2Table of Contents List of Conjunctions………………….........slide 3 What is a conjunction? slide 4Types of Conjunctions…………….....slides 5-13Coordinating ConjunctionsSubordinate ConjunctionsCorrelative ConjunctionsConjunctive AdverbsQuiz and Answers…………………....slide 14-15
3All of these words, and many more, are conjunctions ! ! !orforifbeforethaneven thoughwhilewhetherwhereverandnorsincesothenalthoughunlessyetbecauseuntilbutwhereLet us take a closer look . . .
4What is a conjunction?Conjunction is the name for those common words that are used to join (conjoin) parts of sentences. Also, conjunctions may be used to begin certain sentences.There are two different types of conjunctions:coordinating conjunctions and subordinating conjunctions.Conjunctions sometimes work in pairs and are called correlative conjunctions.Conjunctive adverbs are also frequently used to provide logical connections in sentences.
5When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction: Coordinating Conjunctions These conjunctions are seven very common words. They are very small, made up of three or fewer letters.When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction:Reason Coordinating ConjunctionTo communicate addition andTo communicate contrast but, yetTo communicate a result/effect soTo communicate a reason/cause forTo communicate a choice orTo communicate a negative choice norUse them between two independent clauses.
6Coordinating Conjunctions cont…. Coordinating conjunctions are used to join words, phrases, and independent clauses.Examples of coordinating conjunctions in sentences:Ex. He only wears striped ties and polka dotted bow ties. ( And joins two words.)Ex. The shoes were not blue suede nor black leather. (Nor joins two phrases.)Ex. It wasn’t a costume party, yet many came dressed as literary villains. (Yet joins two independent clauses.)
7When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction: More Coordinating Conjunctions... These are likely used less often; however, they serve an important function.When to Use Each Coordinating Conjunction:Reason Coordinating ConjunctionTo communicate additional consequentlyinformation furthermorehoweverindeedmoreoverneverthelessthenthereforeUse them between two independent clauses.
8Coordinating Conjunctions cont…. These coordinating conjunctions are used to join independent clauses.Examples of coordinating conjunctions in sentences:Ex. He only wears brown wingtips; consequently, he does not wear white socks. ( Consequently joins two independent clauses.)Ex. The shoes were not suede; however, they were leather. (However joins two independent clauses.)Ex. It was not a Halloween party; nevertheless, many came dressed in costumes. (nevertheless joins two independent clauses.)
9When to Use Common Subordinate Conjunctions: These conjunctions are used to express relationships between a dependent and an independent clause.When to Use Common Subordinate Conjunctions:Reason Subordinate ConjunctionRegarding time after, before, once, since, until, when, whenever, whileTo communicate a reason/cause as, because, sinceTo communicate a result/effect in order that, so, so that, thatTo communicate a condition if, even if, unlessTo communicate contrast although, even though, though, whereasRegarding location where, whereverRegarding a choice than, whether
10Examples of subordinate conjunctions in sentences: Subordinate Conjunctions cont…. Subordinate conjunctions often begin a dependent clause. If the dependent clause begins or interrupts the sentence, then it is separated from the independent clause by a comma.Examples of subordinate conjunctions in sentences:Ex. Once she found the perfect broach, she purchased three outfits to match it. (Once demonstrates a time context. A comma is used because the conjunction begins the sentence.)Ex. He wore the top hat wherever he went. (Wherever demonstrates a location context. Though wherever begins the dependent clause, no comma is used because it does not begin the sentence or interrupt the sentence.)
11Correlative Conjunctions Correlative conjunctions are two separate conjunctions that are often in sentences together.Common Correlative Conjunctions and Examples:both, and Ex. Both maroon and gray accent nicely.either, or Ex. I like to wear either pants or capris.neither, nor Ex. Neither the shirt nor the jacket fit.not only, but (also) Ex. Not only one button fell off, but all of them.whether, or Ex. Whether or not you wear nice clothes, you have to wear clothes.not, so much as Ex. It was not that his clothes were flamboyant so much as they were florid.
12When to Use Common Conjunctive Adverbs: Conjunctive Adverbs Conjunctive adverbs provide connections and transitions that clarify or limit the meaning of words.When to Use Common Conjunctive Adverbs:Reason Conjunctive AdverbTo communicate addition also, furthermore, besidesTo communicate contrast however, still, nevertheless, instead, otherwiseTo communicate comparison similarly, likewiseTo introduce a result/summary therefore, thus, consequently, accordingly, hence, thenTo indicate time next, then, meanwhile, finallyTo communicate emphasis indeed, certainly
13Conjunctive Adverbs cont…. Conjunctive adverbs can appear anywhere in a sentence. They should be followed by a comma and, when in the middle of a sentence, preceded by a semicolon.Examples of conjunctive adverbs in sentences:Ex. Furthermore, stiletto heels are not a fad; they are classic! (Furthermore communicates an additional statement and is followed by a comma.)Ex. His crimson cape caught on the skyscraper; therefore, his flying ended abruptly. (Therefore communicates a result and is preceded by a semicolon because it is in the middle of the sentence.)
14A Parting Quiz...Finally, the University Writing Center staff and I hope that this presentation has helped you develop a better understanding of conjunctions, since they are vital to the English language; consequently, you will use them often in your writing endeavors. Perhaps this online lecture has not helped with your grammar so much as with enhancing your fashion awareness. Therefore, challenge yourself to a conjunction quiz, or call it a review before signing off. (Review is preferable, because the word quiz often has a negative connotation.) Whether or not you feel like a conjunction pro, scan this paragraph and see if you can recognize the conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs. After you are done, click to the next slide where you will find the answers.
15Answers... cc: correlative conjunction sc: subordinate conjunction ca: conjunctive adverb c2: correlative conjunctionFinally (ca), the University Writing Center staff and (cc)I hope that this presentation has helped you to develop a better understanding of conjunctions, since (sc) they are vital to the English language; consequently (ca), you will use them often in your writing endeavors. Perhaps this online lecture has not (c2) helped with your grammar so much as (c2) with enhancing your fashion awareness. Therefore, challenge yourself to a conjunction quiz, or call it a review before (sc) signing off. (Review is preferable, because (sc) the word quiz often has a negative connotation.) Whether or (c2) not you feel like a conjunction pro, scan this paragraph and see if (sc) you can recognize the conjunctions, correlative conjunctions, and conjunctive adverbs. After (sc) you are done, click to the next slide where (sc) you will find the answers.