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Protists By Vanessa A, Emily A, and Vanessa C.

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1 Protists By Vanessa A, Emily A, and Vanessa C

2 What Are Protists? -organisms that are not plants, animals, or fungi. -They share characteristics with the organisms in the other kingdoms but differ from them in some way. Therefore because they do not fit into one of the three Eukaryotic kingdoms, they are all put into the “everything else” which makes Kingdom Protista the most diverse kingdom. -The three groups of Protists are, Animal-Like, Plant-Like, and Fungus-Like

3 Fungus-like Protists By: Vanessa Corridore

4 What Are fungus Like Protists?
Fungus like protists are organisms that are similar to fungi. They live in wet damp environments Create Spores to reproduce Come in a variety of shapes and colours depending on the environment Slime Moulds can travel at a rate of 1/25 inch per hour

5 The Three types of fungus like protists
Plasmodial Slime Moulds: Phylum Myxomycota Cellular Slime Moulds: Phylum Acrasiomycota Water Moulds: Phylum Oomycota

6 Plasmodial Slime Moulds

7 Life Cycle: Stage 1: Large colourful Blob Stage 2: when food is scarce, the blob will separate into smaller blobs Stage3: They will form a reproductive stalk and produce spores Stage 4: These spores will eventually become new slime moulds. Type Of reproduction: Sexual Reproduction, and Asexual Reproduction producing Spores Habitat: Forests, dead/decaying waste and organisms, rotting piles of wood, composts, and thick wet lawns. They absorb nutrients from decaying waste and bacteria. General Physical Structure: External- Visible blob- like organism. Can look like slugs, Gooey or foamy Masses, and spilled Jelly. They may be bright orange, red, yellow, black, blue, or white. Internal- eukaryotic, single cellular, nuclei are generally Diploid, one big cell wall surrounds entire organism.

8 Cellular Slime Moulds

9 Life Cycle: Stage 1: spends most of its life as a amoeba-like cell Stage 2: When food is scarce, it will send out signals to attract members of the same species. They will then gather together and form a slug-like organism. Stage 3: This organism will then move to find food. When food is found it stops, absorbs nutrients, and produce asexual ``frutting bodies`` which develop spores Stage 4: each spore will germinate into single amoeba -like cells Type of Reproduction: Sexual and asexual Habitat and diet: Forests, Composts, Dead or decaying material. Their diet consists of bacteria, and fungi from their waste. General Physical Structure: External: amoeba-like cell in stage 1 and 4. Slug-like organism in stage 2 and 3. Colour and shape similar to plasmodial slime. Internal External: eukaryotic, nuclei are generally haploid, Spores produce haploid cells that fuse together during reproduction.

10 Water Moulds

11 Life Cycle: Stage 1: spends life absorbing nutrients from decaying waste Stage 2: creates spores to reproduce Stage 3: hyphae in the spore form sexual structures , eggs and sperm are produced Stage 4: fertilization occurs and creates more water mould Types of Reproduction: Sexually, and Asexually Habitat: Live on dead and decaying matter in with fresh water, upper layers of moist soil General Physical Structure: External: look like tiny threads with a hazy covering internal: eukaryotic, cells are diploid, Spores produce Haploid Cells few are parasites, most are decomposers

12 Fungus – Like Protists Vs Fungi
Similarities: Spores: small particles that allow the fungus-like Protists to reproduce, similar to a plant seed. Heterotrophs: cannot make their own food through photosynthesis, need to consume other organisms to survive. (Heterotroph by absorption) Differences: Cell Wall/membrane Composition: lack Chitin, have cellulose insted They can move! 1/25 inch per hour

13 Summary Type: Description Plasmodial Slime Moulds
Single cell organism with thousands of nuclei. Looks like a colourful blob(s), moves slowly like an amoeba Cellular Slime Moulds Single cell-like amoeba. Attracts other cells that gather together to form one large moving slug Water Moulds Single cell organism. Looks like white hair like strands on decaying aquatic waste

14 All Fungus- Like Protists
-produce Spores -Are Heterotrophs that absorb nutrients from decaying organisms -Can Move Have Cellulose in their cell walls -Live in damp wet environments such as forests, swamps, composts, and on dead or decaying organisms. -Diet consists of Bacteria and other microorganisms - Play an important role in many forest ecosystems by recycling and decomposing waste They reproduce both Sexually and Asexually Come in many different colours, shapes, sizes, and forms depending on their surrounding environment

15 PLANT-LIKE PROTISTS Plant Like-Protist Title Page By: Vanessa Agnelli

Mostly autotrophic Autotrophic: an organism that captures energy sunlight to produce it’s own food Get their nutrients by performing photosynthesis Live in the soil, on the barks of trees, in fresh water, and in salt water Usually reproduce asexually Release their eggs into their environment where the sperm will fertilize the egg I’m a protist! Brief Definition of Plant-Like Protists -> Autotrophs PROTOPHYTA First plants

17 Phytoplankton: a single-celled, free-floating aquatic
Phytoplankton: a single-celled, free-floating aquatic organism; a form of plant-like protist Growth depends on availability of carbon dioxide, sunlight, and nutrients Lifespan of an individual phytoplankton is rarely more than a few days Under the right conditions, phytoplankton populations can grow explosively  known as the “bloom”

18 Key terms: phytoplankton,

19 PIGMENTATION Phylum pheophyta Phylum rhodophyta Phylum chlorophyta
diatoms Phylum chlorophyta


21 DIATOMS Glass-like cell walls Very small
More than 100,000 different species of diatoms Used in nanotechnology b/c structure and size

22 DINOFLAGELLATES Reproduces very quickly  leads to “algae blooms”
Has two flagella at right angles to each other  organisms move by spinning through the water Can live in both marine and fresh-water environments However, dinoflagellates are not always harmful  ex. they benefit coral reefs Pigmentation Red tide: a coastal phenomenon in which dinoflagellates that contain red pigments are so concentrated that the seawater has a distinct red colour

23 EUGLENOIDS both autotrophs and heterotrophs  makes own food, through photosynthesis when there is enough sunlight but can consume and process nutrients when sunlight is not readily available have a light-detecting structure called an eyespot and uses it to orient themselves towards light dinoflagellates

24 Terms to know: Parasite, Pseudopod, Cilium, Flagellum
Animal-like Protists Terms to know: Parasite, Pseudopod, Cilium, Flagellum By Emily Anderson

25 Overview Also known as Protozoans
Animal-like protists are heterotrophs Many are parasitic Topics to Discuss: The Cercozoans The Ciliates The Flagellates The Sporozoans

26 The Cercozoans Phylum Cercozoa Can be free-living or parasitic
Found in soil, freshwater and marine habitats Well-known cercozoan is the ameoba Pseudopod (“false foot”) Helps with movement and feeding

27 The Ciliates Phylum Ciliphora Single-celled
Have short, hair-like projections called cilia Abundant in almost every environment with liquid water Can be seen by the unaided eye Have organelles that are parallel in function to the organs of multicellular creatures Only known human parasite is Balantidium coli (large intestines)

28 Paramecia Example of a ciliate Genus Paramecium Large and complex

29 The Flagellates Phylum Zoomastigina
Have one or more flagella (long hair-like projection) that whip from side to side to help it move Can be parasitic, free-living, or in mutualistic relationships Help organisms to digest their food

30 The Sporozoans Phylum Sporozoa Parasites of animals
Sexual and asexual reproduction Alternate between 2 hosts Spores (protective capsules) No cilia, no flagella, no pseudopods

31 Malaria Protists in the Genus Plasmodium cause malaria in humans
Transferred from mosquitos to humans

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