Presentation on theme: "A Different Mirror Chapter 1 and excerpts of Chapter 4"— Presentation transcript:
1A Different Mirror Chapter 1 and excerpts of Chapter 4 For: Dr. Linda Purrington and ELA CohortFrom: Ruth Nichols, Marisela Richardson,Greg Sheppard, and Thelma Stevenson.March 12, 2005
2Norfolk Convention Center in Virginia What is an American?Ronald Takaki on his way to Norfolk, Virginia to attend a conference on multiculturalism.In the cab, he had a brief conversation with the driver.Norfolk Convention Center in Virginia
3The cab driver asks Ronald Takaki: “How long have you been is this country?” Ronald Takaki responds, “All my life. I was born in the United States, my family came from Japan in the 1880s.”In a strong southern drawl, the cab driver remarks, “I was wondering because your English is excellent!”At this point, Ronald Takaki was reminded of how important it was to be attending the conference on multiculturalism.Somehow Ronald Takaki did not look “American” to the cab driver. Suddenly, they both became uncomfortably conscience of the racial divide that separated them.
4Race in America Toni Morrison – Race has functioned as a metaphor necessary for the construction of “Americanness”.In the creation of our national identify, American has been defined as white, with based on a Eurocentric culture.Currently, one-third of Americans do not trace their origins to Europe.
5Racism and FearCollective fear stimulates herd instinct, and tends to produce ferocity toward those who are not regarded as members of the herd. Bertrand RussellFact During World II, Japanese Americans were interned. German and Italian Americans were not. Why?In Hawaii, 1,444 Japanese were interned. Japanese Americans were a large part of the population of Hawaii. Large scale internment would disrupt the economy. p. 379
6A Brief History of the United States of America An excerpt from Michael Moore’s“Bowling for Columbine”The clip emphasizes that fear often motivates racism, injustice, and hatredThe clips you will see are intended to challenge your preconceptions and beliefsJust as books such as The Culturally Proficient School by Randall Lindsey and A Different Mirror by Ronald Takaki inform and challenge usThe next slide has a review from praize.com, a Christian website
7A Review “Bowling for Columbine” From praize.com, a Christian Website.Michael Moore holds up a mirror to American culture.The mirror shows us a lot about ourselves that we may be surprised to see, even though we know it's there.Moore has masterfully blended various elements of our culture into this picture. It is enough wild ride to qualify as entertainment. But it is important because it forces us to look at our culture and see some of the serious flaws that lead to tragedies.
8A Brief History of the United States of America On line version of video clip
10Before Columbus: Vineland Thorvald Ericksson son of Erik the Red, Vikings sail from Greenland to the New World A.D.First Europeans settled in the New WorldNorwegian missionaries arrived in 1721 to find ruins of farms and churchesVikings were unacknowledged until the 1960s
11The Racialization of Savagery The Indians of Massachusetts BayNative perception of the strangers (p. 24)Manitto - “God”Mannittowock - “They are Gods”
12The Racialization of Savagery Crucial timing for the performance of The Tempest (p. 26)“Savage Irish, our enemies”Atrocities against families (p. 27)God-given responsibilities
13English Expansionism Irish and Americans had parallels (p, 28) Savagery Irish/IndianKidnappings of natives (p. 30)Aristotle’s Doctrine – Natural slaves (p. 32)
14English SettlementPossibility for Friendship and interdependence (p. 33)Governor Thomas Gates - Forced labor of natives to serve the colonists (p. 34)Invasion and possession of lands - Chief PowhatanGreat Migration (p. 35)Competition for agricultural land (p. 36)Natives had a highly developed agricultural system (p. 38)
15Puritan Possession Facilitated by unseen pathogens (p. 39) Two significant eventsInfected rats from Samuel de Champlain's shipsShipwrecked infected French sailors on New England Beachintroduction of small pox
16The Will of God“Every man in the colony has a duty to bring the savage Indians to “civil and Christian” government.”Virginia Promotional 1606“For it pleased God to visit these Indains with a great sickness and such a mortality that of a thousand, above nine and a half hundred of them died …”“God has pushed the Pequots into a “Fiery Oven,” filling the place with dead bodies.”Commander John Mason 1637
17What Happened in America In VirginiaIndian savagery was view as largely culturalIn New EnglandIndian Savagery was view as Racialized(p. 44)
18Native Prespective “These English have gotten our land…” “So we must be one as they are otherwise we shall be gone shortly…”“We plainly see that their chiefest desire is to deprive us of the privilege of our land, and drive us off in utter ruin”
19JeffersonProclaimed friendship then advocated the removal and the destruction of hostile Indians (p. 47)Stated they were victims of their own culture (p. 47)Factors Jefferson did not consider:Dissemination of the game, for fur tradeIntroduction of unfamiliar diseaseThe appropriation of their landBrutal warfare waged against them
20Jefferson Land DealsFirst, encourage Natives to abandon hunting to take up agricultureSecond, sell more manufactured good to the nativesRun them into debt to create financial ruinForced sale of landIf you love the land in which your were born… (p. 49)
22“The presence of Africans in America becomes a reality, but how they came to be enslaved and numerous has been largely “hidden” from our understanding of the making of a multicultural America” (Takaki, p. 52).
23What is “the giddy multitude”? A discontented class of indentured servants, slaves, and landless freemen, both white and black
24The color of their skin? Black White Purity Deeply stained with dirt InnocenceGoodnessDeeply stained with dirtFoulDark or deadlyMalignantSinisterWicked
25Beliefs of English Settlers about Africans BrutishBelonging to vile racePeople of beastly livingLiving without god, law, religionColor of skin – “the devil’s incarnate”
26Similarities (Slaves/Indentured Servants) Common social spaceClass exploitation/abuseIron collars around necksBeaten/torturedRequired to have passes to leave plantationsHard workCame involuntarily
27Differences Reduced to property Required to work without pay SlavesIndentured ServantsReduced to propertyRequired to work without payMostly white = 75%Service of 4-7 yearsWork to repay expenses of their passageResponsible for production and improvements
28Bacon’s RebellionNathaniel Bacon sought to protect settlers against the IndiansEnlisted the giddy multitude/militiaEliminate foe/redirect the white lower class’s angerKilled Indians/”glorious” defense of the countryCharged with treason500 men to Jamestown/burned it downBlacks joined him in hopes of being freed from their slaveryThe largest rebellion known before the American RevolutionFive years later still worried about class structure
29Two Laws Slavery De Jure The Law of 1691 No race mixing White mothers of interracial children fined fifteen pounds; child in servitude 30 yearsMake mullato slaves stigmatize them as blackDenied free blacks the right to vote; hold office; testify in courtVirginia “elite” allowed poor whites to abuse blacksBlacks owning any livestock seized, profits given to the poorIn exchange for white men enlisting in the American Revolution –awarded 300 acres and a slave between the ages of 10-30Laws for punishing slavesBlack population increasesTurn to slavery significant (after Bacon’s rebellion)Planters did not recruit white servantsAcreage/slaves given to poor whitesAfrican slaves work without pay/cheaper than Indian and white servants
30Thomas Jefferson’s Beliefs Worried about class tensionsOwned slaves, thought it was good for economyBy 1822, owned 267 slavesCapable of cruel punishment for slavesJames HubbardFelt guilty about owning slavesLetters to brother/friendsSlavery abolished/remove blacks from American societyDeport future generations/infants trained and later sent awayBlacks and whites could never coexistColor of skin/”inferior” raceMet opposition from African AmericansPhyllis WheatleyBenjamin BannekerConcerned of race mixing/race wars“Wolf by the ears” p. 76
32OverviewWorld War II, with German Nazism and Aryan racial supremacy, forced Americans to look at racism within their own society.Americans must stand before the whole world in support of racial tolerance and equality.
33Franklin Roosevelt America stood for the four freedoms: freedom of speechfreedom of worshipfreedom from wantfreedom from fear“Americanism is not, and never was, a matter of race or ancestry.”
34On the eve of World War II Asian immigrants were still excluded from citizenship, and in many states they were unable to own landMexican immigrants were pushed from welfare rolls and targeted for deportation.Indians were confined to reservations where they were governed by federal regulations.In the North, African Americans were restricted to reservations (ghettos), and in the South were trapped in the system of peonage – sharecropping.
35Revolution from within Stop denying our wholeness as members of humanity as well as one nationAs Americans, we originally came from many different shores and our diversity has been at the center of the making of AmericaTo become visible is to see ourselves and each other in a different mirror of history
36Teaching Cultural Tolerance The Caring School Community Program features collaborative, non-competitive activities which promote helpfulness, inclusiveness, responsibility, service learning, and academic growth throughout the school. Buddy Programs feature relationship building and collaborative learning activities involving younger and older students working together on activities.Have students make friendship or remembrance bracelets which can be exchanged or worn within a school to show solidarity during a crisis or sent to students in another school.Study circles provide small-group, democratic, peer-led discussions which are a simple way to involve students in dialogue and action on important social and political issues.“The Believing Game” is designed to introduce perspective taking through role playing and simulations. As students make decisions and face problems from another's perspective, they may experience feelings similar to those felt by an individual or group faced with the same circumstances.Incorporate multicultural education into your student's daily studies.Judie Haynes,
37Culturally proficient leaders Question your assumptions and change your attitudeRedefine your purposeCommit to facing difficult sociocultural problems …not easy, but tackle itEngage others in facing the challengeSupport others in questioning values, changing perspectives, developing new ways of behaving
38A Different Mirror Credits: Ruth Nichols, Marisela Richardson, Greg Sheppard, and Thelma Stevenson.March 12, 2005Questions to ConsiderWhat is the cultural proficiency of your school? How do you measure it ? What actions can you take to increase the cultural proficieny of your school?