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TEN YEARS OF OER IN CHINA A Legal and Technical Perspective Dr. Stewart Cheifet University of Nevada, USA Creative Commons China Mainland.

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Presentation on theme: "TEN YEARS OF OER IN CHINA A Legal and Technical Perspective Dr. Stewart Cheifet University of Nevada, USA Creative Commons China Mainland."— Presentation transcript:

1 TEN YEARS OF OER IN CHINA A Legal and Technical Perspective Dr. Stewart Cheifet University of Nevada, USA Creative Commons China Mainland

2 WHY IS AN AMERICAN SPEAKING ABOUT OER IN CHINA? 1970 – NAEB Distance Learning K – PBS Telecourse Project for Colleges 2001 – Original Internet Host for MIT OCW 2004 – Consultant to CORE 2006 – Advisory Board of CC China Mainland

3 TEN YEARS OF OER IN CHINA I.General Background on OER in China II.Legal Issues for OER in China III.Technology Issues for OER in China IV.Review of Specific OER Projects V.Future Challenges for OER in China

4 General Background on OER in China

5 IMPORTANCE OF OER IN CHINA 209 million registered students in schools Strong institutional support – Ministry of Education – Ministry of Culture – Ministry of Science and Technology – Major Universities – Academic Institutes – Libraries – Non Governmental Organizations – China Open Resources for Education (CORE)

6 EVOLUTION OF OER IN CHINA “Open Education” initially referred to distance learning or education “without the limit of time and space” – 1995 MIT in the U.S. launches their OCW Project which redefined Open Educational Resources as Open Course Ware

7 THREE CATEGORIES OF OER CONTENT PROTECTION/OPENNESS 1.Educational Resources not protected by copyright laws – in the public domain. 2.Educational Resources protected by Copyright Laws but under provisions which allow for free use and/or re-use (e.g., Creative Commons licenses) 3.Educational Resources that are guaranteed for free public use by government policy

8 ACADEMIC RESEARCH INTEREST IN OER “Open Educational Resources” becomes a keyword in the China National Knowledge Infrastructure website “Open Educational Resources” is used as a keyword in online Chinese databases such as Chinese Journal Full Database (CJFD) “Open Educational Resources” is used in the title of research papers in CJFD “Open Educational Resources” is the subject of online research articles – 50 papers in 2009; 114 papers from

9 TOPICS OF INTEREST IN OER PAPERS Barriers to Open Education Operational Issues in OER Implementations Legal and Copyright Issues Need for Adequate ICT Support Pivotal Role of Open Internet Appropriate Technical Sharing Mechanisms Various OER Platform Models

10 HOW CHINA DEFINES OER Based on original definition from the Hewlett Foundation 1.“Teaching, learning and research resources in the public domain or released under licenses which allow free use and repurposing.” 2.“Full courses, course materials, textbooks, videos, tests, software or other educational tools, materials or techniques.”

11 REFINING DEFINITION OF OER IN CHINA Open – Free access to educational materials and the right to repurpose and adapt these materials for enhanced future use Education – For students, for teachers, and for those working on courseware content creation Resources – Not only actual course materials but also software, publishing tools, standards, licensing protocols, and content management platforms

12 HIGH LEVEL VIEW OF OER IN CHINA Expansion of OER Components – Developed by Professors Zhao Guodong and Jiang Zhongjiao at Peking University OER in China consists of five elements 1.Open access educational content 2.Open standards and protocols 3.Open source tools and software 4.Open source course management systems 5.Open sharing communities

13 Legal Issues for OER in China

14 LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO OER IN CHINA Three relevant legal documents affect the ability to open access and reuse of intellectual property in educational setting 1.Chinese Constitution 2.Copyright Laws of the PRC 3.Education Laws of the PRC

15 LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO OER IN CHINA The Constitution of the PRC 1.Specific references to supporting educational endeavors 2.Encouragement of education through independent study 3.Specific support of “the freedom to engage in scientific research, literary and artistic creation and other cultural pursuits”

16 LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO OER IN CHINA Copyright Laws of the PRC – Sources of Chinese intellectual property law are: 1.Copyright Law of the PRC 2.Regulation on the Protection of the Right to Disseminate Information 3.Regulation on Protection of Computer Software 4.International Treaties

17 LEGAL ISSUES RELATED TO OER IN CHINA Education Laws of the PRC 1.General Education Law 2.Vocational Education Law 3.Compulsory Education Law 4.Higher Education Law In general, Education Laws support OER concept but language is not clear on exactly what is allowed and what is not allowed – Special problems in defining OER rules related to digital and online educational materials

18 THE BALANCE OF LEGAL RIGHTS FOR THE OER COMMUNITY Content Creator versus the Content Consumer – What does “open” in OER really mean? – What are the rights of “free access”? – What are the rights of content creator? Failure to protect creators inhibits incentives for creativity Failure to protect consumers right to open access inhibits the transfer of knowledge

19 LEGAL APPROACHES TO SUPPORTING OER IN CHINA Educational Content & Copyright Laws – Many exceptions – “Short” works or “small quantity” of copyrighted works may be used without the author’s permission – “fair use” – Applicable to national education programs – Applicable to distance learning environments – Some payment may be required – standard not clear

20 LEGAL APPROACHES TO SUPPORTING OER IN CHINA The Creative Commons Solution – Alternative to traditional copyright law – Creative Commons licenses are in full compliance with Chinese law – Creators of OER content may apply a variety of CC licenses to their works – Chinese law protects private CC arrangements in support of OER

21 Technology Issues for OER in China

22 TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OER IN CHINA Successful Internet-based OER depends on adequate technology infrastructure – ICT (Information Communications Technology) In very large developing country like China, infrastructure support is uneven Result is OER focused in higher education and in the larger, formal school environment

23 TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OER IN CHINA Internet Development Statistics Report – 420 million regular Internet users in China in 2010 – Increase of almost 400% in five years – 110 million users in 2005 Internet User Penetration – 32% Internet penetration in 2010 – 8% Internet penetration in 2005

24 TECHNOLOGY INFRASTRUCTURE FOR OER IN CHINA Growth in Internet Content Creation – CN Domain Names in December million – CN Domain Names in June million – Growth rate of 8% in just six months! 30% of Internet users are students – Distribution of Internet Usage among Students 40 % high school 28 % junior high school 23 % college level 9 % elementary school

25 TECHNOLOGY CONTENT USAGE IN CHINA What do Chinese citizens use the Internet for? – Downloading Music 83% – Accessing News 80% – Using a Search Engine 76% – Instant Messaging 72% – Online Gaming 70% – Downloading or Streaming Video 63% – 56% – Education ???

26 ICT SUPPORT FOR OER IN COLLEGES & UNIVERSITIES Installations of Classroom Technologies – 2010 Survey of 257 Colleges & Universities Available Classroom TechnologyPercentage Network Connectivity76 % Computers in the Classroom67 % Video Projection System68 % TV Broadcasts Available27 % Interactive White Board27 % Teaching Feedback System (Clickers)24 % Automated Video Recording System28 %

27 ICT SUPPORT FOR OER IN UNIVERSITIES Adoption of Wireless Campus Network (Wi-Fi) – 2010 Survey of 257 Colleges & Universities Wi-Fi CapabilitiesPercentage Campus Wide Coverage10 % Partial Campus Coverage27 % Wireless Network Under Construction11 % Plans for Campus Wireless Network41 % No Wireless Network or Plan 8 % No Information Available 3 %

28 ICT SUPPORT FOR OER IN UNIVERSITIES Enterprise Resource Planning Tools (ERP) – Use of Resource Management Software Software Management ToolPercentage Use Library Management21 % Financial Management20 % Course Management19 % Student Management18 % Personnel Management15 % Online Course Selection4 % Scientific Research Management3 %

29 ICT SUPPORT FOR OER IN UNIVERSITIES Communication & Training Tools for Education – 2010 Survey of Colleges & Universities Available ToolsPercentage Service for Teachers & Staff18 % Network Access in Dormitories18 % ICT Training Available for Teachers15 % Courseware Website Design/Construction Services for Teachers15 % Courseware Design & Production Services for Teachers14 % Service for Students13 % Video Conferencing Systems7 %

30 ICT SUPPORT GROWTH FOR OER IN UNIVERSITIES Support and Promotion of OER Movement – Use of Various Open Educational Tools/Resources OER Tools and Resources Being UsedPercentage Use Various E-Learning Platforms54 % Open Courseware Specifically38 % Hybrid or Blended Learning Systems30 % Blogs24 % E-Portfolios22 % Wikis16 % Apple i-Tunes University7 %

31 ICT SUPPORT GROWTH FOR OER IN UNIVERSITIES Technology Specifically in Support of OER – Growth Over Past Five Years Use of Online Teaching Platforms Percentage 2005 Percentage 2010 Currently in Use33 %61 % Constructing System0 %32 % No Plans or No Response67 %7 %

32 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER All OER projects are in digital format Available via computer or online Require software tools for design, storage and publishing Four primary platforms in use for OER: 1.Open Courseware Web Sites at Universities 2.Open Course Management System Sites (CMS) 3.Open Video Courseware at Universities 4.Open Courseware Built on E-learning Solutions

33 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER 1. Independent Open Course Websites developed at Chinese Universities – Developed & maintained by individual teachers – Teachers needed ICT skills – Tools used such as FrontPage, Netscape Composer, Dreamweaver, Access Data Base

34 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER Often just PowerPoint slides on line Basic elements were: 1.Course Introduction 2.Teacher Details 3.Teaching Program or Syllabus 4.Online Forum 5.Experiments Handbook & Guide 6.Reference Materials Limitations of those tools were storage capacity and ability to easily update and share new information

35 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER 2. Open Course Websites Built on Course Management System (CMS) Software – Tools Used 1.Blackboard 2.Moodle 3.Sakai 4.Individually developed content management systems – Most common in large well-known universities – Used mostly by younger teachers – Openness seen as enhancing reputation/research – Main advantage: Fewer technology skills required

36 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER Common features of CMS based Courseware FunctionalityApplication CommunicationDiscussion forums, , chat, whiteboard ProductivityCalendar, bookmarks, reports, help Student InvolvementCollaboration, networking, portfolios Course DeliveryTests, grading, student data AdministrationAuthentication, authorization, registration Content DevelopmentDesign tools, sharing & reuse, course templates

37 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER 3. Open Video Courseware – Enabled by new video capture tools – Peking University innovator in video courseware – Popular Video Creation Tools 1.Adobe Connect Pro 2.Apple Podcast Producer 3.Echo 360 – Captures lectures audio/video and PowerPoints – Functionality enables easy online publishing – Accessible via computer or smart mobile devices – Use of video increases student learning motivation

38 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER 4. Open Courseware Designed with Rapid E-learning Tools – Newest platforms that simplify and speed up the process of open courseware content creation – Most common platforms 1.Raptivity Software 2.Adobe Captivate 3.Adobe Authorware 4.Articulate Rapid E-Learning Studio – Advantages are lower cost and ease of use

39 TECHNOLOGY PLATORMS IN CHINA SUPPORTING OER Features of common Rapid E-learning Tools ProductFunctionalityTechnical Capabilities Raptivity Software Pre-built templates, interactivity, easy design interface Exports in Flash, stand alone course or import into other courses Adobe Captivate Speedy course creation, interactivity, no programming skills needed Branching scenarios, online quizzes, enables software demonstrations Adobe Authorware Visual authoring tools, meets corporate training standards Supports rich media content integration Articulate Rapid E-learning Studio Presenter, Quizmaker, Engage, Video Encoder All components are integrated, navigation and assessment tools

40 Specific OER Projects in China

41 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA 1.Chinese Quality Course Project 2.China Open Resources for Education (CORE) 3.Educational Resources in the Public Domain 4.National Culture Information Resource Sharing 5.Science Data Sharing Project 6.Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies 7.China NGO Kong Bohua TCM School

42 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA 9.National Science Library Institutional Repository 10. Songshuhui Community 11. Xiamen University Institutional Repository 12. Qiji Scientific Literature Repository 13. Social Learning Lab Community 14. Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer 15. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering

43 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA ProjectMain Features 1. Chinese Quality Course Project (CQC) Based on MIT OCW Model US $ 7 million budget 6,500 courses completed 959 campuses using 2. China Open Resources for Education (CORE) Focus on adapting MIT OCW courses for China Translates MIT courses into Chinese language Also uses courses from Tufts, Utah State, Johns Hopkins 3. Educational Resources in the Public Domain Ancient Chinese texts digitized and made available online Large repository of out of copyright content More than 100 classical works now available

44 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA ProjectMain Features 4. National Cultural Information Resources Sharing (NCIRS) Project of the Ministry of Culture Focus is remote underserved rural areas Managed by public libraries Digitizes cultural content 28 provincial access centers 5. Science Data Sharing Project (SDSP) Gather scientific data from government and private science programs Establish 50 data sharing networks on various topics Energy, environment, medicine, IT, meteorology, earthquake engineering

45 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA Based on Creative Commons Licenses ProjectMain Features 6. Center for Contemporary Cultural Studies (CCCS) Focus on Chinese cultural studies News, reviews, courseware Articles in Chinese and English languages 7. China NGO 2.0 Develop social networking literacy Online training workshops Tools taught include RSS, blogs, micro-blogs, wikis, SEO 8. Kong Bohua TCM School Open courseware for training students in Traditional Chinese Medicine New comprehensive text available free online

46 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA Based on Creative Commons Licenses ProjectMain Features 9. National Science Library Institutional Repository (NSL-IR) Hosts scientific monographs Non-commercial use only Works can be downloaded, reused and repurposed Derivatives allowed only with permission 10. Songshuhui Community Popular science articles Professional editors Volunteer authors Helps authors negotiate terms for commercial use 11. Xiamen University Institutional Repository Serious academic works, journals, theses, scholarly presentations Provides domestic and international access

47 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA Based on Creative Commons Licenses ProjectMain Features 12. Qiji Scientific Literature Repository A Chinese Wikipedia for science subjects Focus on academic theses and research papers Now adding Chinese translations of foreign language content Only content contributor can make changes to posted articles 13. Social Learning Lab Community Focus on Internet technology and social media in particular Geared toward academic community and teaching methods and principles Runs a wiki for knowledge sharing

48 SPECIFIC OER PROJECTS IN CHINA Based on Creative Commons Licenses ProjectMain Features 14. Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer Academic online journal Published bimonthly Covers original laboratory research and clinical investigations Covers prevention, etiology, pathology, epidemiology, therapies. 15. International Journal of Agricultural and Biological Engineering Peer reviewed online and print academic journal Sponsored by US based overseas Chinese bio- agricultural engineering organizations

49 Future Challenges for OER in China

50 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Financial Support – Senior faculty have most resources but least interest – Junior faculty have most interest but fewest resources – Debate over private versus government funding Network Access – Most OER courses available only over CERNET, the academic network run by the Ministry of Education – User schools must pay access fees – International access both in and out require additional fees

51 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Quality Standards – Top professors are not willing to share their materials – Participants are often less experienced faculty – Professors may put their name on courseware for recognition but do not get involved in the process – Faculty resist large class sizes that result from putting courses online – OER sites are not well maintained and often are unavailable and/or not updated – Too much focus on the esthetics of the OER web sites rather than on the educational content and pedagogy

52 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Limited Openness – Uncertainty regarding open status of much course content – Conflicts between nominal government policy of openness and de facto copyright restrictions – Majority of faculty who create OER courses do not want their content available for re-use, modifications or repurposing – Many OER sites limit access to browsing and viewing but prevent downloading – Some universities try to limit access to OER materials to students of those universities

53 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Public Awareness & Promotion – OER concept is not widely known outside academic and library circles – Basic concept of openness and sharing has not gained broad public support – Government needs larger role in promoting advantages of OER – Access needs to be opened up to self-learners, rural areas, and the disadvantaged – Alternative access needs to be provided to populations without Internet connectivity

54 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Increased Interaction between Teachers and Students – Content creators need more input from content users – Optimal choices for resource content format such as text versus video versus audio – Help centers to deal promptly with problems – Feedback mechanisms to enable two-way communications between students and teachers

55 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA Adopting Web 3.0 Technologies – Semantic web – Personalization – Artificial intelligence – Improved search – Filtering out unwanted search results – Improved learning efficiency – Social media tools

56 FUTURE CHALLENGES FOR OER IN CHINA 1.Financial Support (Sustainability) 2.Network Access 3.Quality Standards 4.Limited Openness 5.Public Awareness and Promotion 6.Increased Student Teacher Interaction 7.Web 3.0 Technologies

57 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Thanks to the following for their research paper “Open Educational Resources in the People’s Republic of China” which contributed to this presentation: – Dr. Chunyan Wang Renmin University of China – Dr. Guodong Zhao Peking University

58 TEN YEARS OF OER IN CHINA A Legal and Technical Perspective Dr. Stewart Cheifet University of Nevada, USA Creative Commons China Mainland


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