Presentation on theme: "Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives."— Presentation transcript:
Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives
Overview n Approaches to Career Counselling (or vocational guidance) –Differentialist Approach –Behaviourist Approach –Developmental Approach n Relationship between careers education and career counselling
Aims of Career Development Counselling n Traditional View (1970’s) : educating people to make career decisions wisely, usually in advance of employment by any one particular organisation. n Contemporary View : organisations see the relevance of career counselling as a means of managing the process of organisational change - therefore increasingly occurs once the individual is within an organisation n Activities –opportunity awareness –self-awareness –decision learning –transition learning n US : ‘trained for career’ n UK : ‘educated to make wise career decisions’
Theoretical Approaches to Vocational Counselling * n Differentialist Approach : matching individual differences with differences in careers and jobs n Behaviourist/Social Learning Approach : teacher-learner approach. Use of behavioural methods to guide career development n Developmental Approach : emphasises the role of emotional factors in facilitating/blocking effective occupational decision making. * N.B. counselling vs guidance
Differentialist Careers Counselling n ‘talent matching’ (i.e. more guidance than counselling) n Williamson (1926-1969) : Trait-Factor Approach Underlying Assumptions –each individual is an organised and unique pattern of capabilities –individuals’ pattern of capabilities are identifiable by objective tests –different capabilities are significantly involved in (and correlated to) different work tasks –success in work tasks and academic achievement is best predicted by a battery of tests Williamson’s 6 steps for vocational guidance –Analysis –Synthesis –Diagnosis –Prognosis –Counselling/Treatment –Follow-up
Differentialist Careers Counselling (II) Rodger (1957) : ‘7-point Plan’ n System for gathering material to form a working image of the person’s occupational assets and liabilities n Assumes a ‘matching’ model of vocational guidance & allows for the use of tests n 7 points –physical make-up –attainments –general intelligence –special aptitude –interests –dispositional –circumstances
Differentialist Careers Counselling (III) Holland’s ‘Modern Differentialist’ Approach : n Based upon Holland’s ‘hexagon’ - interaction between personality and environment n Individuals can resolve their own vocational problems if they have suitable opportunities for obtaining information and are encouraged in the exploration n Techniques –placement/work experience services –transition service –counselling service –vocational education services –Holland’s Self-Directed Search (self-assessment booklet and occupational classification booklet)
Behaviourist Approach : Careers Counselling n the application of behavioural methods to the problems of occupational choice and development n Approach utilised more in US than UK n Counsellor conducts an initial assessment of the client, to make informed decisions about : –what specific behaviours need to be changed/reinforced –what the most appropriate ‘treatment’ methods are
Behaviourist Approach (II) n Treatments –systematic desensitisation (interview/presentation anxiety) –verbal reinforcement (Krumboltz and Thorsen) –modelling (e.g. videotapes - examples of effective behaviour) –simulated work experience –teaching decision-making skills –behavioural rehearsal –behavioural self-control
Developmental Approach n Emphasises the importance of clients’ emotions and attitudes. n Heavily influenced by Roger’s ‘person/client-centred’ therapy & Super’s theory of vocational development. n Occupational choice and developmental decisions are processes involving the whole person. n Theoretical Concepts –Occupational Self-Concept : those parts of the self- concept relating to work & leisure activities (see Super) –Organismic Valuing Process : innate capacity for adequate valuing of experience within themselves (those pertinent to occupational choice and development)
Developmental Approach (II) Theoretical Concepts, continued.. n Conditions of Worth & Occupational Self-Concept –introjected value patterns (from assessments of others) accumulated over the lifespan. Often lead to faulty career decision making n Occupational Self-Concept allowing Realistic Perception –Roger’s : people have a ‘locus of evaluation’ - we try to understand and clarify our personal meanings (e.g. failing chemistry... ‘do I really want to be a Doctor?’)
Developmental Approach (III) Practical Considerations n Increasing realisation that most people are unable to adjust to life without distortions of reality n Both client and/or counsellor may be misperceiving themselves, each other, the world of work n Clients come into counselling at varying states of ‘readiness’ for making/implementing occupational decisions n Goal of counselling is to facilitate the client’s self- actualisation, by providing a ‘safe’ environment in which to explore their occupational self-concept.
Elements of a Developmental Counselling Approach n Fundamental Counselling Relationship –Counsellor tries to create an emotionally supportive, empathic climate n Use of tests to facilitate occupational self-exploration –Developmental careers counselling differs from traditional ‘person- centred counselling’ in that it often centres on the use of psychometric tests (NB requested or provided). Issue of low test scores n Use of occupational information to explore ‘work’ –Issue of ‘unfavourable’ occupational information n Focused Exploration to assist occupational decision making –focus on client ‘thinking difficulties’ impeding occupational decision making n Planning the implementation of an occupational self-concept –‘Action Planning’ following the crystallisation of a career decision
Comparison of Career Counselling Approaches n All approaches … –aim to help the client obtain greater fulfilment by an adequate matching of their capabilities to work –acknowledge the importance of self-direction and development n Developmental - more sensitive than other approaches to the notion that career choice can be highly irrational n Behavioural - place more emphasis than other approaches on the ‘mechanics’ of career decision making n Differentialist - use typologies to explain to clients how they interact with their environments.
The Societal Context of Careers Counselling n Herr & Cramer (1992) : potential clients of career counselling - more than just youth, pre-employment. n Additional contributions workplace counsellors can make : –counselling workers in dual-career families –counselling for individual self-analysis and planning –assessment centres (development centres) –life & career planning workshops –outplacement counselling *, pre-retirement counselling ** –consultation with mgmt about job enrichment schemes –provide support for employees coping with transition –educate line managers on the importance of individual differences in needs and interests
* Redundancy Counselling Lopez (1983) : Ways in which counsellors can assist those made redundant n identify individuals’ marketable, transferable skills n outlet for individuals to let off steam n discuss individuals’ support networks (social, financial etc) n reinforce individuals self-worth, build self-confidence ** Pre-Retirement Counselling n feelings of loss & ‘bereavement’ n Hopson & Adams (1976) 7 phases of transition 1. Immobilisation5. Testing 2. Minimization6. Searching for Meaning 3. Depression7. Internalisation 4. Acceptance of Reality
Conclusions n Herr & Cramer (1992) : shift from personnel management to personal development n Employees are increasingly being seen holistically n Employees as ‘corporate resources’; links being made between ‘development’ and ‘behavioural health’ n Shift in careers counselling from economic health (FMJ and preparation for work) to encompass development of self-efficacy, coping with stress and transitions, organisational life generally.