Presentation on theme: "Growth and Change Part 2 1950-1969 The Civil Rights Movement."— Presentation transcript:
Growth and Change Part The Civil Rights Movement
African Americans- Beginnings of a Struggle National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP) -Sought to end laws that kept African Americans from voting -first chapter in Texas opened in Houston in 1912 Primary Election- voters pick the candidates -called white primaries because African Americans and Mexican Americans could not vote
African Americans- Victories in Court Smith v. Allwright 1944 with the help of the NAACP, Lonnie Smith, a dentist from Houston took the case of unfair primaries to the US Supreme court and won. Sweatt v. Painter 1950 Heman Marion Sweatt was not accepted to a Texas law school because he was African American. US Supreme court ruled that the school had to admit African Americans.
Other Court Victories for African Americans Won the right to… -sit on juries -live in white neighborhoods -sit where they wished on buses and trains
Change Segregation-separating people by race Brown v. Board of Education 1954-outlawed segregation in public places such as schools.
African Americans- Resistance to Change Texas Outlaws Interracial Marriage 1956 Governor Allan Shivers stops African Americans from enrolling at Mansfield High School. It took time for attitudes to change
African American Texans in Public Office 1966 First African Americans elected into the Texas House of Representatives since Reconstruction were: Joe Lockridge of Dallas Curtis Graves of Houston
Mexian Texans- Beginnings of a Struggle Orden Hijos de America (Order of Sons of America) formed in San Antonio -helped get Mexicans placed on juries in Nueces County -forced North Beach to remove a No Mexicans sign -many Mexican veterans faced discrimination once back at home.
Mexican Texans- The Fight Against Unfair Treatment American G.I. Forum- gained fame by protesting a whites only funeral home Bias in Education- forced to attend Mexican Schools;ended with Delgado v. Bastrop ISD. Some schools punished children for speaking Spanish. Hernandez v. Texas- court ruled it was illegal to prohibit Mexican Americans from serving on a jury.
Mexican Texans Unite To gain more strength in the state, Hispanic Americans began to vote as a group Viva Kennedy Campaign- helped Kennedy win Texas 1963 Political Association of Spanish-speaking Organizations- work led to a city council in Crystal City of all Hispanic Americans
Mexican Americans Run For Office Henry B. Gonzales he won a seat in the Texas Senate; two years later he ran for Governor; in 1960 he became the first Hispanic American to represent Texas in the US House of Representatives.
National Civil Rights Movement Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.- led the March on Washington in 1963 Congress of Racial Equality- (CORE)- founded by Marshall, TX James Farmer; worked to integrate public facilities Brown v. Board of Educations separate is not equal ruling was not always enforced
One Person, One Vote Texas changes its constitution to limit the number of representatives large cities and towns could elect. 1960s- 30 percent of the states population elected more than half of the senators; a vote cast in a rural town was worth more than a city vote. Courts in the 60s began to enforce a one person, one vote rule
Civil Rights and Voting Acts Civil Rights Act of sought to end discrimination on the basis of race, religion, gender, or national origin, to end segregation in public places and job discrimination. Voting Rights Act of protected the rights of voters
Focused Writing What are some of the civil rights gains made in the 1950s and 1960s? Why do you think the supreme court ruled that separate is not equal?