Presentation on theme: "Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Supers Theory Hollands Theory Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment Hershensons Model of Work Adjustment Gottfredsons."— Presentation transcript:
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Supers Theory Hollands Theory Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment Hershensons Model of Work Adjustment Gottfredsons Theory Organizational Theories Traditional Theories Alternative Theories
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Changes in work Globalization –Increased competition and economic pressures worldwide Technological innovations Sociopolitical factors – changes what government does –Homeland Security, immigration, War on Terror Shifts due to mergers and downsizing
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University New demands on workers Greater adaptability demanded Ability to work with computers Ability to work in groups Commitment to life long learning Change jobs and careers several times in a workers lifetime.
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Vocational behavior and career development theories Career development theory focuses on targets for intervention, while career counseling theory focuses on the intervention itself. Major theories are foundation for current instruments and software programs Theories need to be viewed critically for how they do or do not account for characteristics of people with disabilities.
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Supers Career Theory Life roles –Child –Student –Leisurite –Citizen –Worker –homemaker Life stages –Growth (birth to 14) –Exploration (15-24) –Establishment (25-44) –Maintenance (45-64) –Decline (65+)
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Hollands trait factor theory Person-environment fit Matching individual and environmental characteristics Work environments - 6 categories –Realistic --Social –Investigative --Enterprising –Artistic --Conventional
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Minnesota Theory of Work Adjustment Each individual has unique set of traits Occupations require specific characteristics Matching is possible; assumes traits can be measured Closer the match the better likelihood of success.
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Concerns for people with disabilities Focus on traits does not consider AT or job modifications Impact of early experiences on career development Supported employment uses trait factor theory –Identifies consumer traits –Conducts job analysis –Performs matching Difference is: consider supports to individual or changes to environment
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Hershensons model of work adjustment Person and environment –Work personality (Self concept, motivation for work, work values) –Work competency (Habits, skills, work related interpersonal skills) –Work goals 3 domains interact with each other and with environment and this comprises Work Adjustment
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Gottfredsons Theory Circumscription, compromise and self creation Addresses narrowing of aspiration and compromising to meet external realities. Cognitive map of occupations –Images people hold of acceptable occupations –People initially only consider those within their map
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Organizational career theories Effort to link individuals career needs with needs of organization Companys commitment to employee extends only to current need for skills Individual and organizational flexibility & planning are key to future survival/success Free agent model - persons manage their careers across many orgs over time & accumulate skills & experience
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Traditional career counseling theories Parsons (1909) model uses 3 part approach –1. Assessing persons characteristics, 2. available occupations then 3. matching based on logic Others have included additional factors –Person-centered - recognizing feelings (Nathan & Hill –Persons cognitive understanding (Yost & Corbishley) –Develop client independence and responsibility (Salomone) –Irrational beliefs (Spokane) All are based on 3 part model
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Alternative career counseling theories Major models of career counseling are based on white, male norms Different identity development of women and minorities Culture affects career develop and decisions Impact of bias and discrimination
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Fouad and Bingham Considers various racial, ethnic, cultural worldviews; identity formation and acculturation; and interaction between worldview and environment Focus is on development and implementation rather than assessment and choice May include group interventions, involve family and community
Cathy Chambless, Utah State University Other alternative approaches to career counseling Narrative approach – seeks to identify gaps, problems in persons life script – based on constructionist perspective (Cochran) Group career counseling for career exploration (Pope) –Use of visual imagery, locally relevant occupational info, teach career decision making and job interview skills