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Current challenges What is inclusion? Identifying barriers to inclusive practice Where does change begin? Teacher education Structured discussion Overcoming.

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Presentation on theme: "Current challenges What is inclusion? Identifying barriers to inclusive practice Where does change begin? Teacher education Structured discussion Overcoming."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Current challenges What is inclusion? Identifying barriers to inclusive practice Where does change begin? Teacher education Structured discussion Overcoming barriers

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4 Inclusion in education involves the processes of… increasing the participation of students in and reducing exclusion increasing the participation of students in and reducing exclusion from the cultures, curricula, and communities of local schools. restructuring the cultures, policies, and practices in schools restructuring the cultures, policies, and practices in schools so that they respond to student diversity. reducing barriers to learning and participation of all students reducing barriers to learning and participation of all students, not only those who are categorized as having special educational needs. Index for Inclusion (2006)

5 [5 minutes] In small groups, discuss the following question and be prepared to report back. the barriers to successful inclusive education Through your observations or experiences, what do you believe to be the barriers to successful inclusive education ?

6 lack of coordination among government, school boards, and schools structure of our schools does not meet the needs of diverse learners one-size-fits-all curriculum inflexible assessment and teaching methods rigid examination systems lack, or uneven, distribution, of resources lack of support staff inaccessible buildings lack of conceptual understanding inadequate training of teachers attitudes, beliefs, and values related to disability and inclusion Carrington & Robinson (2006); Mitchell (2006)

7 Individuals Classrooms Schools Society

8 In pairs [2 min] Brainstorm. List skills that pre-service teachers need to gain in order to instruct in inclusive settings. Groups of 4 [5 min] Share your lists Narrow down to top 5 skills that teachers need Groups of 8 [8 min] We can assume that pre-service teachers are learning some of these skills, but why is there still resistance to inclusive education? Share with large group

9 How can we re-imagine the way we approach issues of inclusion in teacher training?

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11 acceptance implementation ATTITUDES – BELIEFS – VALUES

12 School interactions have a significant effect on the experiences of students with disabilities. The risk inherent in having a disability does not necessarily cause negative outcomes; instead, ones vulnerability to future problems is related to how the disability is experienced in the broader context of the environment (Morrison & Cosden, 1997). Researchers have shown that teachers who are most able to manage inclusive classrooms are those who have personal beliefs that all students can and should be included, as well as have the supports of administrators and policies that enforce this belief (Stanovich & Jordan, 1998).

13 ABV Individual Education Plan (IEP) Disability- specific information DifferentiationAssessmentTechnology Parent-school collaboration Classroom management

14 Wyer and Lambert (1994) define "person perception" as the process by which people form impressions and make judgments about the traits and characteristics of others. Person schemas Person schemas are formed where we then attempt to fit an individual into some pre-existing stereotype we have about the population in question. determining the way we behave These schemas play a large role in determining the way we behave toward certain individuals. Challenge of changing attitudes

15 For further information: or To continue the discussion:

16 Ainscow, M. (2000). Developing inclusive schools: Implications for leadership. National College for School Leadership. Baglieri, S., & Knopf, J. H. (2004). Normalizing difference in inclusive teaching. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 37(6), Carrington, S., & Robinson, R. (2006). Inclusive school community: Why is it so complex? International Journal of Inclusive Education, 10(4-5), Centre for Studies on Inclusive Education. (2006). Index for inclusion. Mitchell, D. (2006, October 23). Inclusive education: A formula for success. Mail & Guardian. Morrison, G. M., & Cosden, M. A. (1997). Risk, resilience, and adjustment of individuals with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 20, Stanovich, P. J., & Jordan, A. (1998). Canadian teachers and principals beliefs about inclusive education as predictors of effective teaching in heterogeneous classrooms. The Elementary School Journal, 98,


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