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MLA (Modern Language Association)

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Presentation on theme: "MLA (Modern Language Association)"— Presentation transcript:

1 MLA (Modern Language Association)
Citation Guide

2 Why Cite? Helps you avoid plagiarizing
Allows the reader to find your research sources Provides evidence for your arguments and adds credibility to your work Is standard practice for scholars and students engaged in written academic conversations

3 What to Cite Always cite other people’s words, ideas and other intellectual property that you use in your papers or that influence your ideas These could include: Direct quotations Paraphrasing of passages Indebtedness to another person for an idea Use of another student’s work Use of your own previous work

4 What to Cite (continued)
Possible informational sources: Books Articles Web pages s Interviews Lectures Media Television Radio Podcast Etc. Something that is controversial or contradicts what most accept as common knowledge Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the worst hockey goalie to have ever played the game.” (Obviously this goes against what is generally accepted as fact /common knowledge.)

5 What You Don’t Need to Cite
Information that is considered common knowledge Common knowledge is something that is widely known and can be confirmed in a general encyclopedia Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the greatest goalie to have ever played the game” (Obviously generally accepted as a fact!!!) May include: Facts Events Concepts Etc.

6 How to Cite Two techniques:
Provide a list of citations at the end of the paper (MLA style uses this one – a “Works Cited” at the end) Cite within the text of the paper

7 Cite at the End Final page of your paper – list of the complete citations for the resources you cited or consulted This list is usually referred as: “Works Cited” “References” “Bibliography” “Works Consulted”

8 Cite as You Write Within the text of the paper
Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate where you got the information Depending on citation style used, may take the form of: A superscript number1 for a footnote or endnote A notation within parentheses such as (Walker 21) or (Smith, 2008) This in-text citation is a marker for the reader to go to the complete reference for the source at the end of the paper.

9 How to Choose a Style Always ask your teacher what style they prefer
Different departments use specific styles English classes use MLA Psychology classes uses APA History classes use a form of the Chicago style

10 Examples of MLA Style Web Sites format (may vary, but basically follow this): Author’s/Creator’s Last Name, First Name (if given). “Title of Page.” Title of Site. Name of the creator or editor of the project or site (if available). Date of Posting/Revision. Name of Organization or Sponsor Associated with the Site. Format. Date Accessed Ex.: “Buffy Slays Academics.” BBC News Education. 7 Nov BBC. Web. 8 July 2008 Book with One Author: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Format. Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None.

11 Cite While You Write: MLA
In-text citations distinguish other people’s words and thoughts from your own and direct the reader to the complete citation in the Works Cited page at the end of your paper In-text citations consist of the author’s name and the page number Ex. To help fulfill her Slayer duties, Buffy can always turn to Giles (DeCandido 44).

12 Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing
Using the author’s exact words Always cite it and use “quotation marks” Summarizing: Condensing the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation using your own words Always cite Paraphrasing Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation - Are about the same length as the original Must always cite

13 Good Reasons to Quote, Summarize or Paraphrase
Include a Quote: When you want to support or add credibility to your arguments When the original is difficult to rephrase When the original is so good that you want to preserve the language Keep in mind when summarizing: Use your own words Include key relevant elements of the original but brief Do not include your interpretations/ analysis within the summary Vary how you introduce or attribute your sources, like “according to…” Paraphrasing Should sound like you Jot down source’s main points before you start to paraphrase

14 Recap Always cite and document other people’s words, ideas, and other intellectual property Plagiarism is taking other people’s words and/or ideas and presenting them as your own Always use quotation marks when using exact words of an author When paraphrasing, do not copy author’s style or wording Ask which citation style you should be using

15 Get Organized! Organize – keep research together as you gather it
Keep information organized by: Using a separate notebook or binder section for each assignment Using file folders – one for each assignment May seem time consuming, but will save you time in the end

16 Research Tips Know what you’re looking at
good citations and articles to yourself, or save them as you find them, then keep them organized Take good notes Keep track of what you’ve done and what worked Print out web pages that you plan to use as sources for your assignment

17 Taking Good Notes One note-taking method: This system will help you:
What you’ll need: Index cards Different colored pens/ highlighters Your sources On the front of the index card: In the upper left corner, color code the cards – use one color for quotes, one for summaries, one for paraphrases, and one for your own thoughts Upper right corner, write the topic of the quote, summary, paraphrase or your thought In the center, write your quote (using quotation marks), summary, paraphrase or thought This system will help you: Distinguish quotes, summaries, paraphrases and thoughts from one another Organize your information Easily work in citations as you write

18 Keeping Track Keep track of where you found what to help you remember which databases and strategies worked best for different topics Make a chart with the following information: The date you searched Where you searched The search words you used How many books, articles, etc., you found Ideas to try next (different search words, approaches, databases, etc.) Print and Save Web Pages you plan to use as sources in case they get changed or disappear

19 Making a Plan Estimate how much time you think it will take to do the assignment and double it (Lengthening your timeline will help you deal with obstacles) Break your assignment into small parts and set mini deadlines leading up to the actual deadline Editing - once you’ve done your own proofreading, have someone else read your paper and provide feedback.

20 Staying on Track Ask yourself: Do I really understand the assignment?
Am I spending too much time researching? Am I completely lost and can’t find any information? Is my paper or project starting to come together?

21 Plagiarism: An Overview
Including other people’s words in your paper is helpful when you do it honestly and correctly When you don’t, it’s a form of academic misconduct called plagiarism It is plagiarism if you… Copy words and present them as your own writing Copy words, give the source, but do not indicate that the copied words are a direct quotation Copy words, change them a little, and give the source Present someone else’s ideas as your own, even if you express them in your own words

22 Making Research Less Painful:
Look for clues in database records to help you determine what type of source you have found and whether it will be useful for your research Keep things organized Keep track of what you’ve done Take good notes Print out or save web pages

23 Planning, Timing, and Keeping Things on Track:
Make sure you understand the assignment Estimate length of time assignment will take, then double Break assignment into small pieces / set deadlines Get help with research if needed Leave enough time to do assignment Bounce around ideas with others Take advantage of resources available to you


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