Presentation on theme: "1 coming to grips with nouns defining the noun classifying nouns countable and uncountable nouns number and possession of nouns specifying the noun quantifying."— Presentation transcript:
1 coming to grips with nouns defining the noun classifying nouns countable and uncountable nouns number and possession of nouns specifying the noun quantifying the noun noun phrases
2 a noun is… a naming word that refers to: a person, e.g. Maria a place, e.g. Singapore a thing, feeling, concept etc, e.g. fear, summer
3 Classifying nouns common proper - Ah Seng abstract collective
4 countableuncountable can be counted individually can be made plural by themselves can stand alone in the singular (without a determiner) one orange one fruit orangesfruits orangefruit
5 BUT some non-count nouns can be made countable by adding a measure term e.g. Please give me two teaspoons (of sugar) Would you like sugar in your tea? Did you have bread for breakfast? I ate two slices (of bread)
6 some usages can make: 1. a countable noun uncountable, e.g. when we generalise: Experience is a good teacher. 2.an uncountable noun countable, e.g. when we refer to varieties or types of the noun: There is no such thing as a butter that is not fattening.
7 counting abstract nouns non-count when they refer to activities, states and qualities, e.g. employment; happiness; sleep; swimming count when they refer to events, e.g. meeting; arrival; discovery. abstract nouns are typically: (Greenbaum & Quirk) But remember that they may be both!!!
9 irregular forms, e.g. ox; oxen; child children only one form (singular), e.g. music; milk only one form (plural), e.g. physics; jeans context-dependent interpretation of number, e.g. craft (spacecraft etc)
10 in English, nouns are not feminine, masculine, or neuter; rather, gender information is shown via: pronouns e.g. heshe word endings, e.g. actoractress forms, e.g. stallionmare
11 those two little snakes HEAD a group of words organised around a noun e.g. The noun is the Head word
12 those two little baby snakes that I have met HEADpre-modifier post-modifier determiners Numerative s Describers Classifiers qualifier (phrase or clause)
13 pre-modifiers: –determiners which indicate whether or not the noun is specific; a snake; the snake;determiners –adjectives which count, describe or classify the noun, e.g. the two small dinner sets
14 determinersdeterminers indicate whether or not the head word is specific determinersdeterminers indicate whether or not the head word is specific specificnon-specific definite article, e.g. the child; indefinite article, e.g. a child; an egg; demonstrative, e.g. this/that child; no determiner at all, e.g. eggs possessive, e.g. her child interrogatives: whose, which, what
15 add s to: singular nouns not ending in -s e.g. the cooks pie; Keatss poem (Keatss…) plural nouns not ending in -s e.g. the childrens play add to: plural nouns ending in -s e.g. the teachers workshop
16 how many things; or how much of a thing Countable things many both other eggs some/any six Uncountable things much a little less water some/any six cups of
17 1.appositional noun phrases: two adjacent noun phrases both of which refer to the same thing, e.g. my student, Ah Seng, wrote this text.
18 2. co-ordinating noun phrases: two adjoining noun phrases each referring to a different thing, e.g. Ah Seng and his teacher wrote this text.
19 1.uncountable nouns are treated as countable, e.g. homeworks 2.abstract nouns are inappropriately treated as countable, e.g. The question sparked off lively discussions; This company has no intentions of raising prices. 3.Articles are omitted, e.g. Your request for appointment in salaries section has been rejected.
20 Rediscover Grammar by David Crystal London: Longman. (nd.) pp.92-123 A Students Grammar of the English Language by S. Greenbaum & R. Quirk. London: Longman 1990. pp. 70-107
21 Which determiner? A man went into a pet shop. Can I help you sir? asked the shop assistant. Yes, do you have …… dogs going cheap? Im sorry sir. …… our dogs go Woof! Woof! any all
22 Im afraid Alice will not be at school today. Whos this calling? Its …… mother Which determiner? John and George, is this …. football? Did it break anything sir? No, not that I know of. Then yes, sir, its ….. her your ours
23 I dont have …… hair so Id like to buy a wig. Certainly sir. Thats 50 pounds plus tax. Forget the tacks. Ill use ……glue. Which determiner? much some
24 You are a person of sophistication and discernment. You know what you want and what you like. Achievement and ambition are a part of your life. You are known for your energy and zest for living.... So, now there is a range of skin care especially for people of your calibre. Mustique – skin care for the charismatic, career-minded person who wants to look good effortlessly.
25 a person of sophistication and discernment. pre-modifier Head post-modifier a part of your life. your energy and zest for living. a range of skin care people of your calibre. skin care
26 the charismatic, career-minded person pre-modifier Head our high-tech laboratories pre-modifier Head state-of-the-art combinations of natural oils of plants and flowers and laboratory-tested ingredients
27 Snakes are reptiles (cold blooded creatures). They belong to the same group as lizards but form a sub-group of their own. Snakes have a scaly skin and no legs. They can wriggle and slide out of their old skin and grow a bright new one. Female snakes lay eggs. When the baby snakes hatch out of the eggs they are small, sticky and have a bright scaly skin. They look just like a tiny version of the mother. Baby snakes have to look after themselves and find their own food. Some snakes kill animals such as frogs, fish, rabbits, rats and mice. They can kill these animals in two ways. Firstly by squeezing them, to death and secondly by injecting them with poison. Snakes
28 Snakes reptiles cold blooded creatures. the same group as lizards a sub-group of their own. Snakes a scaly skin and no legs. their old skin Snakes
29 Female snakes eggs. the baby snakes the eggs a bright scaly skin. a tiny version of the mother. Baby snakes their own food. Some snakes animals frogs, fish, rabbits, rats and mice. these animals poison.