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MLA (Modern Language Association) Citation Guide.

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Presentation on theme: "MLA (Modern Language Association) Citation Guide."— Presentation transcript:

1 MLA (Modern Language Association) Citation Guide

2 Why Cite? Helps you avoid plagiarizing Helps you avoid plagiarizing Allows the reader to find your research sources Allows the reader to find your research sources Provides evidence for your arguments and adds credibility to your work Provides evidence for your arguments and adds credibility to your work Is standard practice for scholars and students engaged in written academic conversations Is standard practice for scholars and students engaged in written academic conversations

3 What to Cite Always cite other people’s words, ideas and other intellectual property that you use in your papers or that influence your ideas Always cite other people’s words, ideas and other intellectual property that you use in your papers or that influence your ideas These could include: These could include: Direct quotations Direct quotations Paraphrasing of passages Paraphrasing of passages Indebtedness to another person for an idea Indebtedness to another person for an idea Use of another student’s work Use of another student’s work Use of your own previous work Use of your own previous work

4 What to Cite (continued) Possible informational sources: Possible informational sources: Books Books Articles Articles Web pages Web pages Emails Emails Interviews Interviews Lectures Lectures Media Media Television Television Radio Radio Podcast Podcast Etc. Etc. Something that is controversial or contradicts what most accept as common knowledge Something that is controversial or contradicts what most accept as common knowledge Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the worst hockey goalie to have ever played the game.” (Obviously this goes against what is generally accepted as fact /common knowledge.) Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the worst hockey goalie to have ever played the game.” (Obviously this goes against what is generally accepted as fact /common knowledge.)

5 What You Don’t Need to Cite Information that is considered common knowledge Information that is considered common knowledge Common knowledge is something that is widely known and can be confirmed in a general encyclopedia Common knowledge is something that is widely known and can be confirmed in a general encyclopedia Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the greatest goalie to have ever played the game” (Obviously generally accepted as a fact!!!) Ex. “Martin Brodeur is the greatest goalie to have ever played the game” (Obviously generally accepted as a fact!!!) May include: May include: Facts Facts Events Events Concepts Concepts Etc. Etc.

6 How to Cite Two techniques: Provide a list of citations at the end of the paper (MLA style uses this one – a “Works Cited” at the end) Provide a list of citations at the end of the paper (MLA style uses this one – a “Works Cited” at the end) Cite within the text of the paper Cite within the text of the paper

7 Cite at the End Final page of your paper – list of the complete citations for the resources you cited or consulted Final page of your paper – list of the complete citations for the resources you cited or consulted This list is usually referred as: This list is usually referred as: “Works Cited” “Works Cited” “References” “References” “Bibliography” “Bibliography” “Works Consulted” “Works Consulted”

8 Cite as You Write Within the text of the paper Within the text of the paper Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate where you got the information Whenever you refer to the work of another person, you must indicate where you got the information Depending on citation style used, may take the form of: Depending on citation style used, may take the form of: A superscript number 1 for a footnote or endnote A superscript number 1 for a footnote or endnote A notation within parentheses such as (Walker 21) or (Smith, 2008) A notation within parentheses such as (Walker 21) or (Smith, 2008) This in-text citation is a marker for the reader to go to the complete reference for the source at the end of the paper. This in-text citation is a marker for the reader to go to the complete reference for the source at the end of the paper.

9 How to Choose a Style Always ask your teacher what style they prefer Always ask your teacher what style they prefer Different departments use specific styles Different departments use specific styles English classes use MLA English classes use MLA Psychology classes uses APA Psychology classes uses APA History classes use a form of the Chicago style History classes use a form of the Chicago style

10 Examples of MLA Style Web Sites format (may vary, but basically follow this): Web Sites format (may vary, but basically follow this): Author’s/Creator’s Last Name, First Name (if given). “Title of Page.” Title of Site. Name of the creator or editor of the project or site (if available). Date of Posting/Revision. Name of Organization or Sponsor Associated with the Site. Format. Date Accessed Author’s/Creator’s Last Name, First Name (if given). “Title of Page.” Title of Site. Name of the creator or editor of the project or site (if available). Date of Posting/Revision. Name of Organization or Sponsor Associated with the Site. Format. Date Accessed Ex.: Ex.: “Buffy Slays Academics.” BBC News Education. 7 Nov. 2001. BBC. Web. 8 July 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/1642829.stm “Buffy Slays Academics.” BBC News Education. 7 Nov. 2001. BBC. Web. 8 July 2008 http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/1642829.stm http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/1642829.stm Book with One Author: Book with One Author: Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Format. Author’s Last Name, First Name. Title of Book. Place of Publication: Publisher, Date of Publication. Format. Ex.: Ex.: Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None. Christie, Agatha. And Then There Were None.

11 Cite While You Write: MLA In-text citations distinguish other people’s words and thoughts from your own and direct the reader to the complete citation in the Works Cited page at the end of your paper In-text citations distinguish other people’s words and thoughts from your own and direct the reader to the complete citation in the Works Cited page at the end of your paper In-text citations consist of the author’s name and the page number In-text citations consist of the author’s name and the page number Ex. Ex. To help fulfill her Slayer duties, Buffy can always turn to Giles (DeCandido 44). To help fulfill her Slayer duties, Buffy can always turn to Giles (DeCandido 44).

12 Quoting, Summarizing, and Paraphrasing Quoting: Quoting: Using the author’s exact words Using the author’s exact words Always cite it and use “quotation marks” Always cite it and use “quotation marks” Summarizing: Summarizing: Condensing the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation using your own words Condensing the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation using your own words Always cite Always cite Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation Restating, in your own words, the author’s words or ideas without altering the meaning or providing interpretation - Are about the same length as the original - Are about the same length as the original Must always cite Must always cite

13 Good Reasons to Quote, Summarize or Paraphrase Include a Quote: Include a Quote: When you want to support or add credibility to your arguments When you want to support or add credibility to your arguments When the original is difficult to rephrase When the original is difficult to rephrase When the original is so good that you want to preserve the language When the original is so good that you want to preserve the language Keep in mind when summarizing: Keep in mind when summarizing: Use your own words Use your own words Include key relevant elements of the original but brief Include key relevant elements of the original but brief Do not include your interpretations/ analysis within the summary Do not include your interpretations/ analysis within the summary Vary how you introduce or attribute your sources, like “according to…” Vary how you introduce or attribute your sources, like “according to…” Paraphrasing Paraphrasing Should sound like you Should sound like you Jot down source’s main points before you start to paraphrase Jot down source’s main points before you start to paraphrase

14 Recap Always cite and document other people’s words, ideas, and other intellectual property Always cite and document other people’s words, ideas, and other intellectual property Plagiarism is taking other people’s words and/or ideas and presenting them as your own Plagiarism is taking other people’s words and/or ideas and presenting them as your own Always use quotation marks when using exact words of an author Always use quotation marks when using exact words of an author When paraphrasing, do not copy author’s style or wording When paraphrasing, do not copy author’s style or wording Ask which citation style you should be using Ask which citation style you should be using

15 Get Organized! Organize – keep research together as you gather it Organize – keep research together as you gather it Keep information organized by: Keep information organized by: Using a separate notebook or binder section for each assignment Using a separate notebook or binder section for each assignment Using file folders – one for each assignment Using file folders – one for each assignment May seem time consuming, but will save you time in the end May seem time consuming, but will save you time in the end

16 Research Tips Know what you’re looking at Know what you’re looking at Email good citations and articles to yourself, or save them as you find them, then keep them organized Email good citations and articles to yourself, or save them as you find them, then keep them organized Take good notes Take good notes Keep track of what you’ve done and what worked Keep track of what you’ve done and what worked Print out web pages that you plan to use as sources for your assignment Print out web pages that you plan to use as sources for your assignment

17 Taking Good Notes One note-taking method: One note-taking method: What you’ll need: What you’ll need: Index cards Index cards Different colored pens/ highlighters Different colored pens/ highlighters Your sources Your sources On the front of the index card: On the front of the index card: In the upper left corner, color code the cards – use one color for quotes, one for summaries, one for paraphrases, and one for your own thoughts In the upper left corner, color code the cards – use one color for quotes, one for summaries, one for paraphrases, and one for your own thoughts Upper right corner, write the topic of the quote, summary, paraphrase or your thought Upper right corner, write the topic of the quote, summary, paraphrase or your thought In the center, write your quote (using quotation marks), summary, paraphrase or thought In the center, write your quote (using quotation marks), summary, paraphrase or thought This system will help you: This system will help you: Distinguish quotes, summaries, paraphrases and thoughts from one another Distinguish quotes, summaries, paraphrases and thoughts from one another Organize your information Organize your information Easily work in citations as you write Easily work in citations as you write

18 Keeping Track Keep track of where you found what to help you remember which databases and strategies worked best for different topics Keep track of where you found what to help you remember which databases and strategies worked best for different topics Make a chart with the following information: Make a chart with the following information: The date you searched The date you searched Where you searched Where you searched The search words you used The search words you used How many books, articles, etc., you found How many books, articles, etc., you found Ideas to try next (different search words, approaches, databases, etc.) Ideas to try next (different search words, approaches, databases, etc.) Print and Save Web Pages you plan to use as sources in case they get changed or disappear Print and Save Web Pages you plan to use as sources in case they get changed or disappear

19 Making a Plan Estimate how much time you think it will take to do the assignment and double it (Lengthening your timeline will help you deal with obstacles) Estimate how much time you think it will take to do the assignment and double it (Lengthening your timeline will help you deal with obstacles) Break your assignment into small parts and set mini deadlines leading up to the actual deadline Break your assignment into small parts and set mini deadlines leading up to the actual deadline Editing - once you’ve done your own proofreading, have someone else read your paper and provide feedback. Editing - once you’ve done your own proofreading, have someone else read your paper and provide feedback.

20 Staying on Track Ask yourself: Do I really understand the assignment? Do I really understand the assignment? Am I spending too much time researching? Am I spending too much time researching? Am I completely lost and can’t find any information? Am I completely lost and can’t find any information? Is my paper or project starting to come together? Is my paper or project starting to come together?

21 Plagiarism: An Overview Including other people’s words in your paper is helpful when you do it honestly and correctly Including other people’s words in your paper is helpful when you do it honestly and correctly When you don’t, it’s a form of academic misconduct called plagiarism When you don’t, it’s a form of academic misconduct called plagiarism It is plagiarism if you… It is plagiarism if you… Copy words and present them as your own writing Copy words and present them as your own writing Copy words, give the source, but do not indicate that the copied words are a direct quotation Copy words, give the source, but do not indicate that the copied words are a direct quotation Copy words, change them a little, and give the source Copy words, change them a little, and give the source Present someone else’s ideas as your own, even if you express them in your own words Present someone else’s ideas as your own, even if you express them in your own words

22 Making Research Less Painful: Look for clues in database records to help you determine what type of source you have found and whether it will be useful for your research Look for clues in database records to help you determine what type of source you have found and whether it will be useful for your research Keep things organized Keep things organized Keep track of what you’ve done Keep track of what you’ve done Take good notes Take good notes Print out or save web pages Print out or save web pages

23 Planning, Timing, and Keeping Things on Track: Make sure you understand the assignment Make sure you understand the assignment Estimate length of time assignment will take, then double Estimate length of time assignment will take, then double Break assignment into small pieces / set deadlines Break assignment into small pieces / set deadlines Get help with research if needed Get help with research if needed Leave enough time to do assignment Leave enough time to do assignment Bounce around ideas with others Bounce around ideas with others Take advantage of resources available to you Take advantage of resources available to you


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