Presentation on theme: "Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives"— Presentation transcript:
1Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives
2Overview Approaches to Career Counselling (or vocational guidance) Differentialist ApproachBehaviourist ApproachDevelopmental ApproachRelationship between careers education and career counselling
3Aims of Career Development Counselling Traditional View (1970’s) : educating people to make career decisions wisely, usually in advance of employment by any one particular organisation.Contemporary View : organisations see the relevance of career counselling as a means of managing the process of organisational change - therefore increasingly occurs once the individual is within an organisationActivitiesopportunity awarenessself-awarenessdecision learningtransition learningUS : ‘trained for career’UK : ‘educated to make wise career decisions’
4Theoretical Approaches to Vocational Counselling * Differentialist Approach : matching individual differences with differences in careers and jobsBehaviourist/Social Learning Approach : teacher-learner approach. Use of behavioural methods to guide career developmentDevelopmental Approach : emphasises the role of emotional factors in facilitating/blocking effective occupational decision making.* N.B. counselling vs guidance
5Differentialist Careers Counselling ‘talent matching’ (i.e. more guidance than counselling)Williamson ( ) : Trait-Factor ApproachUnderlying Assumptionseach individual is an organised and unique pattern of capabilitiesindividuals’ pattern of capabilities are identifiable by objective testsdifferent capabilities are significantly involved in (and correlated to) different work taskssuccess in work tasks and academic achievement is best predicted by a battery of testsWilliamson’s 6 steps for vocational guidanceAnalysisSynthesisDiagnosisPrognosisCounselling/TreatmentFollow-up
6Differentialist Careers Counselling (II) Rodger (1957) : ‘7-point Plan’System for gathering material to form a working image of the person’s occupational assets and liabilitiesAssumes a ‘matching’ model of vocational guidance & allows for the use of tests7 pointsphysical make-upattainmentsgeneral intelligencespecial aptitudeinterestsdispositionalcircumstances
7Differentialist Careers Counselling (III) Holland’s ‘Modern Differentialist’ Approach :Based upon Holland’s ‘hexagon’ - interaction between personality and environmentIndividuals can resolve their own vocational problems if they have suitable opportunities for obtaining information and are encouraged in the explorationTechniquesplacement/work experience servicestransition servicecounselling servicevocational education servicesHolland’s Self-Directed Search (self-assessment booklet and occupational classification booklet)
8Behaviourist Approach : Careers Counselling the application of behavioural methods to the problems of occupational choice and developmentApproach utilised more in US than UKCounsellor conducts an initial assessment of the client, to make informed decisions about :what specific behaviours need to be changed/reinforcedwhat the most appropriate ‘treatment’ methods are
9Behaviourist Approach (II) Treatmentssystematic desensitisation (interview/presentation anxiety)verbal reinforcement (Krumboltz and Thorsen)modelling (e.g. videotapes - examples of effective behaviour)simulated work experienceteaching decision-making skillsbehavioural rehearsalbehavioural self-control
10Developmental Approach Emphasises the importance of clients’ emotions and attitudes.Heavily influenced by Roger’s ‘person/client-centred’ therapy & Super’s theory of vocational development.Occupational choice and developmental decisions are processes involving the whole person.Theoretical ConceptsOccupational Self-Concept : those parts of the self-concept relating to work & leisure activities (see Super)Organismic Valuing Process : innate capacity for adequate valuing of experience within themselves (those pertinent to occupational choice and development)
11Developmental Approach (II) Theoretical Concepts, continued..Conditions of Worth & Occupational Self-Conceptintrojected value patterns (from assessments of others) accumulated over the lifespan. Often lead to faulty career decision makingOccupational Self-Concept allowing Realistic PerceptionRoger’s : people have a ‘locus of evaluation’ - we try to understand and clarify our personal meanings (e.g. failing chemistry... ‘do I really want to be a Doctor?’)
12Developmental Approach (III) Practical ConsiderationsIncreasing realisation that most people are unable to adjust to life without distortions of realityBoth client and/or counsellor may be misperceiving themselves, each other, the world of workClients come into counselling at varying states of ‘readiness’ for making/implementing occupational decisionsGoal of counselling is to facilitate the client’s self-actualisation, by providing a ‘safe’ environment in which to explore their occupational self-concept.
13Elements of a Developmental Counselling Approach Fundamental Counselling RelationshipCounsellor tries to create an emotionally supportive, empathic climateUse of tests to facilitate occupational self-explorationDevelopmental careers counselling differs from traditional ‘person-centred counselling’ in that it often centres on the use of psychometric tests (NB requested or provided). Issue of low test scoresUse of occupational information to explore ‘work’Issue of ‘unfavourable’ occupational informationFocused Exploration to assist occupational decision makingfocus on client ‘thinking difficulties’ impeding occupational decision makingPlanning the implementation of an occupational self-concept‘Action Planning’ following the crystallisation of a career decision
14Comparison of Career Counselling Approaches All approaches …aim to help the client obtain greater fulfilment by an adequate matching of their capabilities to workacknowledge the importance of self-direction and developmentDevelopmental - more sensitive than other approaches to the notion that career choice can be highly irrationalBehavioural - place more emphasis than other approaches on the ‘mechanics’ of career decision makingDifferentialist - use typologies to explain to clients how they interact with their environments.
15The Societal Context of Careers Counselling Herr & Cramer (1992) : potential clients of career counselling - more than just youth, pre-employment.Additional contributions workplace counsellors can make :counselling workers in dual-career familiescounselling for individual self-analysis and planningassessment centres (development centres)life & career planning workshopsoutplacement counselling *, pre-retirement counselling **consultation with mgmt about job enrichment schemesprovide support for employees coping with transitioneducate line managers on the importance of individual differences in needs and interests
16* Redundancy Counselling Lopez (1983) : Ways in which counsellors can assist those made redundantidentify individuals’ marketable, transferable skillsoutlet for individuals to let off steamdiscuss individuals’ support networks (social, financial etc)reinforce individuals self-worth, build self-confidence** Pre-Retirement Counsellingfeelings of loss & ‘bereavement’Hopson & Adams (1976) 7 phases of transition1. Immobilisation 5. Testing2. Minimization 6. Searching for Meaning3. Depression 7. Internalisation4. Acceptance of Reality
17ConclusionsHerr & Cramer (1992) : shift from personnel management to personal developmentEmployees are increasingly being seen holisticallyEmployees as ‘corporate resources’; links being made between ‘development’ and ‘behavioural health’Shift in careers counselling from economic health (FMJ and preparation for work) to encompass development of self-efficacy, coping with stress and transitions, organisational life generally.