4counting nouns countable uncountable can be counted individuallyone orangeone fruitcan be made plural by themselvesorangesfruitscan stand alone in the singular(without a determiner)orangefruit
5BUTsome non-count nouns can be made countable by adding a measure terme.g.Would you like sugar in your tea?Please give me two teaspoons (of sugar)Did you have breadfor breakfast?I ate two slices (of bread)
6note some usages can make: a countable noun uncountable, e.g. when we generalise: Experience is a good teacher.an uncountable noun countable, e.g. when we refer to varieties or types of the noun: There is no such thing as a butter that is not fattening.
7counting abstract nouns abstract nouns are typically:(Greenbaum & Quirk)count when they refer to events, e.g. meeting; arrival; discovery.non-count when they refer to activities, states and qualities, e.g. employment; happiness; sleep; swimmingBut remember that they may be both!!!
8forming the plural noun ending -o*, -ch, -sh, -ss, -x consonant + y vowel + y-feplural+ -esy i+ -s-fe -vese.gtomatoeschurchesbossesboxes*kimonosbabieskeysknives
9singular and plural nouns irregular forms, e.g.ox; oxen; child childrenonly one form (‘singular’), e.g.music; milkonly one form (‘plural’), e.g.physics; jeanscontext-dependent interpretation of number, e.g.craft (spacecraft etc)
10genderin English, nouns are not feminine, masculine, or neuter; rather, gender information is shown via:pronouns e.g. he sheword endings, e.g. actor actressforms, e.g. stallion mare
11noun phrases HEAD a group of words organised around a noun e.g.those two little snakesThe noun is the Head wordHEAD
12noun phrase structure pre-modifier HEAD post-modifier determinersNumerativesthose two little baby snakes that I have metpre-modifierHEADpost-modifierClassifiersDescribersqualifier(phrase or clause)
13modifiers pre-modifiers: determiners which indicate whether or not the noun is specific; a snake; the snake;Modification gives us information about the Thing. The more describers and classifiers there are the clearer we express which Thing we mean. The most precise information is usually to be found in the post-modifier.adjectives which count, describe or classify the noun, e.g. the two small dinner sets
14pre-modifiers (cont...)determiners indicate whether or not the head word is specificspecificnon-specificdefinite article, e.g.the child;indefinite article, e.g.a child; an egg;demonstrative, e.g.this/that child;no determiner at all, e.g. eggspossessive, e.g.her childinterrogatives: whose, which, whatAs we previously saw, Pointers are technically known as Deictics. What they do is determine whether or not the Head word (the Thing) is specific. So another term that is used to refer to these is Determiner. Notice that demonstrative and possessive determiners refer to i) proximity (this/that) or ii) person (1st/2nd/3rd person)
15possessive determiners add ‘s to:singular nouns not ending in -se.g. the cook’s pie; Keats’s poem (Keats’s…)plural nouns not ending in -se.g. the children’s playadd ‘ to:plural nouns ending in -se.g. the teachers’ workshop
16quantifiers how many things; or how much of a thing Countable things bothother eggssome/anysixUncountable thingsmucha littleless watersome/anysix cups of
17combining noun phrases appositional noun phrases: two adjacent noun phrases both of which refer to the same thing,e.g. my student, Ah Seng, wrote this text.
18combining noun phrases 2. co-ordinating noun phrases: two adjoining noun phrases each referring to a different thing,e.g. Ah Seng and his teacher wrote this text.
19common errorsuncountable nouns are treated as countable, e.g. homeworks2. abstract nouns are inappropriately treated as countable, e.g.The question sparked off lively discussions;This company has no intentions of raising prices.Articles are omitted, e.g.Your request for appointment in salaries section has been rejected.
20useful referencesRediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) ppA Students’ Grammar of the English Language by S. Greenbaum & R. Quirk.London: Longman pp
21jokingly... Which determiner? A man went into a pet shop. “Can I help you sir?” asked the shop assistant.“Yes, do you have …… dogs going cheap?”any“I’m sorry sir. …… our dogs go ‘Woof! Woof!’”all
22I’m afraid Alice will not be at school today. Who’s this calling? Which determiner?I’m afraid Alice will not be at school today.Who’s this calling?It’s …… motherherJohn and George, is this …. football?Did it break anything sir?No, not that I know of.Then yes, sir, it’s …..yourours
23I don’t have …… hair so I’d like to buy a wig. Which determiner?muchI don’t have …… hair so I’d like to buy a wig.Certainly sir. That’s 50 pounds plus tax.Forget the tacks. I’ll use ……glue.some
24You are a person of sophistication and discernment You are a person of sophistication and discernment. You know what you want and what you like. Achievement and ambition are a part of your life. You are known for your energy and zest for living....So, now there is a range of skin care especially for people of your calibre.Mustique – skin care for the charismatic, career-minded person who wants to look good effortlessly.
25your energy and zest for living. a range of skin care a person of sophistication and discernment .pre-modifier Head post-modifiera part of your life.your energy and zest for living.a range of skin carepeople of your calibre.skin care
26the charismatic, career-minded person pre-modifier Head our high-tech laboratoriespre-modifier Headstate-of-the-art combinations of natural oils of plants and flowers and laboratory-tested ingredients
27SnakesSnakes are reptiles (cold blooded creatures). They belong to the same group as lizards but form a sub-group of their own.Snakes have a scaly skin and no legs. They can wriggle and slide out of their old skin and grow a bright new one.Female snakes lay eggs. When the baby snakes hatch out of the eggs they are small, sticky and have a bright scaly skin. They look just like a tiny version of the mother. Baby snakes have to look after themselves and find their own food.Some snakes kill animals such as frogs, fish, rabbits, rats and mice. They can kill these animals in two ways. Firstly by squeezing them, to death and secondly by injecting them with poison.
28SnakesSnakesreptilescold blooded creatures.the same group as lizardsa sub-group of their own.a scaly skin and no legs.their old skin
29Female snakeseggs.the baby snakesthe eggsa bright scaly skin.a tiny version of the mother.Baby snakestheir own food.Some snakesanimalsfrogs, fish, rabbits, rats and mice.these animalspoison.