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A Timeline Approach EDUC 7100, Educational Technology

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1 A Timeline Approach EDUC 7100, Educational Technology
Created by Donna Parker

2 The Six Strands… Strand One Wave Theory Strand Two Technology
Strand Three Work Strand Four Education Strand Five Society and Culture Strand Six Special Populations

3 Industrial Revolution Age
The Timeline Begins… 8000 BC – 1750 Toffler’s First Wave Agricultural Age The planting and harvesting of food caused people to begin to live together and form civilized communities. The land provided a source of income, families worked and lived together, cultures took root and flourished. (Toffler, 1980) Toffler’s Second Wave Industrial Revolution Age People began to leave farming and move to cities where they could work in factories. Technology began to change and what was formerly powered by humans was now powered by coal, oil, and gas. Gadgets formerly used by man, where incorporated into the building of machines that were used in factories to make firearms, watches, farm equipment, textiles, etc. (Toffler, 1980)

4 1900 - 1909 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1902 – The Cadillac was founded by Henry Leland. 1906 – The Victor-Victrola is introduced to the public. Strand 2 1902 – The Anthracite Coal Strike in Pennsylvania. Miners strike for wage increases, shorter work day, and the right to unionize. html 1909 – Bakelite, 100% synthetic plastic, is introduced. Strand 3 Association of American Universities formed to promote high standards among colleges. Progressive Education - John Dewey establish a laboratory school which was based on children learning better in informal setting.    1903 – Ivan Pavlov introduces his concept of the conditioned reflex, an important component of classical conditioning. Strand 4 1902 – Virginia constitution is amended to mandate school segregation (Jim Crow laws ) timeline.html 1909 – Nickelodeon, a nickel theater opens in Pittsburgh. Strand 5 Development of the intelligence test by Alfred Binet & Theodore Simon makes it possible to identify or LABEL those with mental retardation. Eugenic Sterilization Law Spreads Like Wildfire. Indiana becomes the first state to enact a eugenic sterilization law—for "confirmed idiots, imbeciles and rapists"—in state institutions. The law spreads like wildfire and is enacted in 24 other states. Strand 6

5 1910 - 1919 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
Ford installs the first moving assembly line for making cars. 1919 –Pop-up toaster hits the market. Strand 2 1914 – Kodak built a 16-story office building, the company's present worldwide headquarters, was completed at 343 State Street, in Rochester. Three more stories were added in http://www.kodak.com/ek/US/en/Our_Company/History_of_Kodak/Milestones_-_chronology/ htm Birth of the "modern" cigarette: RJ Reynolds introduces Camel .http://www.historian.org/bysubject/tobacco3.htm 1911 – First Montessori School opens in Scarborough, NY. 1913 – Connectionism - Edward Thorndike publishes a book that describes his theory that human learning involves habit formation, or connections between stimuli and responses. 1916 – The American Federation of Teachers (AFT) is founded. 1919 – The Progressive Education Association is founded with the goal of reforming American Education. Strand 3 Strand 4 Titanic Sinks on it’s maiden voyage. Girl Scouts first meeting in the US in Savannah, GA. Strand 5 Funding for Rehabilitation. As a result of the large number of WWI veterans returning with disabilities, Congress passes the first major rehabilitation program for soldiers. Easter Seals, Model Charitable Organization formed by Edgar Allen who also founded the Ohio Society for Crippled Children, which becomes the national Easter Seals organization. It serves as a model for many of today's charitable organizations. Strand 6

6 1920 - 1929 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1927 – Jacob Schick invented the Electric Razor. Kodak introduced its first motion picture film designed especially for making the then new sound motion pictures. Strand 2 1920 – Radio Corporation of America is founded with $20 million capital. The Eastman (Kodak) Savings and Loan Association was established to help employees save and to finance home purchases. It remained part of the company until it became a self-standing credit union in Strand 3 Max Wertheimer describes the Gestalt Theory with its emphasis on learning through insight and grasping the whole concept. 1926 – SAT first administered. 1929 – Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development become an important influence in American developmental psychology and education. Strand 4 1920 – 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution – prohibits sale and manufacturing of alcohol goes into effect. 1927 – First sound movie, The Jazz Singer, premiers. Strand 5 a bill funding vocational rehabilitation guarantees federal money for job counseling and vocational training for disabled in the general public. Study of Dyslexia begins with a hypothesis that it could be neurological versus visual, and that it was likely connected to left-handedness. His first assumption is right. His second one, not so.    1927 – Supreme Court rules Compulsory Sterilization Ruled Constitutional under "careful" state safeguards. Strand 6

7 1930 - 1939 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1937 – The first jet engine is built.http://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/twentieth_4.htm 1939 – Electron Microscope invented Strand 2 1938 – American Chester F. Carlson made the first copy by an electrostatic process called xerography. 1933 – 3M company marketed scotch tape. Strand 3 1938 – B.F. Skinner uses the term Operant Conditioning which he defined as changing of behavior by using reinforcements after the correct response is given. 1939 – The Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale is developed by David Wechsler. Strand 4 1936 – Bass Guitar was invented by Paul Tutmarc of Seattle, WA. 1937 – first blood bank is opened at Chicago’s Cook County Hospital. Strand 5 President Franklin D. Roosevelt helps found the National Foundation for Infantile Paralysis (now known as the March of Dimes). His leadership in this organization is one reason he is commemorated on the dime. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Social Security Act, establishing a program of permanent assistance to adults with disabilities. Strand 6

8 1940 - 1949 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1946 – First computer, ENIAC, was announced and filled an entire room! 1948 – Cable television is invented/tested in Lansford, PA. Strand 2 1942 – Car production ceases because of the war. 1948 – Congress passes the Economic Cooperation Act that authorizes the Marshall Plan to help war-torn countries rebuild after WWII. Strand 3 1944 – The Servicemen’s Readjustment Act of 1944, referred to as the GI Bill of Rights, allowed more men than ever before to get a college education.http://www.gibill.va.gov/benefits/history_timeline/index.html 1947 – The Truman Commission Report is issued and recommends sweeping changes in higher education including doubling college enrollment by Strand 4 1941 – U.S. enters WWII after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor. 1943 – Almost all single women in America are working because men are away fighting in WWII. Strand 5 1941- Rosemary Kennedy, twenty-three year old sister of John F. Kennedy Institutionalized after Failed Lobotomy done as a "cure" for lifelong mild retardation and aggressive behavior that surfaces in late adolescence. Her sister, Eunice Kennedy Shriver, later founds the Special Olympics in Rosemary's honor. Dr. Howard A. Rusk founds the Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine in New York City, where he develops techniques to improve the health of injured veterans from World War II. His theory focused on treating the emotional, psychological and social aspects of individuals with disabilities and later became the basis for modern rehabilitation medicine. Strand 6

9 1950 - 1959 Strand 1 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
The introduction of the computer was instrumental in bringing about the beginning of the third wave. This was followed by advances in outer space exploration, interest in artificial intelligence, religious sects, new educational theories, political shifts, influx of European immigrants, growth of corporations, the idea of job sharing or working from home, etc. (Toffler, 1980) Strand 1 Toffler’s Third Wave Information Age 1957 – 1st television remote control is invented. 1955 – Researchers announced that the Salk vaccine had proven effective in preventing polio which was celebrated by all! Strand 2 1956 – Lillian Vernon publishes their first mail-order catalogue in black and white and mails it to 125,000 customers. The Federal Highway Act is signed marking the beginning of work on the interstate highway system. 1953 – B.F. Skinner’s Science and Human Behavior is published and his form of behaviorism (operant conditioning) influences many aspects of American education. 1956 – Bloom’s Taxonomy, still widely used today, divides the cognitive domain into six levels: knowledge, comprehension, application, analysis, synthesis and evaluation. Strand 3 Strand 4 1953 – Julius and Ethel Rosenberg are electrocuted for their part in WWII espionage. 1954 – The Supreme Court rules racial segregation in public schools is illegal. Parents of youth diagnosed with mental retardation found the Association for Retarded Citizens (ARC). The association works to change the public's ideas and give individuals with mental retardation the ability to succeed in life and grow, develop, and live in communities across the nation. Disabled veterans and people with disabilities begin the barrier-free movement. The combined efforts of the Veterans Administration, The President's Committee on Employment of the Handicapped, and the National Easter Seals Society, among others, results in the development of national standards for "barrier-free" buildings. Strand 5 Strand 6

10 1960 - 1969 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1962 – first artificial communications satellite named Telstar beamed a picture across the Atlantic Ocean. 1969 – Dr. Denton A. Cooley was the first heart surgeon to successfully implant an artificial heart in a human. The man lived for three days. Strand 2 1961 – GM introduced three smaller car models: the Buick Special, Oldsmobile F-85, and the Pontiac Tempest. 1961 – Big 3 discount chains – Wal-mart, Target and Kmart – all debute.www.adage.com/article/75-years-of-ideas/1960s Strand 3 1960 – David K. Berlo developed the SMCR model of communication that used the source-message-channel-receiver concept. 1966 – Jerome Bruner’s constructivist theory states that learning is an active process, and learners use past experiences and knowledge to formulate new ideas. Strand 4 1963 – President John F. Kennedy is assassinated. 1964 – Beatles’ U.S. debut on “The Ed Sullivan Show”. Strand 5 Ed Roberts, a young man with polio, fights for Admission to UC, Berkeley. After his admission is rejected, he fights to get the decision overturned. He becomes the father of the Independent Living Movement and helps establish the first Center for Independent Living (CIL). First International Special Olympics Games. Eunice Kennedy Shriver founded the Special Olympics in 1962 to provide athletic training and competition for persons with intellectual disabilities. Strand 6

11 1970 - 1979 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1971 – first video game “Galaxy Game” was operated by coins and was introduced at Stanford University. 1975 – First digital camera with a resolution of 0.01 megapixels is introduced. Strand 2 – OPEC Oil Embargo. 1979 – Federal Reserve refuses to supply more money causing interest rates to rise, consumer spending to decrease and business borrowing to slow down. Strand 3 1970 – Piaget’s book, The Science of Education, is published. His learning cycle model becomes a popular option for teaching in the area of science since it focuses on discovery learning. 1974 – The Equal Education Opportunities Act is passed. Schools can not discriminate and actions need to be taken to make sure discrimination does not occur. Strand 4 1974 – Richard M. Nixon is the first President to resign from office. 1975 – P.L or the Education for all Handicapped Children Act goes into effect. Strand 5 Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 makes it illegal for federal agencies, public universities, and other public institutions receiving any federal funds to discriminate on the basis of disability. The Education for Handicapped Children Act of 1975—now called the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) is signed into law. It guarantees a free, appropriate, public education for all children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment. Strand 6

12 1980 - 1989 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
1982 – IBM PC is debuted to general public. 1984 – Apple released the Macintosh computer with Graphical User Interface. Strand 2 1984 – Cisco is founded by Leonard Bposack and Sandra Lerner. 1985 – Richard Stallman releases a free operating system, “GNU”. 1989 – Adobe releases Photoshop. Strand 3 1981 – John Holt publishes his book, Teach Your Own: A Hopeful Path for Education, which causes homeschooling to begin to increase. 1982 – Mastery Teaching, by Madeline C. Hunter, is published. She proposed a direct instruction teaching model, and held workshops across the U.S. to teach teachers how to best accomplish this. Strand 4 1987 – The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. sign the first comprehensive nuclear arms control treaty. 1986 – Space shuttle Challenger exploded 74 seconds after liftoff. Strand 5 The term Attention Deficit Disorder is included for the first time in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA). Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988 is passed. This piece of legislation increases access to, availability of, and funding for assistive technology through state and national initiatives. Strand 6

13 Emerging Technologies
Technology is now moving at lighting speed. It’s as if everyone is racing to be the first to develop and patent newer, bigger, and better technology at all times. Strand 1 Fourth Wave Emerging Technologies 1995 – Invention of the DVD by a collaboration between Sony and Philips. 1998 – Stem Cells derived from the human embryo were first isolated. Strand 2 1991 – The first economic recession ever strikes California. 1992 – Richard Baily starts his visual-effects animation company, Image Savant. 1994 – DirecTV launches the first satellite-based television service. Strand 3 1990 – Teach for America is formed as a result of the 1989 undergraduate thesis of Princeton University student Wendy Koppp. 1992 – First charter school in the nation opens in St. Paul, MN – City Academy High School. Strand 4 1991 – The Persian Gulf War 1992 – Jean Armour Polly coins the phrase “Surfing the Internet”. Strand 5 Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) Becomes Law The ADA is considered the most important civil rights law since Title 504 and has cross-disability support, bringing disability-specific organizations, advocates, and supporters all together for the same cause. The Telecommunications Act passes and requires that computers, telephones, closed captioning, and many other telecommunication devices and equipment be made accessible. Strand 6

14 2000 - 2009 Strand 2 Strand 3 Strand 4 Strand 5 Strand 6
2001 – Artificial liver invented by Dr. Kenneth Matsumura and Alin Foundationhttp://inventors.about.com/od/timelines/a/ModernInvention.htm 2001 – Apple announces their portable music digital player the iPod. 2003 – Toyota invents the Hybrid Car. 2005 – Adobe Acquires Macromedia, notebook computers account for 53% of the computer market, Yahoo, Google, America OnLine (AOL) and MSN are the four biggest Internet portals, Ebay acquires Skipe. 2006 – Google acquires YouTube and Walt Disney acquires Pixar. 2007 – Apple launches the iPhone. 2008 – The USA stock market collapses, triggering similar collapses around the world. Strand 2 Strand 3 2000 – Diane Ravitch publishes Left Back: A Century of Failed School Reforms. Her book argues for a more traditional, academic education that gets back to the basics. 2001 – No Child Left Behind Act is approved and signed into law. 2009 – Quest to Learn opens in NYC and is the first school to teach using game-based learning. Strand 4 Vermont becomes the fourth state to legally recognize civil unions between gay and lesbian couples. 2001 – Terrorist attacks on the U.S. – 9/11. (http://www.pincumbe.com/timetable.htm) 2003 – USA and Britain invade Iraq to remove Saddam Hussein from power, starting a civil war. 2007 – There are 12.5 illegal immigrants in the USA, of which more than half are from Mexico. Strand 5 First Disability Pride Parade in Chicago. A coalition of disability rights advocates and organizations held the first Disability Pride Parade which was designed to "change the way people think about and define disability, to break down and end the internalized shame among people with disabilities, and to promote the belief in society that disability is a natural and beautiful part of life”. The first bill requiring that students in a K-12 public school system be taught the history of the disability rights movement is passed, largely due to the efforts of 20 young people with disabilities from the state of West Virginia. Strand 6

15 21st Century for those with Disabilities
2011 New inventions of 2011 include: fabrics made from raw milk, a new kind of photography, an electronic bloodhound, the world's smallest ink jet printer. Strand 2 21st Century Business focuses on building business through providing an open forum for today's executives facing a rapidly evolving global economy. Strand 3 21st-century education refers to certain core competencies such as collaboration, digital literacy, critical thinking, and problem-solving that advocates believe schools need to teach to help students thrive in today's world. In a broader sense, however, the idea of what learning in the 21st century should look like is open to interpretation—and controversy. 2010 Governor of Arizona, Jan Brewer(Rep.), signs into law the country’s toughest immigration bill designed to identify and deport illegal immigrants. After surveying 115,000 active-duty and reserve service members in a nine-month study, the Pentagon announces that repealing the "Don't Ask, Don't Tell," law, which forbids gay and lesbian service members from serving openly in the military, will not affect the military's strength Information Please: 2010 2011 Osama bin Laden is dead! Apple founder and CEO, Steve Jobs, dies after a long battle with cancer. Strand 4 21st Century for those with Disabilities …the Nation’s proper goals regarding individuals with Disabilities are to ensure equality of Opportunity, full participation, independent living, and economic self-sufficiency for such individuals… Americans with Disabilities Act Strand 5 Strand 6

16 References Toffler, A. (1980). The Third Wave. New York, NY: Bantam Books


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