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Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) DUCTILIS PROJECT FLEXIBILITY (Netfor meeting in Paris 24-25-26/03/2004)

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Presentation on theme: "Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) DUCTILIS PROJECT FLEXIBILITY (Netfor meeting in Paris 24-25-26/03/2004)"— Presentation transcript:

1 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) DUCTILIS PROJECT FLEXIBILITY (Netfor meeting in Paris /03/2004)

2 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Sources Flexibility and Working Conditions: A Qualitative and Comparative Study in Seven EU Member States A. Goudswaard, TNO Work & Employment, Netherlands M. de Nanteuil, EFIWLC, Dublin, Ireland. European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions Communication de la Commission Amélioration de la qualité de l’emploi: un examen des derniers progrès accomplis

3 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Sources Employment in Europe 2003 Employment and European Social Found - European Commission - Directorate-General for Employment and Social Affairs Employment Status and Working Conditions European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions - Anneke Goudswaard e Frank Andries Flexibility and Working Conditions: A Qualitative and Comparative Study in Seven EU Member States European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions - Anneke Goudswaard e M. de Nanteuil

4 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Sources Le travail interimaire dans l’Union Europeenne European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions - Donald Storrie Flexibility and Social Protection European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions - Pascale Vielle e Pierre Walthery Economically dependent / quasi-subordinate (parasubordinate) employment: legal, social and economic aspects European Commission > Employment and Social Affairs - Adalberto Perulli

5 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Sources Developing new forms of work organisation: the role of the main actors The Work Institute The Nottingham Trent University, United Kingdom - Peter Totterdill Sources of Innovation and Competitiveness: National Programmes Supporting the Development of Work Organisation Report to DG Employment and Social Affairs - Peter Brödner and Erich Latniak (Institute for Work and Technology, Gelsenkirchen)

6 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Sources “ New Forms of Work Organisation: The Obstacles to Wider Diffusion” - FINAL REPORT European Commission - DG Employment and Social Affairs The Existing Policy Framework to Promote Modernisation of Work: Its Weaknesses Centre for Working Life Research Kingston Business School Kingston University - Richard Ennals

7 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) USEFUL WEBSITES “Europa” site - The European Union On Line (available in all European languages, for the document entitled Employment in Europe 2003) Website of the “European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions”, for the other documents examined

8 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Concepts employment status, which consists of two dimensions: the type of employment contract (permanent, non-permanent or self-employed) and the duration of the contract (part-time versus full- time) Fonte: "Employment status and working conditions” - Anneke Goudswaard and Frank Andries, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

9 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Concepts working conditions, this concept also consists of two dimensions: conditions of work (the practical conditions under which people work and cope with a specific technical and organizational environment) and conditions of employment. (the rules and status under which people are employed, trained and/or paid.) Fonte: "Employment status and working conditions” - Anneke Goudswaard and Frank Andries, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

10 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Concepts intensification of work, this concepts refers to job demands (psycho-social job demands, such as working to tight deadlines and at high speed) and job control (that is control over the order of tasks, the method of work and the speed of work) Fonte: "Employment status and working conditions” - Anneke Goudswaard and Frank Andries, European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions

11 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) The reasons for flexible working conditions: market and company demands Employers’ policies are in search of ever increasing coherence between production rhythms and an increasingly competitive market. A flexible labour force makes it possible to put into practice concepts such as just- in-time production processes, rather than focusing on greater cost control The concept of competitiveness is linked to the high intensity of the labour force, to an increase in its productivity and containing staff costs (lowering labour costs)  Lead considerations to the need to compete through research, technology and quality, and not through an increase in the productivity of human resources

12 The reasons for flexible working conditions: government policies Government policies in the fight against unemployment, where certain benefits (e.g. minimum wage, unemployment benefits) can be provided only when forms of atypical employment are accepted. These initiatives are often provided for particular categories of workers (e.g. young people, the long- term jobless, workers with low levels of qualification) in order to facilitate their inclusion in or return to the jobs market. How this attitude can be reconciled with the Guidelines for the policies of Member States to promote employment

13 The reasons for flexible working conditions: time for life and time for work The tendency of workers who, as a result of the availability of alternative types of jobs, request increasing synchronisation between work schedules and those of their private lives. In this case it should be pointed out that, with the current division of roles between men and women, the percentage of women who take-up part-time or temporary jobs for family reasons is significantly higher than among men, and this holds true for any country taken into consideration It is essential to reflect on the problem of time for work and time for family, and on the tools that really can be implemented to ensure reconciliation. The first results of experiments carried out in EU countries already give us some indications about the validity or otherwise of the tools, so why are they ignored when drafting active employment policies?

14 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT)

15 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) Looking in the different studies, what are the causes end the effects of flexibility

16 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) 'Conditions of work' vs. 'conditions of employment': the double dimension of the 'working conditions' concept

17 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) PART-TIME From an analysis of the data it can be seen that part-time work is rarely the result of a free choice, but more due to difficulty in finding full-time work, so we might wonder: Why is it offered to women or to those who have problems reconciling their timetables as a form of flexibility to suit the lives and problems of the individual? Why is it offered as an instrument of active work policies in order to assist reconciliation of timetables?

18 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) PART-TIME CHART 28 CHART 29 CHART 30 CHART 99

19 Netfor - Transnational activities DUCTILIS (IT) TEMPORARY WORK An analysis of the data shows that temporary work: was introduced in order to promote integration into working life but it mainly involves workers who would otherwise have found work without resorting to temporary work (the weakest categories of the labour market are only marginally affected by temporary work --> so why is there all this talk of temporary work as an important means to combat unemployment? It creates greater labour mobility and lets companies a) outsource recruitment functions, b) cope with peaks without affecting the organisation (in terms of human resources and costs; this is because no pay increases are provided for seniority in temporary work and there are fewer social-security taxes)

20 What are the risks for temporary worker The risks of temporary work --> reduced salaries and worse working conditions than other forms of employment, due to: the insecurity of the workers (not just because of their economic problems, but also the difficulty they have in planning their professional, family and social lives) the fact that they have less independence than regular employees in terms of the tasks they have to carry out and the choice of their work timetable the obsolescence of knowledge (temping agencies are disinclined to pay to train workers, who often change place of work and function, while client companies have no interest in investing in human capital that is not internal) the negative consequences on the workers' social life, since they have to change their place of work periodically (it is generally impossible for temporary workers to build up good relationships with colleagues, working towards common objectives, seeing the results of their efforts and obtaining feedback from their colleagues)

21 Flexicurity What forms of social protection should governments provide to compensate for these consequences of flexibility? (For governments must deal with this new social phenomenon) Is it necessary to create new forms of work, guaranteeing a satisfactory level of security for the workers involved? Is anyone thinking about this? Is flexicurity a realistic concept? Cosa ne pensano le imprese? (Vedi Nord Est Italia)


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