Presentation on theme: "Attitudes towards the hate speech in Poland"— Presentation transcript:
1 Attitudes towards the hate speech in Poland Results of empirical survey conducted by the Warsaw University Centre for Research on Prejudice and the Stefan Batory Foundation
2 Survey objectivesTo describe the attitudes of adult and young Poles to the hate speechTo understand the reasons for indulgency towards the hate speechTo learn where the hate speech is most commonly encountered by PolesTo explain the effects of the hate speech on attitudes towards minorities
3 Survey structure Selection of examples based on Internet analyses Evaluation of examples by minorities (pretest)Content analysis by psychologists (concept mapping)Proper survey on samples of adults and young people
4 Survey structure Selection of hate speech examples 30 hateful statements for every selected minorityStatements taken from the Polish Internet: database from “Minority Report” prepared by Local Knowledge Foundation2 additional hateful statements from public persons (celebrities, politicians, professors, well-known personalities) for every minorityStatements of various degree of hatred: typical hate speech and “rationalising” hate speech
5 Survey structure2. Evaluation of hate speech examples by representatives of minorities276 people from various minority groupsMost numerous groups: LGBTQ and people of Jewish descentCAWI methodologySelection of a balanced list of hate speech examples representing similar degree of hatred.
7 Survey structure Content analysis. Sorting the statements by assessors Assessors: 6 social psychologists specialising in research on stereotypesGrouping the 180 statements into different categoriesMaking the categories quantitatively coherent
9 Survey structure Proper survey Survey on a representative random sample of adult Poles (N = 1007)Survey on a representative random sample of young people aged years (N = 653)Measurement of evaluations of the given examples of hate speech (admissible-forbidden, offensive-non-offensive)Measurement of psychological, social and demographic variables explaining the reasonsMeasurement of the occurrence of the hate speech in environment
11 Acceptance for the hate speech towards Jews: Examples 1. As far as sheenies and hostility towards them are concerned, it is only a real assessment of the actions of these louses and Davidian fascists.2. Jews must realize that they themselves made Poles to hate them because of their treachery and their crimes. And today, they try to hide their crimes and pass the buck.3. Jews are blinded by their hatred and desire to take revenge. That’s the main reason why they joined the Bolshevik security apparatus, then the Soviet security apparatus on the Polish eastern borderlands, and finally the secret political police after the war.
12 Hate speech towards Jews: to allow or to forbid?
13 Hate speech towards Jews in respondents’ environment
14 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
15 Acceptance for the hate speech towards Ukrainians: Examples 1. The Ukrainians can only murder defenceless women and children.2. Freaking Ukrainian, for sure he’s a descendant of the Tryzub gang!!3. No, I fired my Ukrainian girl.F: Good idea... I haven’t thought about it... You know? I will not pay her today.W: And I will let mine to come back, take the money from her, and fire her again.F: I tell you, if mine was a bit prettier, I would still rape her.W: Oh... I don’t know how mine looks like, because she’s on her knees all the time.
16 Hate speech towards Ukrainians: to allow or to forbid?
17 Hate speech towards Ukrainians in respondents’ environment
18 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
19 Acceptance for the hate speech towards Romani people: Examples 1. I still think that Gypsies are thieves and sluts, they belong to mafia and organised crime when theft and beggary are concerned.2. For us such larceny is an exception, but for Gypsies it is normal.3. Gypsies are and will be thieves.
20 Hate speech towards Romani people: to allow or to forbid?
21 Hate speech towards Romani people in respondents’ environment
22 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
23 Acceptance for the hate speech towards black people: Examples 1. Negros are not humans but monkeys.2. If negroes are equal, then why after thousands of years they invented only tam-tams.3. My friends, here comes a Negro. (…) Come here, my brother! He hasn’t washed himself at all, look!
24 Hate speech towards black people: to allow or to forbid?
25 Hate speech towards black people in respondents’ environment
26 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
27 Acceptance for the hate speech towards LGBT persons: Examples 1. I detest poofs - they are degenerate human beings, they should be treated.2. I’m sorry, but gay people make me feel an organic, natural, typically male disgust...3. I understand that some people can have homosexual inclinations, this is a kind of handicap, weakness [...] But poofs-activists who want privileges for homo relationships and child adoption should be fought...
28 Hate speech towards LGBT persons: to allow or to forbid?
29 Hate speech towards LGBT persons in respondents’ environment
30 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
31 Acceptance for the hate speech towards Muslims: Examples 1. Muslims are stinky cowards, they can only murder women, children and innocent people.2. All Muslims are not right in the head, no exceptions.3. Attacking people with acid is an old method to get even between Muslims.
32 Hate speech towards Muslims: to allow or to forbid?
33 Hate speech towards Muslims in respondents’ environment
34 Correlates of attitudes towards the hate speech
35 Effects of the hate speech From desensitising to discriminating Contact with hate speech in environmentWeaker perception of offensiveness of hate speechGreater declared acceptance for hate speechLower acceptance for minority groups
36 SummaryHigh level of acceptance for the hate speech towards LGBT persons, Romani people, Jews and Muslims. No acceptance for the hate speech towards black people and UkrainiansFor young people, acceptance for the hate speech is more strongly related to their right-wing views and hierarchical notionsVery common contact with the hate speech in environment and on the Internet – in particular among young peopleContact with the hate speech desensitises and changes attitudes towards minorities