Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Earths Atmosphere 1. The Atmosphere thin layer of gas that covers the entire earth --- (a sea of gasses) lets us breathe keeps us cool very thin (approx.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Earths Atmosphere 1. The Atmosphere thin layer of gas that covers the entire earth --- (a sea of gasses) lets us breathe keeps us cool very thin (approx."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Earths Atmosphere 1

2 The Atmosphere thin layer of gas that covers the entire earth --- (a sea of gasses) lets us breathe keeps us cool very thin (approx. 65 miles ) The Atmosphere thin layer of gas that covers the entire earth --- (a sea of gasses) lets us breathe keeps us cool very thin (approx. 65 miles ) 2

3 Atmosphere: a mixture of gasses surrounding a planet (sea of gasses) Atmosphere: a mixture of gasses surrounding a planet (sea of gasses) The earths atmosphere: Nitrogen (N) = 78.08% Oxygen (O) = 20.95% Argon (Ar) =.93% Nitrogen (N) = 78.08% Oxygen (O) = 20.95% Argon (Ar) =.93% Other: Water vapor (H 2 O) = 1%-4% Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) =.035% Other: Water vapor (H 2 O) = 1%-4% Carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) =.035% Helium (He) Methane (CH 4 ) Krypton (Kr) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Hydrogen (H 2 ) Ozone (O 3 ) dust and pollen particles Helium (He) Methane (CH 4 ) Krypton (Kr) Nitrous oxide (N 2 O) Hydrogen (H 2 ) Ozone (O 3 ) dust and pollen particles measured as dry air measured as dry air

4 II to breathe our atmosphere. I will get an A on my exams and quizzes. Discuss with a friend: 1.Define an atmosphere (not the earths). 2. What is the composition of the earths atmosphere? atmosphere? 3. What are the two major compounds that represent less than 1% of gasses that represent less than 1% of gasses in the atmosphere? in the atmosphere?

5 Atmospheric Layers and Temperature T T T T ThermosphereThermosphere MesosphereMesosphere StratosphereStratosphere TroposphereTroposphere 7 mi 30 mi 50 mi

6 TT TT TT T T Homosphere Composition of the atmosphere is. uniform. Heterosphere Atmosphere is layered by molecular weight and electric charge.

7 II to breathe our atmosphere. Discuss with a friend: 4.Draw a diagram showing the layering of the earths atmosphere. of the earths atmosphere. 5. Show the temperature relations between each atmospheric layer. each atmospheric layer. 6. Define the differences between the homosphere and heterosphere zones homosphere and heterosphere zones of the atmosphere. of the atmosphere. 8

8 TroposphereTroposphere lowest layer of the atmosphere temperature decreases with altitude temperature decreases with altitude environmental temperature lapse rate (ETL) environmental temperature lapse rate (ETL) ETL – temperature decreases with altitude ETL – temperature decreases with altitude ETL averages C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. ETL averages C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. all storm and turbulent activity takes place all storm and turbulent activity takes place average thickness is 12 km from surface average thickness is 12 km from surface thickest at the equator (16 km, 10 mi.) thickest at the equator (16 km, 10 mi.) thinnest at the polar regions (6 km, 4 mi.) thinnest at the polar regions (6 km, 4 mi.) responsible for the greenhouse effect responsible for the greenhouse effect lowest layer of the atmosphere temperature decreases with altitude temperature decreases with altitude environmental temperature lapse rate (ETL) environmental temperature lapse rate (ETL) ETL – temperature decreases with altitude ETL – temperature decreases with altitude ETL averages C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. ETL averages C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. all storm and turbulent activity takes place all storm and turbulent activity takes place average thickness is 12 km from surface average thickness is 12 km from surface thickest at the equator (16 km, 10 mi.) thickest at the equator (16 km, 10 mi.) thinnest at the polar regions (6 km, 4 mi.) thinnest at the polar regions (6 km, 4 mi.) responsible for the greenhouse effect responsible for the greenhouse effect 9

9 StratosphereStratosphere Layer lies between the troposphere and mesosphere. mesosphere. contains strong, persistent winds that blow contains strong, persistent winds that blow from west to east. from west to east. Temperature increases as altitude increases. Temperature increases as altitude increases. contains the ozone layer (O 3 ). contains the ozone layer (O 3 ). Stratosphere heats up because the ozone absorbs Stratosphere heats up because the ozone absorbs the suns radiation. the suns radiation. Layer lies between the troposphere and mesosphere. mesosphere. contains strong, persistent winds that blow contains strong, persistent winds that blow from west to east. from west to east. Temperature increases as altitude increases. Temperature increases as altitude increases. contains the ozone layer (O 3 ). contains the ozone layer (O 3 ). Stratosphere heats up because the ozone absorbs Stratosphere heats up because the ozone absorbs the suns radiation. the suns radiation. 10

10 Ozone layer (O 3 ) O O O O O O three oxygens bonded together O 2 (molecular oxygen) + O (elemental oxygen) combine through ultra-violet energy bombardment continuous cycle three oxygens bonded together O 2 (molecular oxygen) + O (elemental oxygen) combine through ultra-violet energy bombardment continuous cycle protects us from harmful ultra-violet radiation absorbs 97% of UV radiation concentrated in the upper stratosphere protects us from harmful ultra-violet radiation absorbs 97% of UV radiation concentrated in the upper stratosphere 11

11 MesosphereMesosphere layer between the thermosphere and stratosphere stratosphere 30 to 50 miles above the earth 30 to 50 miles above the earth temperature decreases with altitude temperature decreases with altitude has the coldest temperature of C has the coldest temperature of C layer between the thermosphere and stratosphere stratosphere 30 to 50 miles above the earth 30 to 50 miles above the earth temperature decreases with altitude temperature decreases with altitude has the coldest temperature of C has the coldest temperature of C 12

12 ThermosphereThermosphere first layer to be heated by the sun uppermost layer of atmosphere uppermost layer of atmosphere temperature increases with altitude temperature increases with altitude Wheres the upper boundary? Wheres the upper boundary? first layer to be heated by the sun uppermost layer of atmosphere uppermost layer of atmosphere temperature increases with altitude temperature increases with altitude Wheres the upper boundary? Wheres the upper boundary? 13

13 What is incoming solar radiation? (insolation) energy the earth receives from the sun energy the earth receives from the sun travels 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec) travels 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec) travels in wave motion travels in wave motion Sun rays comprise the electromagnetic spectrum. Sun rays comprise the electromagnetic spectrum. What is incoming solar radiation? (insolation) energy the earth receives from the sun energy the earth receives from the sun travels 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec) travels 300,000 km/sec (186,000 mi/sec) travels in wave motion travels in wave motion Sun rays comprise the electromagnetic spectrum. Sun rays comprise the electromagnetic spectrum. Electromagnetic Spectrum (EM scale) Wavelengths the eye can see Wavelengths the human eye can see R O Y G B I V R O Y G B I V Not harmful Very harmful Long Waves Short Waves 14

14 II to breathe our atmosphere. 7. Describe at least 2 major characteristics of each layer in the earths atmosphere. of each layer in the earths atmosphere. 8. Define insolation. 9. Draw the EM scale and label the following: types of long wave radiation types of short wave radiation the visible light spectrum 10. What wavelengths are harmful to life? 15

15 ThermosphereThermosphere MesosphereMesosphere StratosphereStratosphere TroposphereTroposphere most short waves are absorbed most short waves are absorbed UV waves are absorbed and make ozone (O 3 ) UV waves are absorbed and make ozone (O 3 ) Most EM is longwave before hitting the surface (visible and IR) Most EM is longwave before hitting the surface (visible and IR) OZONEOZONE insolation 16

16 H 2 O –the most remarkable substance on earth! H 2 O –the most remarkable substance on earth! Water exists in ALL three states on the earths surface. SOLID LIQUID GAS 17

17 ICE LIQUID WATER VAPOR WATER VAPOR Moving from an ordered state to a less ordered state, heat is absorbed. Energy is taken in. Moving from an ordered state to a less ordered state, heat is absorbed. Energy is taken in. Moving from a less ordered state to a more ordered state, heat is released. Energy moves out. Moving from a less ordered state to a more ordered state, heat is released. Energy moves out. Latent heat (hidden heat) the amount of heat released or absorbed during a phase change (solid to a liquid to a gas) Latent heat (hidden heat) the amount of heat released or absorbed during a phase change (solid to a liquid to a gas) 18

18 Heat Absorbed Heat Released 19

19 Examples of latent heat: Water is evaporated off your skin surface and you feel cool. Why do you feel cool? Water is evaporated off your skin surface and you feel cool. Why do you feel cool? As water evaporates from your skin surface, heat energy is absorbed from your skin cooling your body. moving from a liquid state to a vapor state (latent heat is absorbed) As water evaporates from your skin surface, heat energy is absorbed from your skin cooling your body. moving from a liquid state to a vapor state (latent heat is absorbed) Clouds are formed through the process of condensation (changing water vapor to a suspended liquid). Clouds are formed through the process of condensation (changing water vapor to a suspended liquid). As water vapor cools in the upper atmosphere, it condenses to liquid releasing latent heat. As water vapor cools in the upper atmosphere, it condenses to liquid releasing latent heat. So, where does the latent heat go? 20

20 Absorbed and released latent heat is circulated throughout the earths atmosphere, giving rise to clouds and various forms of precipitation. To understand the formation of clouds and precipitation, one needs to understand: To understand the formation of clouds and precipitation, one needs to understand: Humidity 22 The Greenhouse Effect Adiabatic Processes Convection Condensation

21 II to breathe our atmosphere. 11. What is latent heat, and how does latent heat interact with various phase changes heat interact with various phase changes of water? of water? 12. Describe the differences between humidity and relative humidity. humidity and relative humidity. 13. What conditions are necessary regarding atmospheric temperature and water vapor atmospheric temperature and water vapor to reach a dew point? to reach a dew point? 26

22 How do you feel on a hot, humid day? Humidity: Humidity represents the amount of water vapor in the air. The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is dependent on air temperature. Humidity: Humidity represents the amount of water vapor in the air. The amount of water vapor in the atmosphere is dependent on air temperature. Relative Humidity (RH): RH compares the amount of water vapor in the air to what that parcel of air can hold according to a particular temperature. Relative Humidity (RH): RH compares the amount of water vapor in the air to what that parcel of air can hold according to a particular temperature. Dew Point: At dew point, the air is saturated with water vapor (cant hold anymore), and the air condenses. Dew Point: At dew point, the air is saturated with water vapor (cant hold anymore), and the air condenses. 23

23 Relative Humidity Relative Humidity Temperature 25 parcel of air parcel of air

24 What happens to both humidity and relative humidity as a function of atmospheric air temperature? What happens to both humidity and relative humidity as a function of atmospheric air temperature? % of H 2 O vapor increases with increase in air temperature. % of H 2 O vapor increases with increase in air temperature. condensing 24

25 How does absorbed insolation keep the atmosphere warm? How does absorbed insolation keep the atmosphere warm? The Greenhouse Effect The Greenhouse Effect

26 Visible and UV light insolation insolation IR heat waves are trapped inside the greenhouse. IR heat waves are trapped inside the greenhouse. The Greenhouse Effect counterradiation The Greenhouse Effect counterradiation Temperature 29

27 .07%.03% trace How do greenhouse gasses contribute to counterradiation? 30

28 Carbon dioxide absorbing infrared EM Infrared EM vibrates CO 2 CO 2 CO 2 absorbs IR EM. CO 2 absorbs IR EM. IR is released to IR is released to the earths surface. the earths surface. Atmosphere heats up! 31

29 How does the greenhouse effect work in our atmosphere? Sun CO 2 absorbs IR waves. Visible & UV Infrared IR returns counterradiation. counterradiation. Surface AtmosphereHeats 32 What do you think is the role of H 2 O vapor in the atmosphere?

30 Do we need the greenhouse effect (GHE)? Would global temperatures be C without the greenhouse effect? Is the greenhouse effect NATURAL? Does the GHE act as a blanket keeping the earth warm? Is the greenhouse effect considered a contributor of global warming? The global warming debate considers: Is the increase in CO 2 natural? Is the increase in CO 2 man-made? What is the role of water vapor? Do we need the greenhouse effect (GHE)? Would global temperatures be C without the greenhouse effect? Is the greenhouse effect NATURAL? Does the GHE act as a blanket keeping the earth warm? Is the greenhouse effect considered a contributor of global warming? The global warming debate considers: Is the increase in CO 2 natural? Is the increase in CO 2 man-made? What is the role of water vapor? NO! 33

31 II to breathe our atmosphere. 14. What % of EM is reflected back to space, and what % is absorbed at the earths surface? and what % is absorbed at the earths surface? 15. How is the earths albedo defined? 16. What are greenhouse gasses? Explain how the greenhouse effect warms the earth. the greenhouse effect warms the earth. 17. Why is the greenhouse effect important to the survival of life on earth? the survival of life on earth? 34

32 Formation of Clouds unique formation? adiabatic principle condensation 35

33 Adiabatic (ey-di-uh-BA-tic) processes describes how the temperature of an air parcel describes how the temperature of an air parcel changes as it rises and falls in the atmosphere changes as it rises and falls in the atmosphere Adiabatic (ey-di-uh-BA-tic) processes describes how the temperature of an air parcel describes how the temperature of an air parcel changes as it rises and falls in the atmosphere changes as it rises and falls in the atmosphere Air Pressure Higher Higher Lower Lower CompressionCompression ExpansionExpansion WarmsWarms CoolsCools 37

34 Adiabatic Processes By definition, adiabatic processes involve NO By definition, adiabatic processes involve NO heat exchange between the parcel of air and heat exchange between the parcel of air and surrounding atmosphere. surrounding atmosphere. Cooling and Heating take place very fast.Cooling and Heating take place very fast. Adiabatic Processes By definition, adiabatic processes involve NO By definition, adiabatic processes involve NO heat exchange between the parcel of air and heat exchange between the parcel of air and surrounding atmosphere. surrounding atmosphere. Cooling and Heating take place very fast.Cooling and Heating take place very fast. Rising air always expands and cools adiabatically. Rising air always expands and cools adiabatically. Subsiding air is always compressed and warmed Subsiding air is always compressed and warmed adiabatically. adiabatically. Rising air always expands and cools adiabatically. Rising air always expands and cools adiabatically. Subsiding air is always compressed and warmed Subsiding air is always compressed and warmed adiabatically. adiabatically. 38

35 SurfaceSurface Temp: 30 o C 86 o F 86 o F Temp: 30 o C 86 o F 86 o F 1000 m Temp: 20 o C 68 o F 68 o F Temp: 20 o C 68 o F 68 o F 2000 m Temp: 10 o C 50 o F 50 o F Temp: 10 o C 50 o F 50 o F Atmospheric pressure compresses air molecules, keeping air temp at 30 o C. Atmospheric pressure compresses air molecules, keeping air temp at 30 o C. Decreasing air pressure causes air molecules to expand, and air temperature decreases. Decreasing air pressure causes air molecules to expand, and air temperature decreases. Air rises Air molecules continue to expand, decreasing temp. Air molecules continue to expand, decreasing temp. 39

36 1,000 m (3,280 ft) 2,000 m (6,561 ft) 3,000 m (9,842 ft) T= 12 0 C 53 0 F T= 2 0 C 35 0 F T= -8 0 C 18 0 F DAR – Dry Adiabatic Rate (when air is rising) Unsaturated air (dry air) will cool 10 0 C/1000 m Unsaturated air (dry air) will cool 10 0 C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. or F/1000 ft. DAR – Dry Adiabatic Rate (when air is rising) Unsaturated air (dry air) will cool 10 0 C/1000 m Unsaturated air (dry air) will cool 10 0 C/1000 m or F/1000 ft. or F/1000 ft. Measuring adiabatic cooling DAR (Dry Adiabatic Rate) Measuring adiabatic cooling DAR (Dry Adiabatic Rate) 40

37 What if the air is SATURATED? (MAR) Moist Adiabatic Rate varies from C/1000 m, as an average- 6 °C / 1000 m (MAR) Moist Adiabatic Rate varies from C/1000 m, as an average- 6 °C / 1000 m depends on water vapor content of air (more vapor = more latent heat exchange!) Why is DAR different from MAR ? 1,000 m (3,280 ft) T= 12 0 C 53 0 F Saturated T= 12 0 C 53 0 F Saturated 2,000 m (6,561 ft) T= 6 0 C 43 0 F Saturated T= 6 0 C 43 0 F Saturated 3,000 m (9,842 ft) T T=0 0 C 32 0 F Saturated T T=0 0 C 32 0 F Saturated 41

38 II to breathe our atmosphere. 18. Define adiabatic processes. 19. Describe the differences between the DAR and MAR air masses. DAR and MAR air masses. 20. Describe what happens to a parcel of air as it rises and falls under the influence as it rises and falls under the influence of adiabatic processes. of adiabatic processes. 42

39 Clouds: Clouds are suspended water droplets, ice particles, or a mixture of both. Cloud particles grow around a small tiny piece of solid matter (condensation nucleus) suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols (condensation nuclei) originate from the ocean. Clouds: Clouds are suspended water droplets, ice particles, or a mixture of both. Cloud particles grow around a small tiny piece of solid matter (condensation nucleus) suspended in the atmosphere. Aerosols (condensation nuclei) originate from the ocean. Droplets of spray are lifted by wind currents, and upon evaporation, the salt xl is left behind to form condensation nuclei – the beginning of a cloud. Droplets of spray are lifted by wind currents, and upon evaporation, the salt xl is left behind to form condensation nuclei – the beginning of a cloud. 43

40 Formation of a Cloud and Convective Precipitation LCL Saturated air mass rises and reaches the dew point or LCL (lifting condensation level) forming the cloud Saturated air mass rises and reaches the dew point or LCL (lifting condensation level) forming the cloud Continued rising and condensation add more water drops. Continued rising and condensation add more water drops. Convection within the cloud suspends water droplets. Convection within the cloud suspends water droplets Water drops grow in size overcoming convective updrafts and exit the cloud. This is rain. Water drops grow in size overcoming convective updrafts and exit the cloud. This is rain

41 Condensation! Water vapor rises in the atmosphere Water vapor rises in the atmosphere and cools (condensing) forming clouds. and cools (condensing) forming clouds.Condensation! Water vapor rises in the atmosphere Water vapor rises in the atmosphere and cools (condensing) forming clouds. and cools (condensing) forming clouds. coolscools coolscools coolscools Vapor rises CondensesCondenses LCL 45

42 Convection inside a cloud turbulence turbulence Hot air rises Air cools (sinks) 46

43 Orographic Precipitation Oro (mountains) -moist air moves up and over a mountain barrier. Orographic Precipitation Oro (mountains) -moist air moves up and over a mountain barrier.Bakersfield SantaBarbara CoastRanges SierraNevadaMountains Rain Shadow RainShadow moving moist air air Evaporation Precipitation Precipitation Dry Air 47

44 . II to breathe our atmosphere. 21. What are condensation nuclei, and what role do they play in cloud formation? role do they play in cloud formation? 22.Describe the occurrence of precipitation in both the convective and orographic environments. the convective and orographic environments. 48

45 Clouds are classified based on their height and vertical development. high, middle, or low clouds vertical extension into the atmosphere Clouds are classified based on their height and vertical development. high, middle, or low clouds vertical extension into the atmosphere 49

46 Cirrus clouds high clouds – white and wispy high clouds – white and wispy often have a feathery appearance often have a feathery appearance appear at 20,000 feet appear at 20,000 feet commonly appear in fair weather and point commonly appear in fair weather and point in the direction of air movement in the direction of air movement Cirrus clouds high clouds – white and wispy high clouds – white and wispy often have a feathery appearance often have a feathery appearance appear at 20,000 feet appear at 20,000 feet commonly appear in fair weather and point commonly appear in fair weather and point in the direction of air movement in the direction of air movement 50

47 Cumulus clouds globular individual cloud masses globular individual cloud masses contain a flat base (condensation level) contain a flat base (condensation level) rising domes with anvil head tops rising domes with anvil head tops commonly 1000 feet above the surface commonly 1000 feet above the surface tremendous amounts of energy released tremendous amounts of energy released from condensing water vapor from condensing water vapor Cumulus clouds globular individual cloud masses globular individual cloud masses contain a flat base (condensation level) contain a flat base (condensation level) rising domes with anvil head tops rising domes with anvil head tops commonly 1000 feet above the surface commonly 1000 feet above the surface tremendous amounts of energy released tremendous amounts of energy released from condensing water vapor from condensing water vapor 51

48 Stratus clouds very low cloud sheets very low cloud sheets covers wide areas of the surface covers wide areas of the surface can be considered fog can be considered fog a low gray blanket of moisture a low gray blanket of moisture can bring rain or snow can bring rain or snow 52

49 This is the Dont be in the clouds before the final exam formation. This is the Dont be in the clouds before the final exam formation. 53

50 II to breathe our atmosphere. 23. How are clouds classified? 24. Give two examples of cloud types in high, middle, and low altitudes. high, middle, and low altitudes. 54


Download ppt "The Earths Atmosphere 1. The Atmosphere thin layer of gas that covers the entire earth --- (a sea of gasses) lets us breathe keeps us cool very thin (approx."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google