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Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives

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1 Career Development Interventions Individual Perspectives

2 Overview Approaches to Career Counselling (or vocational guidance)
Differentialist Approach Behaviourist Approach Developmental Approach Relationship between careers education and career counselling

3 Aims of Career Development Counselling
Traditional View (1970’s) : educating people to make career decisions wisely, usually in advance of employment by any one particular organisation. Contemporary View : organisations see the relevance of career counselling as a means of managing the process of organisational change - therefore increasingly occurs once the individual is within an organisation Activities opportunity awareness self-awareness decision learning transition learning US : ‘trained for career’ UK : ‘educated to make wise career decisions’

4 Theoretical Approaches to Vocational Counselling *
Differentialist Approach : matching individual differences with differences in careers and jobs Behaviourist/Social Learning Approach : teacher-learner approach. Use of behavioural methods to guide career development Developmental Approach : emphasises the role of emotional factors in facilitating/blocking effective occupational decision making. * N.B. counselling vs guidance

5 Differentialist Careers Counselling
‘talent matching’ (i.e. more guidance than counselling) Williamson ( ) : Trait-Factor Approach Underlying Assumptions each individual is an organised and unique pattern of capabilities individuals’ pattern of capabilities are identifiable by objective tests different capabilities are significantly involved in (and correlated to) different work tasks success in work tasks and academic achievement is best predicted by a battery of tests Williamson’s 6 steps for vocational guidance Analysis Synthesis Diagnosis Prognosis Counselling/Treatment Follow-up

6 Differentialist Careers Counselling (II)
Rodger (1957) : ‘7-point Plan’ System for gathering material to form a working image of the person’s occupational assets and liabilities Assumes a ‘matching’ model of vocational guidance & allows for the use of tests 7 points physical make-up attainments general intelligence special aptitude interests dispositional circumstances

7 Differentialist Careers Counselling (III)
Holland’s ‘Modern Differentialist’ Approach : Based upon Holland’s ‘hexagon’ - interaction between personality and environment Individuals can resolve their own vocational problems if they have suitable opportunities for obtaining information and are encouraged in the exploration Techniques placement/work experience services transition service counselling service vocational education services Holland’s Self-Directed Search (self-assessment booklet and occupational classification booklet)

8 Behaviourist Approach : Careers Counselling
the application of behavioural methods to the problems of occupational choice and development Approach utilised more in US than UK Counsellor conducts an initial assessment of the client, to make informed decisions about : what specific behaviours need to be changed/reinforced what the most appropriate ‘treatment’ methods are

9 Behaviourist Approach (II)
Treatments systematic desensitisation (interview/presentation anxiety) verbal reinforcement (Krumboltz and Thorsen) modelling (e.g. videotapes - examples of effective behaviour) simulated work experience teaching decision-making skills behavioural rehearsal behavioural self-control

10 Developmental Approach
Emphasises the importance of clients’ emotions and attitudes. Heavily influenced by Roger’s ‘person/client-centred’ therapy & Super’s theory of vocational development. Occupational choice and developmental decisions are processes involving the whole person. Theoretical Concepts Occupational Self-Concept : those parts of the self-concept relating to work & leisure activities (see Super) Organismic Valuing Process : innate capacity for adequate valuing of experience within themselves (those pertinent to occupational choice and development)

11 Developmental Approach (II)
Theoretical Concepts, continued.. Conditions of Worth & Occupational Self-Concept introjected value patterns (from assessments of others) accumulated over the lifespan. Often lead to faulty career decision making Occupational Self-Concept allowing Realistic Perception Roger’s : people have a ‘locus of evaluation’ - we try to understand and clarify our personal meanings (e.g. failing chemistry... ‘do I really want to be a Doctor?’)

12 Developmental Approach (III)
Practical Considerations Increasing realisation that most people are unable to adjust to life without distortions of reality Both client and/or counsellor may be misperceiving themselves, each other, the world of work Clients come into counselling at varying states of ‘readiness’ for making/implementing occupational decisions Goal of counselling is to facilitate the client’s self-actualisation, by providing a ‘safe’ environment in which to explore their occupational self-concept.

13 Elements of a Developmental Counselling Approach
Fundamental Counselling Relationship Counsellor tries to create an emotionally supportive, empathic climate Use of tests to facilitate occupational self-exploration Developmental careers counselling differs from traditional ‘person-centred counselling’ in that it often centres on the use of psychometric tests (NB requested or provided). Issue of low test scores Use of occupational information to explore ‘work’ Issue of ‘unfavourable’ occupational information Focused Exploration to assist occupational decision making focus on client ‘thinking difficulties’ impeding occupational decision making Planning the implementation of an occupational self-concept ‘Action Planning’ following the crystallisation of a career decision

14 Comparison of Career Counselling Approaches
All approaches … aim to help the client obtain greater fulfilment by an adequate matching of their capabilities to work acknowledge the importance of self-direction and development Developmental - more sensitive than other approaches to the notion that career choice can be highly irrational Behavioural - place more emphasis than other approaches on the ‘mechanics’ of career decision making Differentialist - use typologies to explain to clients how they interact with their environments.

15 The Societal Context of Careers Counselling
Herr & Cramer (1992) : potential clients of career counselling - more than just youth, pre-employment. Additional contributions workplace counsellors can make : counselling workers in dual-career families counselling for individual self-analysis and planning assessment centres (development centres) life & career planning workshops outplacement counselling *, pre-retirement counselling ** consultation with mgmt about job enrichment schemes provide support for employees coping with transition educate line managers on the importance of individual differences in needs and interests

16 * Redundancy Counselling
Lopez (1983) : Ways in which counsellors can assist those made redundant identify individuals’ marketable, transferable skills outlet for individuals to let off steam discuss individuals’ support networks (social, financial etc) reinforce individuals self-worth, build self-confidence ** Pre-Retirement Counselling feelings of loss & ‘bereavement’ Hopson & Adams (1976) 7 phases of transition 1. Immobilisation 5. Testing 2. Minimization 6. Searching for Meaning 3. Depression 7. Internalisation 4. Acceptance of Reality

17 Conclusions Herr & Cramer (1992) : shift from personnel management to personal development Employees are increasingly being seen holistically Employees as ‘corporate resources’; links being made between ‘development’ and ‘behavioural health’ Shift in careers counselling from economic health (FMJ and preparation for work) to encompass development of self-efficacy, coping with stress and transitions, organisational life generally.

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