Presentation on theme: "Katherine L. Hughes & Melinda Mechur Karp"— Presentation transcript:
1Katherine L. Hughes & Melinda Mechur Karp Highlights from School-Based Career Development: A Synthesis of the LiteratureKatherine L. Hughes& Melinda Mechur KarpInstitute on Education and the EconomyTeachers College, Columbia University
2Research Questions1998 Perkins Amendments support “career guidance and academic counseling”Current emphasis on evidence-based educationWhat types of career guidance and academic counseling interventions exist, and what does the research say about their value?
3BackgroundGuidance and counseling professions date from turn of 20th century; had vocational focusLater expansion of counseling role to encompass the social and personalSchool-based counselors now see their role primarily as helping students with their academic achievementIdeally, guidance now viewed as a school-level program, not an individual-level serviceThus during the century that guidance in general, and career guidance in particular, has existed, counselors’ roles have shifted and become more diverse.NCES study: counselors mainly help with choice and scheduling of high school classes, postsecondary admissions, student attendance and discipline – not much time spent directly with career planningDon’t know if that’s because career planning in general has been reduced in high schools, or if this function is now being shared with other departments, programs; WBL, etc.
4Methodology of the Study Review of over 50 studies published from 1983 forwardFocus on studies that report program outputs or outcomesMost studies included comparison groups, or were pre-/post- design, or a combinationOutputs: skills, knowledge or attitudes that students develop through their participation (vocational identify, self-efficacy, etc.)Outcomes: the actual results of an intervention, such as GPA, job performance, or personal adjustmentHuge bib in the back of the report, but not all studies in the bib in the body of the report because some studies’ methodologies not rigorous enough; only included reputable, well-done research
5Findings – Divided literature into five categories: Meta-AnalysesComprehensive Guidance ProgramsCareer CoursesCounseling InterventionsComputer-Assisted Career GuidanceReport organized around these five areas.
6Meta-AnalysesTwo meta-analyses found that career guidance interventions have a positive, though moderate, effectInterventions positively influenced subjects’ career decision-making, understanding of careers and career-related adjustmentGuidance activities directed at junior high school students had the largest effectsIndividual-level counseling most effectiveMore focused interventions were most effectiveMeta-analyses combine data from multiple quantitative studies on one topic, and calculate an effect size for the intervention being studied“more focused” refers to interventions focusing on a specific career-related skill, rather than “career preparation” generally
7Comprehensive Guidance Programs Students in schools with more fully-implemented comprehensive guidance programs reported better grades, being better-prepared for their futures, having more college and career information, feeling safer in school, having better relationships with their teachers, believing their education was more relevant, and being more satisfied with the quality of their educationCan’t assume causalityModel with the goal of guidance being an integrated program within a school and serving all students through a mix of interventions.Can’t assume causality, other school-level factors likely contribute to the findings; plus all self-report
8Career Courses Several studies showed positive results for students Career exploration courses, the Real Game, and career decision-making courses positively affected students’ knowledge of work and occupations, career orientation, career planning, and career decision-making skillsA study of a middle-school career course found a positive impact on students’ math and science grades; students were also more likely to enroll in higher-level math and science courses in high schoolCareer courses vary in goals, pedagogy, length, content, etc.For postsecondary students, usually stand-alone for-credit elective coursesFor younger students usually a unit in another class
9Counseling Interventions Five studies found positive effects of academic advising/planning: the amount of time students spent with counselors or teachers in planning their high school program was related to higher math motivation, higher test scores, and advanced math and science course-taking
10Computer-Assisted Career Guidance Studies linked the use of CHOICES and DISCOVER to greater career decision-making commitment, gains in career maturity, and increases in levels of career decidedness
11Limitations Most studies rely on self-report Many studies rely on pre-/post- psychological inventoriesMany interventions are low-dosage and effects are possibly short-termInterventions and research focus on changes in students’ knowledge and attitudes; don’t follow up to determine behavioral changeSelf-report – e.g., GPAPre-/post- similar to a history or some other subject-matter test – what the student knew about the subject before, and what after
12RecommendationsInvest in career guidance and academic counseling in middle schoolsExplore relationships between guidance interventions and positive student behaviors