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1. 2 3 a text - spoken or written - that is functioning for some purpose within some context discourse a discourse (text) usually consists of a number.

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Presentation on theme: "1. 2 3 a text - spoken or written - that is functioning for some purpose within some context discourse a discourse (text) usually consists of a number."— Presentation transcript:

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3 3 a text - spoken or written - that is functioning for some purpose within some context discourse a discourse (text) usually consists of a number of sentences. a discourse (text) usually consists of a number of sentences.

4 4 texttext s e n t e n c e s c l a u s e s p h r a s e s w o r d s sounds

5 5 the linguistic cement we use to connect clauses and sentences in order to make our text cohesive the linguistic cement we use to connect clauses and sentences in order to make our text cohesive

6 6 cohesive devices referring referring expressions, e.g. pronouns substitutionsubstitution - replacing words with substitutes - one, do, so, not ellipsisellipsis - leaving words out conjunction s lexis lexis - using words that are related - synonyms, antonyms, co- hyponyms etc adjacency pairs

7 7 categories of referring expressions e.g. he, she, it, they, them etc; this, that, these, those; the now, then here, there same, another, similar, different etc comparatives locative adverbs temporal expressions definite article demonstrative pronouns personal pronouns

8 8 referring expressions whereabouts is the meaning to which a referring expression refers? It could be: earlier in the text, e.g. The doctor crossed the road. He was in a hurry. referring expression anaphoric reference

9 9 The meaning to which a referring expression refers could be later in the text, e.g. This is what I would like: a bowl of soup referring expression referring expressions cataphoric reference

10 10 The meaning referred to could be outside the text, e.g. I think Im getting sunburnt. The sun is very hot today referring expressions exophoric reference

11 11 referring expressions Ill have a piece of that cheese! exophoric reference What would you like to eat?

12 12 summary of types of referring expressions referring expressions (reference) text external (exophoric) text internal (endophoric) referring backwards (anaphoric) referring forward (cataphoric)

13 13 referring expressions in text Lillys grandmother told her a story. Once upon a time, she said, the ocean was filled with whales. They were as big as the hills. They were as peaceful as the moon. They were the most wondrous creatures you could ever imagine. Lilly climbed on her grandmothers lap. I used to sit at the end of the jetty and listen for whales, said Lillys grandmother. Sometimes Id sit there all day and all night. Then all of a sudden Id see them coming from miles away. They moved through the water as if they were dancing.

14 14 so substitution There are a small number of words which we can use as substitutes for other words, phrases or even clauses. We use them to avoid repeating a word. one not do

15 15 substitution Dont you think we could have a sandwich each? Lets have one while were waiting. substitute for a word = one

16 16 substitution substitute for phrases and clauses = not, do, so I dont think so. Are you coming? Why not?

17 17 This cohesive device is like substitution but what is substituted is Ø. ellipsis The boy should be back by now Yes. I suppose he should ( )

18 18 related words in any text, there are words that are related in some way, e.g. talllanky tallshort sandwichfood synonymy antonymy hyponymy

19 19 a word about hyponymy food fruit grain meat vegetables applesbananasrootleafanimalfishricewheat carrotyam hyponymy is the kind of relation, e.g. apples are a kind of fruit superordinate co-hyponyms

20 20 lexical relations in text After the potatoes have been washed, the skins are softened with alkali and ^^ removed with steam. Next, they are sliced into square- sectioned strips. Thin strips will cook faster but will become hard if they are over-cooked. The cut strips are blanched on a wire-mesh conveyor belt which passes them through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt. This helps to prevent them discolouring. synonymy; antonymy; hyponymy; repetition

21 21 potatoesstripscooksoftenedsteam skinsstripsover- cooked hardwater (skins)stripsblanched theystrips they stripscut themsliced them meronymyrepetitionsynonymyantonymyhypon part/whole similarityopposite kind of

22 22 cohesive conjunctions used to link sentences; can occur anywhere in a sentence – beginning, middle or end, e.g. Dont go so fast! OK. Well be late though

23 23 conjunctive meanings conjunctions express different kinds of meaning, e.g. cause - so, consequently, therefore, as a result etc time - after, before, previously etc; addition – moreover, and, etc contrast – but, however, etc sequence – first, then, next etc

24 24 adjacency pairs question – answer; invitation – response; inform – acknowledge; greeting - response etc How are you? Im well. How are you?

25 25 adjacency pairs these provide cohesion in spoken language; a serious break in cohesion occurs if the second part of the pair is not given, e.g. if an answer to a question is not provided. Do you like cheese?

26 26 coherence general – particular chronological simple – complex external – internal problem – solution question – answer cause – effect claim – counter claim patterns of text organisation

27 27 In these jokes, watch for the confusion between the speakers This confusion arises because one makes the wrong assumption about what the other is referring to. Moral: Make sure your cohesive links are clear

28 28 Passenger: I have to be in Kuching at 5:45 on Sunday evening. How long does it take to fly there? Airline Clerk: Just a minute. Passenger: Thanks very much.

29 29 A: Time flies. You cant. B: Why not? A: They fly too fast.

30 30 Teacher: Which month usually has 28 days? Student: All of them (The teacher left out only)

31 31 Do you like cleaning ladies? I dont know. Ive never cleaned one.

32 32 text i) After the potatoes have been washed, the skins are softened with alkali and removed with steam. Next, they are sliced into square- sectioned strips. Thin strips will cook faster but will become hard if they are over-cooked. The cut strips are blanched on a wire-mesh conveyor belt which passes them through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt. This helps to prevent them discolouring. referring expressions;

33 33 text i) After the potatoes have been washed, the skins are softened with alkali and [the skins are] removed with steam. Next, they are sliced into square-sectioned strips. Thin strips will cook faster but [they] will become hard if they are over-cooked. The cut strips are blanched on a wire-mesh conveyor belt which passes them through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt. This helps to prevent them discolouring. [ellipsis]; related words

34 34 text i) After the potatoes have been washed, the skins are softened with alkali and removed with steam. Next, they are sliced into square- sectioned strips. Thin strips will cook faster but will become hard if they are over-cooked. The cut strips are blanched on a wire-mesh conveyor belt which passes them through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt. This helps to prevent them discolouring. conjunctions

35 35 text i) without using referring expressions and ellipsis After the potatoes have been washed, the skins are softened with alkali and the skins are removed with steam. Next, the potatoes are sliced into square-sectioned strips. Thin strips will be cooked faster but thin strips will become hard if thin strips are overcooked. The cut strips are blanched on a wire-mesh conveyor belt which passes the cut strips through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt. Passing the cut strips through a tank of hot water or a dilute solution of phosphate or citrate salt helps to prevent the cut strips discolouring.

36 36 text ii) The government has taken a practical, hands-on approach to an issue about which something had to be done, given the feedback from the parents of children who are suffering because of their problems with the subject. At the same time, it is trying to enhance the learning of the language among top students. The move is a courageous one because the issue is fraught with sensitivities. conjunctionslexical relation substitution exophoric referencecataphoric referenceanaphoric reference


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