Presentation on theme: "MLA (Modern Language Association)"— Presentation transcript:
1 MLA (Modern Language Association) Citation Guide
2 Why Cite? Helps you avoid plagiarizing Allows the reader to find your research sourcesProvides evidence for your arguments and adds credibility to your workIs standard practice for scholars and students engaged in written academic conversations
3 What to CiteAlways cite other people’s words, ideas and other intellectual property that you use in your papers or that influence your ideasThese could include:Direct quotationsParaphrasing of passagesIndebtedness to another person for an ideaUse of another student’s workUse of your own previous work
4 What to Cite (continued) Possible informational sources:BooksArticlesWeb pagessInterviewsLecturesMediaTelevisionRadioPodcastEtc.Something that is controversial or contradicts what most accept as common knowledgeEx. “Martin Brodeur is the worst hockey goalie to have ever played the game.” (Obviously this goes against what is generally accepted as fact /common knowledge.)
5 What You Don’t Need to Cite Information that is considered common knowledgeCommon knowledge is something that is widely known and can be confirmed in a general encyclopediaEx. “Martin Brodeur is the greatest goalie to have ever played the game” (Obviously generally accepted as a fact!!!)May include:FactsEventsConceptsEtc.
6 How to Cite Two techniques: Provide a list of citations at the end of the paper (MLA style uses this one – a “Works Cited” at the end)Cite within the text of the paper
7 Cite at the EndFinal page of your paper – list of the complete citations for the resources you cited or consultedThis list is usually referred as:“Works Cited”“References”“Bibliography”“Works Consulted”
8 Cite as You Write Within the text of the paper Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate where you got the informationDepending on citation style used, may take the form of:A superscript number1 for a footnote or endnoteA notation within parentheses such as (Walker 21) or (Smith, 2008)This in-text citation is a marker for the reader to go to the complete reference for the source at the end of the paper.
9 How to Choose a Style Always ask your teacher what style they prefer Different departments use specific stylesEnglish classes use MLAPsychology classes uses APAHistory classes use a form of the Chicago style
10 Examples of MLA StyleWeb Sites format (may vary, but basically follow this):Author’s/Creator’s Last Name, First Name (if given). “Title of Page.” Title of Site. Name of the creator or editor of the project or site (if available). Date of Posting/Revision. Name of Organization or Sponsor Associated with the Site. Format. Date AccessedEx.:“Buffy Slays Academics.” BBC News Education. 7 Nov BBC. Web. 8 July 2008Book with One Author:Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Format.Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None.
11 Cite While You Write: MLA In-text citations distinguish other people’s words and thoughts from your own and direct the reader to the complete citation in the Works Cited page at the end of your paperIn-text citations consist of the author’s name and the page numberEx.To help fulfill her Slayer duties, Buffy can always turn to Giles (DeCandido 44).
12 Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing Using the author’s exact wordsAlways cite it and use “quotation marks”Summarizing:Condensing the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation using your own wordsAlways citeParaphrasingRestating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation- Are about the same length as the originalMust always cite
13 Good Reasons to Quote, Summarize or Paraphrase Include a Quote:When you want to support or add credibility to your argumentsWhen the original is difficult to rephraseWhen the original is so good that you want to preserve the languageKeep in mind when summarizing:Use your own wordsInclude key relevant elements of the original but briefDo not include your interpretations/ analysis within the summaryVary how you introduce or attribute your sources, like “according to…”ParaphrasingShould sound like youJot down source’s main points before you start to paraphrase
14 RecapAlways cite and document other people’s words, ideas, and other intellectual propertyPlagiarism is taking other people’s words and/or ideas and presenting them as your ownAlways use quotation marks when using exact words of an authorWhen paraphrasing, do not copy author’s style or wordingAsk which citation style you should be using
15 Get Organized! Organize – keep research together as you gather it Keep information organized by:Using a separate notebook or binder section for each assignmentUsing file folders – one for each assignmentMay seem time consuming, but will save you time in the end
16 Research Tips Know what you’re looking at good citations and articles to yourself, or save them as you find them, then keep them organizedTake good notesKeep track of what you’ve done and what workedPrint out web pages that you plan to use as sources for your assignment
17 Taking Good Notes One note-taking method: This system will help you: What you’ll need:Index cardsDifferent colored pens/ highlightersYour sourcesOn the front of the index card:In the upper left corner, color code the cards – use one color for quotes, one for summaries, one for paraphrases, and one for your own thoughtsUpper right corner, write the topic of the quote, summary, paraphrase or your thoughtIn the center, write your quote (using quotation marks), summary, paraphrase or thoughtThis system will help you:Distinguish quotes, summaries, paraphrases and thoughts from one anotherOrganize your informationEasily work in citations as you write
18 Keeping TrackKeep track of where you found what to help you remember which databases and strategies worked best for different topicsMake a chart with the following information:The date you searchedWhere you searchedThe search words you usedHow many books, articles, etc., you foundIdeas to try next (different search words, approaches, databases, etc.)Print and Save Web Pages you plan to use as sources in case they get changed or disappear
19 Making a PlanEstimate how much time you think it will take to do the assignment and double it (Lengthening your timeline will help you deal with obstacles)Break your assignment into small parts and set mini deadlines leading up to the actual deadlineEditing - once you’ve done your own proofreading, have someone else read your paper and provide feedback.
20 Staying on Track Ask yourself: Do I really understand the assignment? Am I spending too much time researching?Am I completely lost and can’t find any information?Is my paper or project starting to come together?
21 Plagiarism: An Overview Including other people’s words in your paper is helpful when you do it honestly and correctlyWhen you don’t, it’s a form of academic misconduct called plagiarismIt is plagiarism if you…Copy words and present them as your own writingCopy words, give the source, but do not indicate that the copied words are a direct quotationCopy words, change them a little, and give the sourcePresent someone else’s ideas as your own, even if you express them in your own words
22 Making Research Less Painful: Look for clues in database records to help you determine what type of source you have found and whether it will be useful for your researchKeep things organizedKeep track of what you’ve doneTake good notesPrint out or save web pages
23 Planning, Timing, and Keeping Things on Track: Make sure you understand the assignmentEstimate length of time assignment will take, then doubleBreak assignment into small pieces / set deadlinesGet help with research if neededLeave enough time to do assignmentBounce around ideas with othersTake advantage of resources available to you