Appropriate Level of Challenge To challenge a child appropriately is an essential part of the process What is appropriate challenge? Zone of Proximal Development IndependentWith support ≤ ZPD ≥ (Vygotsky, 1962)
An Easy Way to Remember….. Goldilocks Principle! “Not too difficult, not too easy, but just right!”
The Hazards Many factors CAN become hazards Vary according to the child Vary in impact
Examples of Hazards Learning experiences…. Require knowledge or skills missing or inconsistently present NOT considerate of the child’s learning strengths and learning challenges NOT considerate of the child’s special needs
Universal Design in Education Access to the curriculum Multiple sources of content Multiple formats and media Multiple options (choices)
The Learning Brain 1 trillion neurons and 10 trillion connections create a dense and complex network 3 primary, specialized sub-networks, functionally distinguishable yet highly connected Equally essential in learning
Neuro-networks and Learning (L. Vygotsky) 3 networks parallel conditions for learning Recognize information to be learned Apply strategies to process that information Engage with the learning task (Lev Vygotsky as referenced in Meyer & Rose, (2002). Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning. ASCD, Virginia.)
Universal Design for Learning: Network Functions Recognition Networks Function: Assign meaning to patterns In classroom: Identify, understand, classify ideas and concepts Strategic Networks Function: Plan and generate processes - cognitive or physical In classroom: Organize, decide how to proceed, execute, and reflect on all tasks and processes Affective Networks Function: Evaluate patterns and assign emotional significance In classroom: Motivation to participate in and engage with tasks and learning; Sense of self and abilities; Confidence
Implementing UDL Understand the the strengths and challenges of each child Understand the potential barriers in the curriculum Design learning experiences to support the networks & minimize barriers
Recognition Networks To see connections To recognize patterns To identify, name, classify Tasks
Strategies to Support Recognition Learning Connect to student’s background knowledge and experiences Use a variety of media and formats Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features
Strategic Networks To plan or execute any action, skill or process Tasks
Strategies to Support Strategic Learning Scaffolds: Practice with support On-going, relevant feedback Models of skilled performance in variety of contexts Flexible opportunities to demonstrate learning
Affective Networks Engage with learning Participate in environment Understand why the task is important Responsible for
Strategies to Support Affective Learning Choice of content and tools Adjustable levels of challenge Choice of context Choice of how to demonstrate learning OR
Designing Learning Experiences the UDL Way Let’s Try It!
Our Process Learning experience “traditionally designed” Decide if your student can be successful Hold up the appropriate signal
Our Traffic Signals Appropriate for student Support or change needed Student cannot complete task
Re-designing the Experience with UDL The learning experience will then be re-designed to reflect principles of UDL Re-evaluate: Now can your student succeed? Hold up the appropriate signal.
Example 1: Social Studies Grade 4 WA GLE 4.3.1 Understands that there are multiple perspectives regarding the interpretation of historical events and creates an historical account using multiple sources.
Example 1: Goal Students will construct an historical account of Lewis and Clark’s exploration of the Pacific Northwest using evidence from artifacts and primary sources, such as journal entries. WA GLE 4.3.1 Example
Examples of Traditional Learning Experiences Read from text on Lewis & Clark Answer text questions Read diary excerpts Write summary of diary excerpts Complete worksheets on analyzing pictures of artifacts Prepare written report on Lewis & Clark
Supporting Recognition Networks Listen to audio version of text while following along Watch short video clip Read article at a different reading level Listen to guest speaker acting the part of Lewis or Clark
Supporting Strategic Networks Work with a partner to discuss questions Complete or create a graphic organizer of key concepts Create a drawing/map/diagram Use a teacher-created scaffold to guide the research processteacher-created scaffold
Supporting Affective Networks Students choose the media/format for the historical account Written report Drawings, cartoons, diorama, etc Create a video: historical fiction or documentary Create a radio program script Students can work alone, with a partner, or a small group
Example 2: Science Grades 2-3 WA GLE 2-3 LS1A Describe the life cycle of a common type of plant (e.g., the growth of a fast-growing plant from seed to sprout, to adult, to fruits, flowers, and seeds).
Traditional vs. UDL Read from text Listen to teacher present information Research individual plants Create written report Draw plant life cycle Electronic media Graphic organizers; partially completed outlines and pictures Research scaffolds: tagged web sites, process scaffolds Presentation, story board, video, concept map, etc, as alternatives to written report Electronic media and tools for drawing/creating pictures TraditionalUDL
YOUR turn! Work with a partner. Be prepared to share!
Example 3: Literature WA EALR 2: The student understands the meaning of what is read Component 2.4: Think critically and analyze author’s use of language, style, purpose, and perspective in informational and literary text.
Examples of Traditional Learning Experiences Text: Tuck Everlasting by Natalie Babbitt Read a section together Summarize Discuss Answer questions
Thinking Reader An electronic alternative Utilizes authentic literature Human voice Supported environment 7 research-based reading strategies
Where can I Learn More? www.cast.org Rose, David H. & Meyer, Anne. (2005) Teaching every student in the digital age: Universal Design for Learning. ASCD: Virginia.
The end, or the beginning, of our Journey “By considering the nature of the three networks critical to learning and by selecting media and tools wisely, we can extend learners’ abilities and open pathways to success for every one.” Teaching Every Student in the Digital Age: Universal Design for Learning. P. 173.