3Honduras-Geography Second largest country in Central America Has an area of 43,278 sq miMountainous in the interior with narrow coastal plains*
4HondurasWas named Honduras (hondo) because of its deep coasts in the Caribbean SeaCapital: TegucigalpaPopulation:7.6 million (unevenly distributed)90 % mestizo (blend of European and indigenous cultures)*
5Honduras - Currency Lempira Exchange rate: 18.9 lempiras = $1.00 Used from 1926-presentLempira was the name of a cacique (tribe leader or chief) of the Lenca. He's famous for his attempt to stop the Spanish invasion in the sixteenth century.*
6Honduras -EconomyAgriculture -bananas, coffee, shrimp, lobster, sugar, basic grainsManufacturing (maquila industry)– textiles, apparels, cement, wood products, cigarsTrade – U.S. 70% of the market*
7Honduras - EconomyMany Hondurans living in the U.S., Europe send money to their families (remittances account for 28.2% of Honduras' GDP)Per capita gross national income of $1, 635
8Honduras - Languages Spanish Indigenous dialects Have survived through oral traditionCurrent attempts to preserve them in written form“Tol” unique to HondurasMiskito, twanka, and Pec*
9Honduras-Climate Subtropical in the coastal lowlands Temperate in the interior highlandsMostly hot and humid throughout the yearHurricanes have exacerbated the high incidence of poverty and social inequityHurricane Fifi in 1974Hurricane Mitch in 1998*
10Honduras- Government It was a Spanish colony from 1502-1821 In 1982, it became a freely elected civilian government and the Constitution was drafted.Now it’s a Democratic constitutional republic divided in 18 departamentos (political divisions)The president appoints governors for the 18 political departamentos*
11Honduras - GovernmentDictatorship of Tiburcio Carías Andino ( )period of great oppression: encierro (imprisionment), destierro (exile), entierro (execution)The Soccer War (1969)Honduras and El Salvador*
12Honduras- GovernmentThroughout the twentieth century presidents have generally supported U.S. policies and collaborated politically and military with U.S. interests in the country.*
13Honduras- Government President Manuel Zelaya (“Mel”) Elected president in 2005; Partido LiberalAligned his government with Hugo ChávezOusted in JuneCurrent president: Porfirio (Pepe) Lobo SosaTook office in 2010Member of National Party (center-right conservative party)
14Honduras – Religion Predominantly Roman Catholic Protestant minority Influences from European and African settlers, missionaries, soldiers, and traders have made today's religions a composite of traditional beliefs and practices with those of Catholicism or a Protestant denomination*
15Honduras - ReligionDuring the Spanish regime, settlements called reducciones, encomiendas, and misiones were built.Supervision and protection of the ChurchIndigenous people were persuaded or forced to live in those settlementsThese were more successful in the western and southern regions than in La Mosquitia (east)*
16Honduras - Religion Patron saint of the armed forces, Honduras and Central AmericaVirgin of Suyapacaminando-con-maria.org
17Honduras- Education Compulsory 6 years of elementary education Literacy rate: 76%National University is free. However, students have to pay for textbooks and transportation.Several private universities and technical colleges have opened recently*
18What do I do?Write down an experience in which you had to adapt to something new. It can be anything –your first day in college, a trip you took, experience with someone from another culture, living with a roommate, etc.Break into small groups and discuss in your small groups:What happened?How did you initially react?What does it mean?How did you adapt to that new situation?Anything you would have done differently?
19What is culture shock? Frustration Withdrawal What can I expect to feel when immersed into another culture?Change from a familiar environment to an unfamiliar one.Some symptoms are:FrustrationWithdrawalFeelings of helplessness,Desire to go homePhysiological stress reactionsFear*
20Dealing with culture shock Focus on what you can control.Don't invest major energy in minor problems.Tackle major stressors head on. Don't avoid things.Observe how others are acting in the same situation.Ask for help.Write it down. Keep a journal.*
22What is Hispanic Culture? Within a small group, talk about what “Hispanic culture” means to you.Consider your past experiences, people, music, food, art, etc.What things do you all agree on?*
23Hispanic culture Greetings Family and sense of community Collectivism In general, friends and relatives greet each other with a cheek-kiss or a hugFamily and sense of communityA sense of community and family is extremely important! Families are typically pretty large and tend to be very closeCollectivismTypically decision making is made by the entire family, even regarding individual mattersGender rolesMale dominant family structureCommunication – indirect verbal messagesBody languageFlexible time orientationThere is a lot more flexibility with time, so being right on time is not necessaryPersonal space and touchingPersonal space rarely exists and communication is very direct and involves non verbal cues*
24Culture Assimilator #1George and his friend had made plans to visit some of the surrounding aldeas (very small villages). They intended to travel quite a considerable distance, so they decided to rent some burros (donkeys). They went to the mayor of their village who promised to have two burros ready for them the following morning. The boys were up early and ready to leave by 8.00am. When the burros had not arrived by 8.30, they went in search of the mayor. He told them the man with the burros was up in the hills and would be back about The boys waited and finally the man arrived at He told them that he had some burros, but that he would not be able to get them that day since someone else had them. He said that if they wanted to leave the next day, he would have them for them by 8.00 the next morning. The boys were annoyed and told the man that since they were paying for the use of the burros, they expected that he would have them ready for them. The man just shrugged. The boys realized there was nothing else for them to do so they agreed to wait until tomorrow. After searching for the man the next morning, they finally found him at He told them he had forgotten about the burros but would have them for them in a few minutes. At he finally showed up with only one burro, stating that the other one was still away and the boys would have to take turns riding and walking.**Taken from Seeley, H.N. (1986). Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication
25Culture Assimilator #1 What could explain the behavior in the episode? Hondurans are inconsiderate.Neither the mayor nor the other man really believe the North Americans would ay for burros, so they were not putting themselves out.Hondurans have many different values from North Americans, One of them is very little concern for the passage of time.The man with the burros and the mayor both felt that the North Americans should not visit the aldea. They felt the boys should spend all their time in the village, so they were making it difficult for them to make the trip.The mayor and the other man thought the North Americans would get tired of them not having the burros and would eventually leave.
26Culture Assimilator # 2Bob and Mary Jones, recent arrivals in Bogotá, have been invited to the home of a Colombian coworker for a dinner party. Their host mentioned 9pm. Bob was surprised at the late hour of starting, but he and Mary made it a point to arrive right on time so as not to delay dinner.Arriving at the door, they rang the bell. After a long pause, they rang again. Finally a servant appeared and ushered them into the living room, which was dark until that moment when the lamps were lighted. Rather puzzled looks passed between them as they sat silently for a while, and they finally began to talk, almost in whispers. “ Do you suppose we got the wrong house or the wrong night?” Anxiously they watched the door. At 9.45 their host appeared, greeted them cordially, and said he and his wife would be with them shortly. At 10.30, host and hostess appeared, followed by servants with drinks, and soon, other guests arrived. Still puzzled, the Joneses relaxed, but were certainly glad when dinner was finally served at**Taken from Seeley, H.N. (1986). Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication.This episode was prepared by Diane Pretzer.
27Culture Assimilator # 2 What could explain the delay? Bob and Mary did have the wrong night, but their host and hostess were graciously and valiantly trying to make the best of it. They hurriedly dressed, got some neighbors to come in, and gave a pretty good impromptu party.Bob and Mary hadn’t discovered yet that, regardless of time mentioned, no host would expect his guests to arrive until at least one or one and a half hours later.Bob was mistaken when he thought they were told the part was at His friend said there would be nine guests.Bob and Mary forgot to change their watches when they arrived in Bogotá
28Culture Assimilator # 3A group of friends, Sandra, Jaime, Miguel, and Gloria go to a pub to hang out. While at the pub, they meet two North American exchange students, Joseph and Brian. During the course of the night, Sandra converses with Joseph about his hometown Charlotte, NC. She was very interested because her cousins had moved there several years ago and she’s planning to visit them soon. During the conversation Sandra touched Joseph on the arm and put her hand over his several times. Joseph was very happy – Sandra is very attractive and nice, and they seem to have things in common. At the end of the night, Joseph invites Sandra to go on a date the next day. She politely turns him down.
29Culture Assimilator # 3 What could explain Sandra’s behavior? Sandra liked Joseph but during the conversation Joseph said something she didn’t like, so she turned him down when he invited her out.Sandra has a boyfriend and, although she was flirting with Joseph, she loves him very much.Sandra had a couple of drinks and didn’t realize she was flirting with Joseph until he asked her out. She was never interested in him.For Sandra interacting at a close distance and touching the arms, hands, or shoulders during conversations is natural and accepted.
30Culture Assimilator # 4Josué is 30 years old and lives at home with his parents, two siblings, and grandparents. He completed school and is now working as a clerk in a store. Every Sunday, the family has a family lunch where the neighbors and Josué’s cousins, aunts, and uncles come to the house. During the week, Josué received a job offer from a company in a different town. He has not responded to the job offer because he needs to consult his family about it. He will do so today when his family meets for lunch.
31Culture Assimilator # 4Why does Josué wait to talk about a personal decision to all the people (including extended family and neighbors) that will be at Sunday’s lunch?Josué is very dependent on his family because he’s insecure and isn’t very intelligent. He is unable to make decisions on his own.Josué is afraid because he doesn’t have enough money to move. He wants to ask everyone for money during lunch.For Josué, his family, including the extended family, is very important. Sharing experiences (successes and failures), and receiving help or emotional support from family and friends is expected and accepted.
32Culture Assimilator # 5Mr. Connors was a fifth grade English teacher. One day, Mr. Connors was going over the homework assignments. A boy, Carlos, was writing on his notebook when Mr. Connors stopped talking and asked him what he was doing. Carlos lowered his head and looked down at the floor without saying a word. The next day, Carlos was playing and accidentally hit his classmate Ramón in the face. Ramón started crying. When Mr. Connors asked Carlos what happened, he repeated his previous behavior and started to cry softly. Mr. Connors decided to call Carlos’ parents to set up a meeting to talk about his lack of respect - Carlos didn’t look at him when he addressed him and wouldn’t respond to his questions
33Culture Assimilator # 5Why do you think Carlos reacted that way in those situations?Carlos knows he did something wrong and doesn’t want to admit it. He knows he will get in trouble with his parents.Carlos is being respectful towards his teacher. Looking at him in the eye or answering back would be disrespectful.Carlos doesn’t understand Mr. Connors because he has a thick accent when he speaks Spanish.Carlos is trying to make Mr. Connors feel sorry for him, so he wants to look vulnerable.
34Culture Assimilator # 6Karla and her North American friend Jennifer were on their way to the university. The two women walked pass a local bar where a group of guys was standing on the front sidewalk having some drinks. When the two women walked by, some of the guys whistled and shouted catcalls at the women. Jennifer immediately started to walk faster and told Karla to hurry up. Karla smiled at the guys and continued to walk at the same pace. Afterwards, Jennifer told Karla that she did not want to walk to school that way anymore, and that those guys were demeaning and embarrassed her. Karla shrugged and continued walking.
35Culture Assimilator # 6What explains best the difference between Karla’s and Jennifer’s reactions?Karla thinks Hispanic men are sexist and there’s nothing they can do about it.Karla thinks Jennifer doesn’t know how to have fun and decides to ignore her.Although catcalling is a manifestation of the machista culture, it is often done in the spirit of a compliment and many women do not mind it and do not perceive it as a threat (unless it’s in a sketchy situation).
36ReferencesGold, N.J. (2009). Culture and Customs of Honduras. Connecticut: Greenwood Press.NotiCen, 29 November 2007, excerpted in University of California at San Diego libraries Latin american election statistics.Seeley, H.N. (1986). Teaching Culture: Strategies for Intercultural Communication.*