

20 Teaching At-Risk Children To Read
Teach phonemic awareness skills early. Teach sound-spelling associations explicitly and in a careful sequence. Teach sounding out and blending directly. Use decodable text for practice. Read good literature to students for language comprehension. Note: Students who are at risk for reading problems need the same strong basis in reading that we discussed as appropriate for all students but this is not sufficient. Because of their weaknesses in the underlying processes important for reading (refer to unit 2 study of language processes – see if participants recall phonemic awareness, rapid naming/word retrieval, short term memory) at risk students need additional types of instruction. Don’t wait to see if phonemic awareness skills will develop. Teach directly and systematically in kindergarten (or pre-K, if possible) One of the best indicators of risk for poor reading is difficulty with letter-sound associations so teach directly and early (again in pre-K and K) The actual processes of decoding and blending may have to be modeled and practiced much more for at risk students. Decodable text is critical since this is the only way to provide sufficient practice for mastery for many at risk students. Since some of these students will not be able to read age appropriate material independently, reading to them is very important. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

21 Characteristics of Effective Reading Interventions for At-risk Students
Begin as soon as it is clear the student is lagging behind Increase the intensity of instruction and practice Use direct, explicit, systematic instruction and practice with review Provide skillful instruction with error correction and immediate positive feedback and reward Guide instruction with student data and be responsive to data on student progress Ensure a positive atmosphere that is motivating, engaging and supportive (Torgesen, 2007)

22 Principles Of Remediation for students with persistent problems learning to read
Base instruction on assessment. Use systematic, cumulative, explicit, direct, and multisensory instruction. Use guided discovery and guided practice. Teach for mastery and automaticity. Notes: Once students have actually failed to learn to read, then we are talking about the process of remediation. Remediation is much more difficult than prevention and requires very careful instruction. These principles are for remediation of students with persistent reading problems including those identified as learning disabled in reading. (Felton & Lillie, 2001)

23 Appropriate Instruction*
Population Percentage* Journey to Reading Appropriate Instruction* 5 Is easy (read before starting school) Assess reading achievement Systematic phonics to enhance spelling Provide vocabulary & comprehension 35 Is relatively easy Build phonemic awareness Provide instruction in phonics for decoding and spelling Vocabulary and comprehension 40 Is a formidable challenge Do everything above plus… Base instruction on assessment Teach phonemic awareness Teach phonics explicitly Link decoding and spelling Use decodable text 20 Is one of the most difficult tasks to be mastered during schooling Require intensive, systematic, direct, multisensory instruction based on assessment Teach to automaticity *Estimates and recommendations are based on the work of Lyon and other NICHD researchers Handout: Differences in Learning to Read. This is based on the work done at NICHD as reported by Reid Lyon and others. Point out that these are estimates and recommendations based on a number of studies. Ask participants to look for commonalities; e.g., assessment is important for all students as is phonics. Ask for some differences? This topic will be explored in more depth later so don’t spend much time at this point. Point out the common theme of basing instruction on assessment in each group

Tier IV IEP Consideration Tier III Student Study Team Tier II Consultation With Other AMOUNT OF RESOURCES REQUIRED TO MEET THE STUDENT’S NEEDS Tier 1 Resources Intensive Interventions 1-7% Strategic Interventions 5-15% Core Curriculum 80-90% Consultation Between Teachers Parents - Refer back to Problem Solving model INTENSITY OF NEEDS - circles - pub Needs

25 Example of Staggered Reading Blocks with “Walk and Read”
Team Reading Writing Math Science/SS Special Area Lunch K 8:45-10:30 10:30-11:30 1:35-2:35 12:15-12:50 12:50-1:35 11:30-12:15 1 12-1 1-2 2-2:30 11:15-12 10:30-11:15 2 10:30-12:15 9:45-10:30 8:45-9:45 1:15-1:40 1:40-2:25 12:30-1:15 3 9:30-10:30 8:45-9:30 12:15-1 4 12:45-2:30 8:45-9:35 10:20-11:20 11:20-11:55 9:35-10:20 11:55-12:40 5 9:45-10:25 11:50-12:35 10:25-11:10 11:10-11:50 (Crawford, fcrr.)

26 A mistake we often make in education is to plan the curriculum materials very carefully, arrange all the instructional materials wall to wall, open the doors of the school, and then find to our dismay that they’ve sent us the wrong kids. That is why assessment and using data to drive instruction is so important (Crawford, fcrr)

27 Research Based Reading Programs
Direct, Explicit and Systematic Address the Big 5 Components of Reading Differentiated materials that address the needs of the students Flexible Grouping based on assessments

Interventions READING IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM READING GOAL: All students will improve their reading vocabulary

29 Using Assessment to Guide Accelerated Instruction
Use the “big 5” to guide assessment: Phonemic Awareness, Phonics, Vocabulary, Fluency and Comprehension Informal assessment examples AIMSweb/DIBELS Children’s Progress Developmental Reading Assessment (DRA) Basic Reading Skills Assessment (BRSA) Phonological Awareness Skills Test (PAST) Reading Inventories – (Ekwall-Shanker, Basic Reading Inventory by Jerry Johns, QRI, DRA) Use EOG/EOC scores if applicable Once a student’s level of reading mastery of a particular reading skill is determined, you know where to start teaching. You know the student’s level of mastery in terms of where she is in the sequence of steps in learning a target reading skill

30 Creative Scheduling

31 Form Flexible Groups Based on Assessment

32 The Reading Block Intervention:
To accelerate the reading growth the students have to have an increase in the Pii (Positive Instructional Interactions) per day Teach in small groups Extend the time of instruction (Torgesen 2007) Intervention: “Highly skilled teachers in a small pupil-teacher ratio classroom provide explicit and systematic instruction that is tailored to meet the identified needs of struggling readers.” “Teachers will utilize assessment to guide accelerated instruction, use teacher modeling and scaffolding with gradual release of responsibility to students, and provide extensive practice opportunities.”

33 Increasing the quality and power of teacher-led, small-group, differentiated instruction
Instruction should be differentiated to meet the needs of individual students in at least four ways Frequency and duration of meeting in small groups – every day, three times per week, etc. Size of instructional group – 3 students, 6 students, 8 students, etc. Focus of instruction – work in phonemic awareness in phonics, work in fluency and comprehension, etc. All this brings us to a consideration of the most important things that Reading First is designed to help schools accomplish. Here are three of the most important. It is critical to analyze group size (from 3-8 students) Keep high-risk group sizes small (3-5 students) It is important to work with each small group differently based on instructional need as determined by results of the various reading assessments. Monitor progress of those most at-risk students more frequently for making instructional changes to accelerate learning: Size of the small group Group members Level of explicitness Amount of scaffolding Length of time for targeted instruction Lesson format – guided reading vs. skills focused lessons

34 Ways that instruction must be made more powerful for students “at-risk” for reading difficulties.
More powerful instruction involves: More instructional time resources Smaller instructional groups skill More precisely targeted at right level Clearer and more detailed explanations More systematic instructional sequences More extensive opportunities for guided practice More opportunities for error correction and feedback Foorman & Torgesen (2001)

35 The key to transforming students from struggling to competent learners is to put in place programs that bring a “laser-like” focus on teaching and learning. (Deshler, 2006)

36 It is difficult for the teacher to meet the needs of all the students.
“Many students may require at least three or four times as much instruction as the average student if they are to maintain normal progress in learning to read” (Torgesen, 2007, p. 1). Students come to school with very diverse skills and preparation to read. These students need more intense instruction.

37 It is difficult for the teacher to meet the needs of all the students.
“Some of our students may require four, to six, to eight times more instruction than others in order to learn all they need to learn each year.” (Torgesen,fcrr)

38 That sounds great, BUT… How do we do it?
“I only have an assistant part of the day!” “My students are in and out of class all the time for “specials”!” “I have so much to cover!” “The core series expects them to know much more than they actually know!” “And what about my advanced students?” Specials = art, music, PE, computers, etc. These are really the “very realistic” questions we are trying to address. These are the main reason you need administrative support and at least grade level commitment.

39 Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class
Uninterrupted 90 minute block No other personnel to assist during Learning Center time Core Reading Program Using this same Class Status Report, here is an example of how a classroom could be organized for the 90 minute block. Here is the situation at my school for this class: I will provide an uninterrupted block of 90 minutes of reading instruction. I do not have any other personnel at my school to help with differentiating instruction during Learning Center time. My instructional tool is my core reading program. FCRR center activities, technology, etc would be used during center activities

40 Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class: Teacher-Led Center
Small group instruction for 50 minutes: Group 1: Implement an intervention program --25 min. daily Group 2: Implement phonemic awareness and phonics activities that will provide students extra practice with the content that was previously taught min. daily Group 3: Use the decodable & leveled books from my core reading program to practice the decoding process and fluency min. daily After 40 minutes of whole group instruction, students will engage in learning centers. Here is what type of instruction will take place at the Teacher-Led Center for each small group: Group 1: Remember this is the highest risk group. I will use the Scott Foresman Early Reading Intervention which focuses on phonemic awareness and phonics. Group 2: I will use the lessons from the Links to Reading First manual. These activities may have already been implemented with the whole class, but this will allow these students a “double dose” and provide them with the extra practice and immediate feedback that they need. Group 3: I will use the decodable books from Scott Foresman core reading program and use some fluency building strategies with this group.

41 Classroom Organization for this Kindergarten Class: Teacher Led-Center
40 minutes will be devoted to whole class ii using core curriculum 50 minutes will be devoted to small group instruction: M T W TH F G1HR 25 minutes G2MR 15 10 G3LR 40 minutes will be devoted to whole class instruction using SF with Links to RF for initial instruction (ii)The next 50 minutes of my 90 minute block will be devoted to learning centers and differentiated instruction. Remember, Group 1 is the group at highest risk so I will work with them every day for 25 minutes. Group 2 were those students who needed some extra support so I will work with them everyday, alternating between 15 and 10 minutes. Group 3 was the group at low risk so I will work with them every day alternating 10 and 15 minutes.

42 Structuring Independence to Facilitate Accelerated Learning
The Daily Five Fostering Literacy Independence in the Elementary Grades “The Daily Five is more than a management system or a curriculum framework; it is a structure that will help students develop the habits that lead to a lifetime of independent literacy.” Stenhouse Publishing Based on literacy learning and motivation research, they created a structure called The Daily Five which has been practiced and refined in their own classrooms for ten years, and shared with thousands of teachers throughout the United States. The Daily Five is a series of literacy tasks (reading to self, reading with someone, writing, word work, and listening to reading) which students complete daily while the teacher meets with small groups or confers with individuals. This book not only explains the philosophy behind the structure, but shows you how to carefully and systematically train your students to participate in each of the five components. Explicit modeling practice, reflecting and refining take place during the launching phase, preparing the foundation for a year of meaningful content instruction tailored to meet the needs of each child. (Taken from Stenhouse Publishing website)

43 One Example Reading Intervention Room
Pull out setting Twenty 2nd grade students for 90 minutes Four highly trained instructors An instructor is at each center Vocabulary, Fluency, Comprehension, Word Work Twenty minutes at each center, then rotate Model used in Hardin Park Elementary School in Watauga County, design was suggested by Joe Torgesen. Stamey Carter, Watauga Co. Schools

44 Struggling Readers Grouped for Reading/Language Arts
In Watauga County Classroom A Classroom B Classroom C Classroom D Students are placed into heterogeneous classrooms for the greater part of the day. The colors show that students are at different levels of reading and have different needs. Stamey Carter, Watauga Co. Schools

45 CLASSROOM D Assistant Basal Reading & Sight words
Listening Comprehension, Vocabulary TITLE I STUDENTS Students grouped by needs, 24 minute rotation at each station 96 minutes of intensive, on-level, small group instruction Flexible groups reorganized 3-4 times/year Class-room Teacher Title I Teacher 2 This is Classroom D, the below-grade-level group. The graphics represent four stations for teachers and at the top right a carpeted area for an assistant. Click 1: At the first station is the classroom teacher. Click 2: One Title I teacher. Click 3: A second title I teacher. Click 4: A classroom assistant. Click 5: An EC teacher. Each adult will handle a different part of the language arts instruction. All areas will be coordinated. Click 6: Students will be assigned to flexible groups based on current reading level and needs. Click 7: EC students will not be assigned to Title I teachers. Click 8: Station 1 instructional areas are shown. Click 9: Station 2 instructional areas are shown. Click 10: Station 3 instructional areas are shown. Click 11: Station 4 instructional areas are shown. Click 12: The EC teacher will work in the classroom for the first hour and serve EC students in the areas shown. Because the EC group is larger, the assistant will work with this group also during the first hour. Click 13 :Students will spend 30 minutes at each station. Click 14: Students will rotate to the next station after each 30 minute session. Click 15: Title I students will also recieve 1-to-1 tutoring by Title I teachers or by assistants for 30 minutes each day. Clicke 16: Each Title I student will receive 150 minutes of high intensity instruction matched to his/her level and needs. Guided Reading/ Fluency/Leveled Books Title I Teacher 1 Word Study: Phonics, Phonemic Awareness, Spelling, Dictation Stamey Carter, Watauga Co. Schools

46 Ashe County School-Wide Schedule
The point here is to point out that the administration has planned for a school-wide schedule with specific times for reading instruction at each grade level. This does lock teachers into specific times for instruction but enables decision making for the best use of personnel and rescources.

47 Another Example Small Group General Instruction Ashe County
Grades 1-3 Target Group 90 minute block with 4 rotations Writing Reg. Ed Teacher Phonological Awareness/ Phonics Fluency Reg. Ed Teacher Literacy Specialist Vocabulary and Comprehension EC Teacher

48 Characteristics, Benefits, and Challenges of Upcoming Models
Small group instruction during 90-minute block Provided by additional teacher(s) Groups of 3-5 students 30-60 minutes per group Targeted to specific student need Classroom teacher can work with other students. More opportunities for targeted intensive instruction More opportunities for student response More opportunities for corrective feedback and reinforcement Benefits Scheduling may not always be consistent . Classroom activities can be distracting . Additional teacher may not be available on daily basis . Instructional time may not be sufficient. Other activities in 90-minute block may not be at appropriate level . Challenges These are based on the next 4 slides and the scheduling models provided…briefly go over that this requires lots of admin. Support, training, commitment on all personnel involved Stress: Benefits outweigh challenges Crawford, fcrr (2007)

49 Essential Components of Reading Instruction
Phonemic Awareness Intervention Activities Resources Phonics Fluency Vocabulary Comprehension

50 Phonological Awareness
A general term which includes phonemic awareness. Phonological awareness activities include working with rhymes, words, syllables, and onsets and rimes. Phonemic awareness is a part of phonological awareness. Syllables: word part that contains a vowel Onsets and rimes: smaller than syllables, but larger than phonemes. The onset is the first part of the syllable containing the consonant or consonant cluster and the rime is the part of the syllable containing the vowel and the letters that follow it. Onset Rime b ag (bag) tr ap (trap)

51 Phonological Awareness
Sensitivity To Rhyme Matching Alliteration & Rhyme Partial Phoneme Segmentation Word Awareness Syllable Awareness Phonemic Awareness Full Phoneme Segmentation This slide comes from Figure 4.1 p. 84 in 2nd edition Birsh text. The term phonological processing is a general term for several oral language processing abilities that are related to the sounds in words and are associated with the ability to read well. This is a diagram showing the relationships among these terms. This slide adapted from Reading Foundations’s slide Phonological Processing 2005 FCRR Phonological Awareness Onset and Rime Guessing Game PA.031 Objective The student will manipulate onsets and rimes in words. Materials Onset and rime picture cards (Activity Master PA.031.AM1a - PA.031.AM1b) Activity Students guess words based on onset and rime clues. 1. Place shuffled picture cards on a flat surface. Each student is dealt six cards face down. 2. Working in pairs, student one picks up a card so that student two cannot see it. 3. Gives clues describing onset and rime. For example, for rug “It begins with /r/ and rhymes with bug.“ 4. Student two guesses the word and student one shows the picture card. 5. Reverse roles and repeat the activity until all picture cards have been used. 6. Peer evaluation Extensions and Adaptations Illustate the word based on the phonemic clues. Make other picture cards (e.g., draw or cut pictures from print media). “It begins with /r/ and rhymes with bug.” “It begins like "ran" and ends like tug.” “It ends with /ug/ and begins like robot.” "Rug!" Phoneme Manipulation

52 Phonemic Awareness …the ability to hear, identify, and manipulate the individual sounds (phonemes) in spoken words. phonemes: are the smallest parts of sound in a spoken word that make a difference in the word’s meaning. The word, shop contains 3 phonemes: /sh/ /o/ /p/ Example: bag to rag is a result of changing the first phoneme in the word bag from /b/ to /r/ therefore changing the meaning of the word.

53 Phonemic Awareness Instruction
Phoneme Blending- listening to separate phonemes and combining them to form a word What word is /p/ /e/ /n/ ? Phoneme Segmentation-breaking a word into separate sounds How many sounds are in the word: flag? Phoneme Deletion-recognizing the word that remains when a phoneme is removed from the word What is farm without the /f/ ? Phoneme Substitution-substituting one phoneme for another to make a new word The word is sip. Change the /p/ to /t/. What is the new word?

54 Phonemic Manipulation Video

55 Phonemic Awareness Practice
How many phonemes? badge ____ thrill ____ church ____ smile _____ Change the first sound to last and the last sound to first to make a new word, e.g. cab = /c/ /a/ /b/. Change to /b/ /a/ /c/ = back dock _________ tell __________ mash _________ chip__________ 3 4 3 4 Answers will come in one at a time. cod let sham pitch

56 Phonemic Awareness… Can be taught and learned
Helps children learn to read and spell Can be taught using letters to increase effectiveness Is most effective when it focuses on only one or two types of phoneme manipulation More doesn’t always equal better <20 hours per year for a typical student This translates into around 5-10 minutes a day Different children will require different amounts of PA instruction Under the phonological awareness component the key findings included that: More doesn’t always equal better – that research shows that once you go over 20 hour of instruction in PA, you may not see any additional effects <20 hours per year for a typical student This translates into around 5-10 minutes a day and Different children will require different amounts of PA instruction so the statement above about 20 hours of instruction is for your typical children, but when thinking about out struggling readers, we may need to address phonemic awareness skills more intensely than for the typical student

57 Phonemic Awareness To Review:
Necessary for students to make meaningful sense of letter-sound correspondences To make sense of the print, students need to be aware of the phonemes in words Research shows strong correlation between phonemic awareness and success in reading Students who lack phonemic awareness have a greater amount of difficulty making sense of concepts involved in word identification

58 Interventions Phonological Awareness Activities Rhyme Alliteration
Sentence Segmentation Syllable Segmentation and Blending Onset/Rime Phonemic Awareness Activities 2005 FCRR Phonological Awareness Onset and Rime Guessing Game PA.031 Objective The student will manipulate onsets and rimes in words. Materials Onset and rime picture cards (Activity Master PA.031.AM1a - PA.031.AM1b) Activity Students guess words based on onset and rime clues. 1. Place shuffled picture cards on a flat surface. Each student is dealt six cards face down. 2. Working in pairs, student one picks up a card so that student two cannot see it. 3. Gives clues describing onset and rime. For example, for rug “It begins with /r/ and rhymes with bug.“ 4. Student two guesses the word and student one shows the picture card. 5. Reverse roles and repeat the activity until all picture cards have been used. 6. Peer evaluation Extensions and Adaptations Illustate the word based on the phonemic clues. Make other picture cards (e.g., draw or cut pictures from print media). “It begins with /r/ and rhymes with bug.” “It begins like "ran" and ends like tug.” “It ends with /ug/ and begins like robot.” "Rug!"



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62 Phonemic Awareness Resources
Adams, M. J, Foorman, B.R., Lundberg, I., Beeler, T., Phonemic Awareness in Young Children, Brookes Publishing, 1998 Blachman, Benita, Ball, E., Black, R., Tangel, Darlene, Road to the Code: A Phonological Awareness Program for Young Children, Brookes Publishing, 2000 Greene, Jane. Sounds and Letters, Phonemic Awareness Drills for Teachers and Speech Language Pathologist, Sopris West, 1997 Peer Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Vadasy, Wayne, O’Connor, Jenkins, Pool, Firebaugh, Peyton, Sound Partners,Sopris West, 2005

63 Phonics Instruction “Phonics instruction teaches children the relationship between the letters of written language and the individual sounds of spoken language” “The goal of phonics is to help children learn and use the alphabetic principle…the understanding that there are systematic and predictable relationships between written letters and spoken sounds.”

64 Phonics Instruction Accurately recognize familiar words
The knowledge of relationships between letters and sounds helps children: Accurately recognize familiar words Learn to recognize words at an automatic level Decode words that are unfamiliar to them To read isolated words as well as words in context

65 Phonemic Awareness & Phonics (Post NRP)
Research indicates that: When instruction in phonemic awareness is quickly paired with phonics instruction involving letters, it strengthens both the student’s phonological awareness skills as well as their knowledge of the alphabetic principle Since the NRP, there have been several studies that found a significant effect of linking phonological awareness instruction with phonics instruction. When instruction in phonemic awareness is quickly paired with phonics instruction involving letters, it strengthens both the student’s phonological awareness skills as well as their knowledge of the alphabetic principle. The power of quickly connecting the printed letters or graphemes with the sounds or phonemes during your instruction has been found to have a significant effect on the child’s PA skills as well as his/her phonics skills. (Foorman et al., 2003) - Cite other studies (converging evidence) about this statement Foorman, B. R., Chen, D., Carlson, C., Moats, L., Francis, D. J., & Fletcher, J. M. (2003). The necessity of the alphabetic principle to phonemic instruction. Reading and Writing, 16, Crawford, fcrr (2008)

66 Types of Phonics Instruction
Systematic and explicit Direct teaching Letter-sound relationships taught in a specifically selected sequence Includes significant practice Use decodable text Non-systematic No specific sequence used Informal Embedded in text Not directly taught


68 Recognize this Child?

69 Phonics Video

70 Phonics Most common sound/letter correspondences taught first moving to least common Names of letters Map single consonant to most common letter Map initial blends and then final Map single sounds with more complex letter representations Digraphs Orthographic patterns – bonus letter, “ck” rule Letter patterns – vowels, vowel teams, diphthongs, r-controlled Phonics – mapping of letters to sounds and analyzing structure of how word is spelled Generally taught K-2 but can be taught at any grade if not mastered Teach advanced concepts grade 3 and beyond

71 Phonics Structural Analysis skills necessary for reading beyond 3rd grade Structural analysis is an advanced decoding skill that allows students to analyze words based on their parts These include: affixes compound words syllables – 6 syllable types; CLOVER contractions roots Mastery of phonics leads to independent decoding of only one-syllable words. Students need to learn to decode longer words using structural analysis so they can read complex content area words. It cannot be assumed that because students can decode single-syllable words, they can decode these same syllables when they are part of of multisyllabic words.

72 Phonics Morphemes – smallest unit of meaning Roots
jumped teacher butter Roots Port (to carry) export, airport, deport, import, etc. Prefixes and Suffixes Prefixes: un = not; re = again; trans = across Suffixes: s, ing, ly, er, ness

73 Phonics Practice The suffix –ed has three different pronunciations: /t/ /d/ or /ed/. Tell the correct pronunciation of the ending –ed in each of these words seemed ___ landed ____ camped ___ rated ___ picked ____ liked ____ /d/ /ed/ /t/ Explain reasons and rationale for /t/, /d/, /id/ /ed/ /t/ /t/

74 Phonics Practice The suffix –ed has three different pronunciations: /t/ /d/ or /ed/. Tell the correct pronunciation of the ending –ed in each of these words seemed ___ landed ____ camped ___ rated ___ picked ____ liked ____

75 Syllable Division For each word listed, identify the syllable division pattern: vccv, vcv, vcccv, or vv mascot _______ truant _______ rotate ________ instinct ______ monster ______ convoy ______

76 It is never too late to intervene…

77 Interventions Phonics Activities Letter/Sound Correspondence
Onset/Rime Word Study Syllable Patterns Morpheme Structures Alphabet Borders – Letter Recognition. Match picture cards to the border using initial sounds. Objective -The student will name and match letters of the alphabet. Materials - Set of alphabet bulletin board borders. Cut one alphabet border into individual alphabet cards. Leave one border uncut. Basket Place the cut border cards in the basket. Activity - Students match alphabet cards to an alphabet border. 1. Place the alphabet line border and border cards on a flat surface. 2. Working in pairs, student one holds up a card. 3. Student two identifies the card by letter name. 4. Student one matches the card to the letter on the alphabet border. 5. Complete the border and reverse roles. 6. Peer evaluation Alphabet Cereal Search - Make words with the cereal letters. Substitute magnetic letters (no glue) for cereal. Objective - The student will name and match letters of the alphabet. Materials - Alphabet cereal in paper cups or bags, Paper cups or bags, Place cereal in cups or bags. Letter grid student sheet (Activity Master P.006.SS), Glue, Paper, Pencils Activity - Students match and glue alphabet cereal to a letter grid. 1. Provide the student with a cup of cereal and a letter grid. 2. The student matches and glues the cereal letters to the letter grid. 3. Writes the matched letters on paper. 4. Teacher evaluation Letter Recognition Alphabet Cereal Sort P.006



80 Phonics Resources Archer, Gleason, Vachon, Isaaconson, Rewards Plus, Sopris West, 2005 Bloom, Traub. Recipe for Reading, Educators Publishing Service, Inc, 2002 Enfield, Greene, Project Read Phonic Guides, Language Circle, 2006 Fox, Phonics for the Teacher of Reading, Pearson,2005 Moats, Louisa, Spellography, Sopris West, 2003 Rudginsky, How to Teach Spelling, Educators Publishing Service, Inc, 2002 Vadasy, Wayne, O’Connor, Jenkins, Pool, Firebaugh, Peyton, Sound Partners, Sopris West, 2005 Starfall fabulous website teachers upper lower case letters and sounds. Then it has these little stories they are $.50 that go with the sound such as ZACK the RA. It has a quick time on chunking words. If they kids donts know a word while they are reading they click on the word and it will sound it out for them has a variety of activities including matching letters and what comes next. They also have a cute sign language activity where they show you a real picture of some signing a letter and you type the letter it is. It can be typed. There is a $10 annual fee to cover all activities.

81 Reading Fluency Reader’s Theatre

82 Reading Fluency - True/False
Students become fluent readers in 3rd grade. Rereading the same text will make you faster at reading everything. Fluency means reading with expression. Fluency means reading fast. Students need new things to read everyday to become fluent. Reading aloud to students is only good to 6th grade. Classroom teachers are the only ones who should read aloud to students. Reading easy text is a waste of time - students should be working on new words each time they read. Independent reading is a good instructional technique. All of these are FALSE!!!!!!

83 Fluency Instruction Fluency is the ability to read text accurately, quickly and with expression. Fluent readers: Read aloud with little effort, and naturally as if they were speaking Do not have to focus on decoding words Recognize words and comprehend at the same time Make connections with the text

84 Fluency Develops Gradually
Children’s oral reading is slower in early stages of reading development because they are learning how to combine sounds and letters to make words Children must learn to break up text they are reading into meaningful chunks in order to read with expression. Fluency changes depending on the type of text being read and how familiar the words and topic is to the student.

85 Instructional Approaches
Activities for Repeated Reading: Student-adult reading Choral reading Tape-assisted reading Partner reading Reader’s Theater Children’s oral reading is slower in early stages of reading development because they are learning how to combine sounds and letters to make words Children must learn to break up text they are reading into meaningful chunks in order to read with expression. Fluency changes depending on the type of text being read and how familiar the words and topic is to the student.

86 Prosody Rhythm Intonation Expression Phrasing
ABCD? EFG. HI? JKL. MN! OPQ. RST? UV! WX. YZ! Prosody includes rhythm, intonation, expression and phrasing. ACTIVITY: A set of alphabet letters with punctuation is provided for practice reading with expression. You may want to model and then ask participants to join you. Participants may be hesitant to participate and you may need to encourage the group. A second set of letters illustrates another way these letters can be used to demonstrate prosody. Ask participants (or a group) to read this set with expression. Ask participants to discuss how the second set differs from the first. One other activity would be to put emotions on cards and let participants choose a card reading the above letters with that emotion or giving other sentences for them to read with emotion. AB. CDE? FG! HIJK. LMNO. P! QRS, TUV. W, X, Y, Z!

87 Interventions Fluency Activities
“Fluency development requires intentional well-designed practice." “The most effective practices involve repeated reading of letters, words, phrases and text.” (Birsh, 2005 p.248) Fluency Activities Repeated Oral Readings Automaticity: letters, sounds and words Letter naming is now considered “letter reading”. 2005 FCRR F.024 Oral Reading Express It! Objective The student will model reading with proper phrasing, intonation, and expression. Materials Set of sentences (Activity Master F.024.AM1a - F.024.AM1c) Copy on card stock, laminate, and cut apart. Activity Students read sentences with expression. 1. Place the set of sentences at the center. 2. Working in pairs, student one selects and orally reads the sentence with expression. 3. Student two then repeats the sentence back to student one. 4. Continue until all sentences have been read. 5. Reverse roles and repeat the activity. 6. Peer evaluation Fluency Extensions and Adaptations Read the sentences together. Use longer sentences or passages. Write other sentences to read.


89 Fluency Video - Shared Reading

90 Fluency Resources Real Deals, Jamestown Press
The Fluent Reader, by Timothy Rasinski (Scholastic) Soliloquy Learning Benchmark Education. Comprehensive set of scripts for students K-5. A Reader’s Theatre Treasure of Stories, by Win Braun (Calgary: Braun & Braun, 2000). Presenting Reader’s Theatre, by Caroline Feller Bauer (H. W. Wilson, 1991) Reader’s Theatre for Beginning Readers, by Suzanne Barchers (Teachers Ideas Press, 1993) The Best of Reader’s Theater, Vols. I and II, by Lisa Blau (One from the Heart, 2000) From Script to Stage (22 readers theater scripts from first grade through junior high school by Aaron Shepherd. Quick Reads, Modern Curriculum Press(Pearson Learning Group) Read 180, Scholastic Educational Materials Reader’s Theatre, Benchmark Education Time for Kids, Teacher Created Materials Real Deals, Jamestown Press LeapPad and LeapMat, Leapfrog Read Naturally, The Fluency Company Fluency First, Wright Group

91 Vocabulary (NRP) Themes or general categories of effective vocabulary instruction direct and indirect instruction multiple exposures to the words learning opportunities in different contexts tasks restructured for better comprehension when necessary active engagement of the students computer programs can be used as an alternative to teacher instruction in vocabulary lessons vocabulary is also learned through incidental learning The NRP concluded that using only one method of instruction in vocabulary is not as effective as a combination approach. Unlike the other areas, vocabulary did not have specific strategies or techniques highlighted by the NRP, but rather general categories were presented. They also found that a combination approach was more effective than using only one of the strategies listed below. To review from the K-3 academies, the Themes or general categories of effective vocabulary instruction direct and indirect instruction multiple exposures to the words learning opportunities in different contexts tasks restructured for better comprehension when necessary active engagement of the students computer programs can be used as an alternative to teacher instruction in vocabulary lessons vocabulary is also learned through incidental learning

92 Vocabulary Instruction
Vocabulary refers to the words we must know to effectively communicate Types of vocabulary: Listening- words needed to understand what we hear Speaking- words used when speaking Reading- words needed to understand what we read Writing- words used in writing

93 Vocabulary Did you know…Children learn, on average, 3,000 new words a year with approximately 45,000 words known by the end of 12th grade? (Nagy & Anderson, 1984) Three strategies for improving vocabulary: 1. Improve student’s overall reading skills 2. Read aloud to them 3. Direct instruction of vocabulary using a variety of strategies i.e. mapping, semantic feature analysis, variety of activities with small group of words Biemiller (pronounced Bee-miller) tells us to select about 7 words per storybook. Then to read the book to our students without stopping to explain or discuss the words unless a word or two are absolutely essential to understanding the story. Then he suggests teachers reread the book aloud immediately the same day and stop and explain the chosen words with one or two sentences (child-friendly, of course).

94 Vocabulary Instruction
Research says… Most vocabulary is learned indirectly, but some must be directly taught. Indirect Learning Direct Learning Conversations Being read to Reading independently Explicitly taught words and word-learning strategies

95 Direct Vocabulary Instruction
Specific Word Instruction Example: Before beginning a book/story, the teacher may: Choose a word or words and discuss the concept Read the sentence from the story that contains the word and have students try to determine the meaning from context Ask students to use the words in their own original sentences Use graphic organizers to look at the various aspects of a word

96 Direct Vocabulary Instruction
Word learning Strategies Teachers may teach students: How to use dictionaries, glossaries, or thesauruses Meanings of common prefixes, suffixes, base words, and root words How to locate context clues (definitions, descriptions, examples, synonyms etc.)

97 Framework for “Text Talk” to teach vocabulary
Contextualize the word within the text just read Provide definitional information through a friendly explanation Provide an example beyond the text context so students can immediately begin to decontextualize the word Present a way for students to interact with the word to initiate building connections to their own experiences (Beck & McKeown, 2006) These points come in one at a time allowing the trainer to go over the framework for Text Talk. Activities follow on decontextualizing vocabulary for students Research shows teachers need to provide vocabulary instruction that includes both definitional and contextual information about their words, multiple exposures in context, and activities that require deep processing. The need is to provide a sufficient number and variety of exposures to allow decontextualization to occur. A wealth of experiences is needed to allow the learner to build a network of meaningful connections that can assist access and production of the word. The following slides discuss how to pick words and activities to do with the words after child-friendly definitions are given.

98 Now You Try – Check the appropriate category
Word Know well- can explain it Know something about it Have seen or heard the word Do not know the word superfluous pusillanimous obstreperous Handout: PPt handouts for Vocabulary and Comprehension superfluous – excessive; more than necessary Pusillanimous – (pyoo si lan i mus)- lacking courage; faint-hearted; timid Obstreperous – resisting control or restraint in a difficult manner; noisy or boisterous such as obstreperous children

99 How Do I Choose Words? Instruction should Focus on three types of words: Important: necessary for understanding concept or the text Useful: words that students will encounter over and over Difficult: words with multiple meanings, idioms, etc.

100 Selecting Words For Vocabulary From Books Read to or by Students
Tier 1 Words Tier 2 Words Tier 3 Words easy words, high words for mature not used often ; frequency, language users; special to certain meaning known useful in a variety of content subjects by everyone situations catch, benevolent, isotope, lathe, The ideas here apply to selecting vocabulary for study whether the students are begin read-to or are older students reading books for themselves. It is the Tier 2 words that we should select for our study of vocabulary, because they will be useful in a variety of context. The Tier 1 words are already known. The Tier 3 words are more limited in use although many may be studied as certain content subjects are taught. sinister, when, believe tsunami essential, endure Beck, McKeown & Kucan, 2002

101 Decontextualize Vocabulary: Questions, Reasons, And Examples
If you are traveling down the road and pass a state patrol officer you need to do drive cautiously. Why? What are some other things that need to be done cautiously? What is something you can do to impress your mother? Why? What is something that you might do to impress your best friend? Which of these things might be extraordinary? Why or why not? All children coming to school reading? Students turning in their homework every day? These next slides will all review activities for decontextualizing vocabulary. They are all showed here but teachers would only pick one or two to do with vocabulary words. Participants will choose one or two of these activities at the end of all these slides in a culminating activity using children’s books. These activities are found in Bringing Words to Life. Note that the teacher has already directly taught the word meaning, now the questions and examples set up a context for the students, but require them to elaborate on the context or explain why the example fits the word being learned. Thus the students are actively engaged rather than passively copying definitions for words. Activity: Have participants develop one of these activities with one of the words they have chosen

102 Interventions Vocabulary Activities Words in Context Word Meaning
Word Knowledge Word Structure 2005 FCRR Synonym Spider V.021 Vocabulary Objective The student will identify synonyms. Materials Synonym Spider (Activity Master V.021.AM1) Copy on card stock, laminate, and cut. Spider student sheet (Activity Master V.021.SS) Pencils Glue Scissors Activity Students match synonyms by placing pairs on spider shape. 1. Place the spider, glue, and scissors at the center. Provide the student with a student sheet. 2. Taking turns, student one selects a spider leg, reads the word, and places it on the right side of the spider. 3. Student two selects a word card, reads the word, and looks on the spider for a synonym. If a synonym is found, places it across from the match on the left side of the spider. If there is not a synonym, places it on the right side of the spider. 4. Reverse roles and continue the activity. 5. Use the student sheet to make a spider. Write the synonyms on the spider legs. 6. Teacher evaluation Extensions and Adaptations Write other synonyms or antonyms (Activity Master V.021.SS). Use words to write a synonym poem. Word Knowledge


104 Vocabulary Resources Marcia Henry,Unlocking Literacy: Effective Decoding and Spelling Instruction, Brooks Publishing, 2003 Beck, M. McKeown, & L. Kucan. Bringing Words to Life The Guilford Press, NY, 2002 Ebbers, Vocabulary Through Morphemes, Sopris West, 2004 Blachowicz, Fisher, Teaching Vocabulary in All Classrooms, Pearson, 2006 Estes, Larrick, Wordbuild, Dynamic Literacy, 2007 Moore, Moore, Latin and Greek Origins, McGraw Hill,1996

105 Comprehension (NRP) 7 Strategies were found to be effective:
Comprehension monitoring Cooperative learning Graphic organizers Question answering Question generating Story structure Summarizing Multiple Strategy Instruction (combination of 2 or more strategies) Like vocabulary, in summarizing comprehension the NRP listed several strategies that were found to be effective and again pointed out that a combination of 2 or more of these strategies was more effective than a single strategy alone. Again, to review from the K-3 academies, the 7 Strategies that were found to be effective: were Comprehension monitoring Cooperative learning Graphic organizers Question answering Question generating Story structure Summarizing

106 Effective Comprehension Instruction
Effective comprehension instruction should include: Direct teaching of strategies Modeling appropriate use of strategies Providing guided practice using strategies Allowing for independent practice of strategies Reasons for comprehension difficulties: Language problems Cognitive processing deficits Lack of knowledge of text structures Lack of mastery of skills – word recognition and/or fluency

107 Generating Questions By generating their own questions, children have to process what they are reading Children can be taught to generate questions about: Main idea Character motives Story details Connections to the story

108 Summarizing In summarizing students are expected to pull out the important information and retell it in their own words. Instruction should focus on: Identifying main ideas Connecting ideas Differentiating between important and unnecessary information

109 Interventions Comprehension Activities -Sentence Structure and Meaning
-Story Structure Monitoring for Meaning Main Idea/Summarizing Comprehension 2005 FCRR Monitoring for Meaning Expository Fact Strip Objective The student will identify information in text using a graphic organizer. Materials Expository text Choose text within students’ instructional-independent reading level range or teacher read-aloud. 12” x 18” construction paper Cut paper in half lengthwise to make 6” x 18” strips. Fold into desired number of sections. Markers or crayons Pencils Activity Students make connections in text by writing and/or drawing facts. 1. Place text, construction paper, and markers at the center. 2. The student reads the text or reviews a teacher read-aloud. 3. Identifies the important facts in the text. 4. In the first square on the sectioned paper writes the topic. In the following squares, writes facts from the text and/or draws pictures of the facts. 5. Teacher evaluation Monitoring for Meaning Expository Fact Strip C.020 Extensions and Adaptations Use Fact Graphic Organizer to record the facts (Activity Master C.020.SS). Comprehension Monitoring for Meaning Fact v Opinion p. Co21 Objective The student will identify fact and opinion. Materials Fact and Opinion cards (Activity Master C.021.AM1a - C.021.AM1b) Copy, laminate, and cut out. Pocket chart Label one side of the pocket chart with the “Fact” card and the other side with the “Opinion" card. Activity Students read statement cards and determine if the statement is fact or opinion. 1. Place the pocket chart at the center. Label one side of the pocket chart with the "Fact" card and the other side with the "Opinion" card. Shuffle the fact and opinion cards into one stack and place beside the pocket chart. 2. Working in pairs, student one selects and reads a card. 3. Student two determines if the statement on the card is fact or opinion and places the card under the appropriate heading. 4. Reverse roles and continue the activity until all the cards are identified. 5. Peer evaluation Extensions and Adaptations Make other fact and opinion cards, exchange, and identify.

110 The Red Dress She went looking for a red dress. She saw a red dress that cost eighty dollars. She did not bring that much money with her. I did not have the money to loan her. So, she went to the next shop. She saw a nice dress. It looked almost the same as the first dress. It did not cost as much. It was only fifty dollars. She saved thirty dollars. So, she got out her cash and the dress was hers. They put it in a bag, we left the shop. Great Leaps by Kenneth U. Campbell, 1996, p.64 Demonstrate visualization strategy for comprehension. Use blank poster paper. You read one or two sentences at a time and then ask audience to tell you what to draw. You draw pictures in sequence. After all pictures are drawn. Blacken the screen and have them retell the story from the pictures only. Explain we need to directly teach students how to visualize what they read and this is a great strategy. Move students to using more and more text and drawing on their own.

111 Reading Comprehension-Reciprocal Teaching

112 Comprehension Resources
Developing Metacognitive Skills: Vocabulary and Reading Comprehension. Neuhaus Education Center, Improving Reading Comprehension: Research-Based Principles and Practices (2002) by J. Carlisle & M. Rice. York Press, Baltimore, MD. “Reading Next: A Vision for Action and Research in Middle and High School Literacy” (2004) by C. Snow & G. Biancaruso. Can be downloaded from: or ordered from 1201 Connecticut Ave, NW, Suite 910, Washington, DC, 20036 Vocabulary Instruction, Research to Practice (2004) by J.F. Baumann & E.J. Kame’enui. The Guilford Press, NY. “Vocabulary and the Child with Learning Disabilities” Perspectives, Winter, Published by the International Dyslexia Association. Copies may be ordered online at

113 Writing

114 Writing

115 Struggling Readers = Struggling Writers
Poor readers tend to be poor spellers Deficit in phonological awareness skills Poor PA skills makes memory of letter patterns difficult Cannot deal with several layers of language because no layer is automatic Improvement in reading often faster than improvement in spelling (Moats, 1996)

116 Why is Spelling More Difficult than Reading?
Reading requires recognition of words. Spelling requires complete and accurate recall of letter patterns. (Moats, 1996)

117 Writing Linked to Reading
Writing to Read is a new Carnegie Corporation report published by the Alliance for Excellent Education which finds that while reading and writing are closely connected, writing is an often-overlooked tool for improving reading skills and content learning. Writing to Read identifies three core instructional practices that have been shown to be effective in improving student reading: having students write about the content-area texts they have read teaching students the writing skills and processes that go into creating text increasing the amount of writing students do. (Graham, S., and Hebert, M.A.(2010). Writing to read: Evidence for how writing can improve reading. A Carnegie Corporation Time to Act Report. Washington, DC: Alliance for Excellent Education.)

118 How Do We Measure Writing?
AIMSweb Curriculum Based Measures: Writing Spelling Written Expression: Group or individual administration Student given a story starter 1 minute to think and 3 minutes to write story

119 Story Starter Examples
Story Starters Cross-Age Suitable for All Benchmark Grades 1. I couldn’t fall asleep in my tent. I heard this noise outside and … 2. My father sold his store last year and my whole family … 3. All during the day I was nervous. I ran home at 3:00. When I got home …

120 How is it Scored? Correct Writing Sequences
A correct writing sequence refers to two adjacent writing units (word/word or word/punctuation) that are acceptable within the context of what is written. The term “acceptable” means that the writing sequence is syntactically and semantically correct.

121 Correct Writing Sequences

122 Comparing Writing using CBM
Compared to

123 Spelling AIMSweb Spelling Curriculum Based Measurement


125 Writing/Spelling Interventions
Handouts included in manual May be used with direct instruction at Tiers I, II, and III of RTI with progress monitoring using: Correct Writing Sequences (CWS) Words Spelled Correctly (WSC) Total Written Words (TWW) Or Spelling Curriculum Based Measurement

126 NC Public Schools Mission
Our ultimate goal is for all students in North Carolina to graduate prepared for work, education, and success in the 21st century. (NC DPI) Teaching students to read is important to you. Being able to read is extremely valuable to the student. The ability to read is vital to the adult that student will become. An inability to read is the number one indicator of poverty in this country! Why!



129 Resources available FREE to everyone
Three documents related to this presentation are available at Complete report Executive summary for complete report “Principal’s guide to intensive interventions for struggling readers in Reading First schools” To download a guidance document on differentiated reading instruction: small group alternative lesson structures, go to To download a guidance document on Academic Literacy Instruction for Adolescents, go to To download answers to frequently asked questions regarding reading instruction, go to

130 Resources Good & Kaminski: DIBELS Gary Germann and Mark Shinn AIMSWEB ; James Wright Vaughn-Gross Reading Center

131 Websites For Program Information
or The sites for language – one goes to 3rd ed. and the Sopris West site has a link for Language! 2nd

132 Sample Websites

133 References Armbruster, B., Lehr, F. & Osborn, J. (2003) Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Center for the Improvement of Early Reading Achievement funded by National Institute for Literacy. Beck, I.L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2002). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instructions, New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Birsh, J.R. ,ed. (2005). Multisensory teaching of basic language skills, 2nd ed. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Birsh, J.R. & Carreker, S. (2005) Multisensory Teaching of Basic Language Skills Activity Book. Baltimore, MD: Paul H. Brooks Publishing Co. Bursuck, W. & Damer, M. (2007). Reading Instruction for Students Who are At Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston: Pearson. Buehl, Doug (2004). Classroom Strategies for Interactive Learning. International Reading Association. Burns, Darci. Leading Literacy Change(2008) NC IDA Conference. Hanson Initiative for Language & Literacy (HILL)

134 References Campbell, K.U. (1996). Great leaps reading program: Grades 5 – 9 Middle/Jr. High School, 3rd ed. Micanopy, FL: Diarmuid, Inc Crawford, E. & Torgesen, J. (2007). Teaching all students to read: Practices from Reading First schools with strong intervention outcomes. Summary Document (complete report available at Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Greene, J.F. (1997) Sounds and Letters for Readers and Spellers. Longmont, Colorado: Sopris West Educational Services Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Teacher resource guide. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education. Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Resource guide glossary of terms. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education. Florida Center for Reading Research (FCRR). (2005). Teacher resource guide Part 2. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Department of Education.

135 References Hall, S. (2006). I’ve DIBEL’d now what? Designing interventions with DIBELS data. Longmont, CO: Sopris West. Hanson Initiative for Language & Literacy (HILL) MGH Institute of Health Professions Murphy, J., (2004) Leadership for Literacy: Research-based Practice, Pre- K3,Corwin Press, CA. (25-27) RAND Reading Study Group (2002). Reading for understanding: Toward a research and development program in reading comprehension. http// Stahl, K & Mckenna, M. (2006) Reading Research at Work. New York, NY: The Guilford Press. Torgesen, J. (2007). A principal’s guide to intensive reading interventions for struggling readers in Reading First schools. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Torgesen, J. (2006). Research Corner: Successful interventions always increase the intensity of instruction. Tallahassee, FL: Florida Center for Reading Research. Newsletter. (Oct p 2-4).

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