Presentation on theme: "Pediatric Septic Shock"— Presentation transcript:
1Pediatric Septic Shock PICU Resident TalkStanford School of MedicinePediatric Critical Care MedicineJune 2010
2Learning ObjectivesAfter this lesson, the participant will be able to:Distinguish the terms SIRS, sepsis & septic shock.List physiologic changes that occur in sepsis and explain how each factor affects O2 demand/ delivery.Understand the rationale for goal directed therapy in septic shock
3Septic ShockSystemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)- The presence of at least two of the following one of which must be abnormal temperature or leukocyte count.- Temperature. >38 or <36.- Tachycardia- Tachypnea- Leukocyte count increased or decreased or > 10% bands.Sepsis- SIRS in the presence of infection.Severe sepsis- Sepsis plus end organ dysfunction i.e. ARDS, renal dysfunction, coagulopathy.Septic shock- Sepsis plush cardiovascular organ dysfunction.Goldstein et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2005
4American College of Critical Care Medicine Hemodynamic Definitions of Shock Brierley, Carcillo et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009
5Sepsis leads to micro-vascular occlusion, vascular instability, and organ failure through complex interactions between pathogens, immune cells, and the endothelium.Cohen, Nature 2002
6The predominant cause of mortality in adult sepsis is vasomotor paralysis. Parker, et al. Crit Care Med. 1987
7Contrary to adults low cardiac output not low SVR is associated with mortality in septic shock in children.Pollack et al. Crit Care Med 1984, 1985
8Early Intervention in the treatment of septic shock is vital: The first hour in the ED Maintain and restore airway, oxygenation, and ventilatonTherapeutic endpointsMonitoringGoals- Maintain or restore airway, oxygenation and ventilation.Therapeutic endpoints-Capillary refill less than or equal to 2 secondsNormal pulses, blood pressureWarm extremitiesUOP > 1 cc/kg/hrNormal mental statusNormal glucose and ionized calciumMonitoring- Pulse oximeter, Continous HR montior, blood pressure, tempurature, urine output, glucose and calcium.
9Therapeutic Endpoints Fluid Resuscitation & Hemodynamic SupportThreshold heart-ratesAge appropriate perfusion pressureUOP > 1 cc/kg/hrCI> 3.3 and less than 6 L/min/m2Scvo2 >70%Normal perfusionCRT< 2 secondsNormal INR, anion gap, lactateGoals/Therapeutic endpoints-Normal perfusioncapillary refill ≤ 2 secthreshold heart ratesperfusion pressure (MAP-CVP, MAP-IAP)Scvo2 >70%CI> 3.3 and less than 6 L/min/m2UOP > 1 cc/kg/hrNormal INR, anion gap, lactateMonitoring- Pulse oximetry, EKG, Arterial line, temperature, Foley, CVP, Svo2, PA, CO, glucose , calcium, INR, lactate, and Ion gap.
10Hemodynamic Support Hydrocortisone therapy- In the fluid refractory patient begin a peripheral inotrope while establishing central access.If dopamine refractory start epinephrine in cold shock.If dopamine refractory start norepinephrine in warm shock.Goal is normal perfusion and blood pressure.Hydrocortisone therapy-Start hydrocortizone in at risk patients.Purpura fulminansCAHRecent steroid exposureHypothalamic/pituitary abnormalityRefractory shockTry to obtain a baseline cortisol levelIntermittent or continuous infusion.Dose ranges from 1-2 mg/kg/day for stress coverage to 50 mg/kg/day titrated to the reversal of shock.
11Consider CI, BP, and SVR when implementing CV support. Low CINormal blood pressureHigh SVRAfterload reduction may improve blood flow by increasing ventricular emptying.Nitroprusside(Beware of Cyanide toxicity)Milrinone.Low CI,Low blood pressureLow SVRNorepinephrine can be added to epinephrine to increase DBP and SVR.Once adequate BP is reached dobutamine, or Milrinone can be added to improve CI and Scvo2.Hemodynamic support-May be required for several days in children with fluid refractory and dopamine resistant shock.May present with low CO/high SVR, high CO/low SVR, low CO/low SVR.Hemodynamic states may change with time.CO can be monitored with pulmonary artery catheter, femoral artery thermodilution catheter, or doppler ultrasound when poor perfusion persists in spite of therapy guided by clinical exam.High CILow or normalBlood PressureLow SVRNorepinephrine, fluidIf shock persists consider Vasopressin
12Pediatric Septic Shock Algorithm Brierley, Carcillo et al. Pediatr Crit Care Med 2009
14Early Goal directed therapy resulted in a 40% reduction in mortality compared to control in adult patients with septic shock.Rivers et al. NEJM 2001
15Early Shock REVERSAL resulted in 96% survival versus 63% survival among patients who remained in persistent shock stateEvery hour that went by with out restoration of normal blood pressure was associated with with a two-fold increase in adjusted mortality odds ratio.Han, Y. Y. et al. Pediatrics 2003
16Goal directed therapy causes a significant reduction in 28 day mortality in children with septic shockOliveira et al. Intensive care med 2008
17Summary of Key PointsEarly goal directed therapy can improve outcomes in septic shockPediatric septic shock is different from adult septic shock