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Steps in the research process: The first step in a research essay is to determine your topic. Your broad topic is The History of the English Language.

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Presentation on theme: "Steps in the research process: The first step in a research essay is to determine your topic. Your broad topic is The History of the English Language."— Presentation transcript:

1 Steps in the research process: The first step in a research essay is to determine your topic. Your broad topic is The History of the English Language. This topic is so broad that you would have to write a thick book to cover it adequately!

2 Steps in the research process: The second step is to narrow this topic to one aspect that can be addressed in a few PPT slides. For example, you may want to choose a particular word to trace from its Old English form, through its Middle English form, to its Modern English form, showing how it has changed over the centuries.

3 Steps in the research process: Or… You may want to present a brief history of the languages that have had the greatest impact on the English language.

4 Steps in the research process: Or… You may want to choose one of the languages from which English borrowed many loanwords and explain why those particular words were borrowed as opposed to using words that were already in the language or inventing new words. These are just three examples of a narrowed topic.

5 Steps in the research process: If you have a good idea what you want to write about, write your narrowed topic on your paper. If you arent sure, you may want to scan some of the sites provided to see what information is available before you make up your mind. After you do this, come back to this slide and continue this presentation.

6 Steps in the research process: The third step is to determine what you already know about your narrowed topic. Fill in the K column of your KWL chart.

7 Steps in the research process: The fourth step is to write some research questions to guide you to find out what you need to know. In the W section of the KWL chart, write at least 3 questions that you need to find the answers to as you research your narrowed topic.

8 Steps in the research process: These questions will help you to identify relevant facts and examples as you search through multiple sources of information on your topic.

9 Steps in the research process: The fifth step is to do research to get answers to your questions. As you find answers to your research questions, write the information on index cards. These are called Note Cards. *Before you begin, write your name on the back of all of your index cards.

10 Steps in the research process: Write the appropriate SUBTOPIC HEADING in the top left corner so you will know to which question the information is related. Write the SOURCE NUMBER in the upper right corner. (FOR THE SITES ON THIS POWER POINT, USE THE NUMBER IN FRONT OF THE LINK)

11 Steps in the research process: Old English Word#3 (This would indicate that the information on this card is about the Old English form of a word I am tracing, and that the information on this card came from the third source I am using. Each note card from this source would get #3 written in the right corner.)

12 Steps in the research process: You may write a fact, a direct quotation, a paraphrase, or a summary. If you use the authors words, make sure you use quotation marks. A paraphrase must be SIGNIFICANTLY different wording!!! Otherwise, QUOTE!

13 Steps in the research process: USE ONLY ONE SOURCE # PER NOTE CARD!!! WRITE ONLY ONE FACT, QUOTE, ETC. PER NOTE CARD!!!

14 Steps in the research process: You will record the site information (author, title, etc.) about where you got your facts on index cards also. These are called Source Cards.

15 Steps in the research process: You will be given the site information in MLA format for each source at a later date. Just make sure you label the note card with the correct source number.

16 NOW do your research. Find the answer to each of the research questions and make a Note Card for each. AFTER YOU MAKE YOUR FIRST NOTE CARD, TAKE IT TO YOUR TEACHER FOR APPROVAL.

17 Now do your research using the sites on the next slide. Make a note card to answer each research question. Then write the letter to your congressman. The last site gives you the letter format.


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