n Solicit input n Identify problems that currently exist, have been experienced in the past and are expected to recur, or could occur in the future n Identify the conditions under which these problems occur n Prioritize the problems identified To Begin
Importance of Goals and Planning Objectives Goals are general concepts n Economic efficiency n Environmental quality n Fairness n Health n Happiness Objectives are operational definitions of goals
Planning Is Iterative We will find ourselves refining all stages of the planning process. These are iterations When we iterate, we change the scale, time, focus or emphasis of the process. Iteration relies on feedback for knowing how much is good enough. We use different techniques planning detail in our iterations.
Screening Screening - separate the obviously bad from the others We screen on all levels of the planning process (goals, objectives, constraints, alternatives, data, processes, etc.) Screening is essential but over screening eliminates valuable choices.
Scoping Scoping - an open and early process for determining the scope of issues to be addressed an for identifying the significant issues related to a proposed action. (NEPA) 1. Invite participation of all parties 2. Determine scope and significant issues 3. Identify and eliminate from detailed study issues not significant or previously covered.
Scoping 4. Allocate assignments for preparation of EIS among lead agencies 5. Identify other public ongoing studies or other EISs 6. Identify other environmental reviews 7. Relate study timeline to decision making.
Other Considerations Planning Area “location of resources that would be directly or indirectly or cumulatively affected by alternative plans” Period of Economic Analysis Period over which we are to study, may be less than life of project Must be the same for all alternatives
Definition of Planning Objectives A planning objective is a concise, formally structured statement which outlines n What a plan should accomplish n Where a plans influence should be felt n When a plan should be initiated WHAT WHERE WHEN ?
Purpose of Planning Objectives Planning objectives are developed to n Focus efforts on problems of greatest concern n Ensure that multiple goals are explicitly considered throughout the process n Provide a common vision n Allow evaluation of a plan
Importance of Planning Objectives Without good planning objectives n Planning loses focus n Important interests ignored n Important problems not addressed n Effective alternatives not formulated n Plans cannot be evaluated n Implementation becomes impossible
Comments on Past Experience With Planning Objectives Experience suggests n Poor planning objectives are difficult to overcome n Reframing planning objectives late in a study results in lost time and higher costs n The importance of planning objectives is not fully appreciated n Planners (as well as engineers) do not embrace innovative approaches to meet planning objectives
Strategic Versus Tactical Planning Tactical plans n Contain effective responses that mitigate the adverse impacts of short term problems such as drought n Can be implemented quickly
n Contain long term responses related to resource availability, system management strategies, or legal frameworks n Requires time to implement Strategic Plans Strategic Versus Tactical Planning
Elements of Well Defined Plans Both tactical and strategic plans must include n Clearly stated policy objectives n Forecasts of future conditions n Evaluation criteria n Multiple alternatives n Comprehensive description of a preferred strategy
Strategic and Tactical Plans Are Interrelated Both contribute to system sustainability
Formulation of Planning Objectives 1. Identify problems of greatest concern 2. Translate problems into achievable objectives 3. Identify where this objective is to be met 4. Identify under what conditions the objective is to be met Objectives should be stated in a positive sense!
Two Sheets of Paper Every Planning Study should be able to summarize the “Problems and Opportunities” and the “Planning Objectives” on two sheets of paper. A fourteen-year old should be able to read these to his/her class and everyone in the room should be able to understand the essential features of the problem.
Examples of Poorly Defined Planning Objectives n Develop a drought contingency plan n Build a pumping station at the X reservoir n Evaluate instream flow requirements at the Y River basin n Avoid adverse effects to fish and wildlife during 50 year droughts n Enhance hydropower production
Examples of Well Defined Planning Objectives n Enhance the long term reliability of municipal water supply in the Y River basin n Ensure adequate instream habitat protection in the Y River basin during drought n Enhance fish and wildlife protection in the Z River basin during drought n Enhance annual hydropower production in the X River basin for the next 30 years n Maintain navigation on the X River during drought
Definition of Constraints Constraints are limits to the range of planned responses Three types of constraints exist Natural - bound by the laws of nature External - enforced by outside agents Perceived - assumed to be undesirable, prohibited or impossible
Role of Constraints in the Planning Process Constraints are used in the planning process as n Situations that define the status quo n Screening criteria for alternatives n Guidelines for project evaluation
When Should Constraints be Challenged? Constraints should be challenged if they n Obstruct planning objectives n Significantly reduce alternative effectiveness n Address external agents that no longer exist n Are unfounded x
Summary n Problems should be identified and prioritized so that planning objectives can be properly formulated. n Planning objectives focus planning efforts and provide a framework for evaluating alternative solutions and formulating effective strategies. n Tactical and strategic plans, although inter-related, address different time scales and responses. n Planning objectives are essential elements of any tactical or strategic plan. n The impact of constraints, real or perceived