2MemoryMemory is the basis for knowing your friends, your neighbors, the English language, the national anthem, and yourself.If memory was nonexistent, everyone would be a stranger to you; every language foreign; every task new; and even you yourself would be a stranger.An event is such a little piece of time and space, leaving only a mindglow behind like the tail of a shooting star. Far a lack of a better word, we call that scintillation memory. Diane Ackerman, An Alchemy of Mind, 2004
3The Phenomenon of Memory Memory is any indication that learning has persisted over time. It is our ability to store and retrieve information.
4Studying Memory: Information Processing Models Preview Question 1: How do psychologists describe the human memory system?Keyboard(Encoding)Disk(Storage)Monitor(Retrieval)Sequential Process
5Information Processing The Atkinson-Schiffrin (1968) three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory, and c) long-term memory.Bob Daemmrich/ The Image WorksFrank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/CorbisBob Daemmrich/ The Image Works
6Modifications to the Three-Stage Model Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically.Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory.
7Working MemoryA newer understanding of short-term memory that involves conscious, active processing of incoming auditory and visual-spatial information, and of information retrieved from long-term memory
8Encoding: Getting Information In How We EncodeSome information (route to your school) is automatically processed.However, new or unusual information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.Preview Question 2: How do automatic and effortful processing help us encode sights, sounds, and other sensations and transfer them into our memory system?
9Automatic ProcessingWe process an enormous amount of information effortlessly, such as the following:Space: While reading a textbook, you automatically encode the place of a picture on a page.Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day.Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happen to you.
11Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZHermann Ebbinghaus( )
12RehearsalThe more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1,the fewer repetitions were required to remember them on Day 2.
13Memory EffectsSpacing Effect: We retain information better when we rehearse over time.Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items on a list, but poor for middle items.
14What We Encode Encoding by meaning Encoding by images Encoding by organizationPreview Question 4: What methods of effortful processing aid in forming memories?
15Encoding MeaningProcessing the meaning of verbal information by associating it with what we already know or imagine. Encoding meaning (semantic encoding) results in better recognition later than visual or acoustic encoding.
16Visual EncodingMental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding.Both photos: Ho/AP PhotoShowing adverse effects of tanning and smokingin a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.
17MnemonicsImagery is at the heart of many memory aids. Mnemonic techniques use vivid imagery and organizational devices in aiding memory.Ex 1: The peg system (one-bun, two-shoe, three-tree, four-door, five-hive, six-sticks, seven-heaven, eight-gate, nine-swine, ten-hen)Ex 2: My Very Ernest Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets – Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, Pluto
18Organizing Information for Encoding Break down complex information into broad concepts and further subdivide them into categories and subcategories.ChunkingHierarchies
19ChunkingOrganizing items into a familiar, manageable unit. Try to remember the numbers below.If you are well versed with American history, chunk the numbers together and see if you can recall them better
20Acronyms are another way of chunking information to remember it. HOMES = Huron, Ontario, Michigan, Erie, SuperiorROY G. BIV = Red, Orange, Yellow, Green, Blue, Indigo, Violet
21HierarchyComplex information broken down into broad concepts and further subdivided into categories and subcategories.
23Storage: Retaining Information Storage is at the heart of memory. Three stores of memory are shown below:SensoryMemoryWorkingMemoryLong-termMemoryEncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalRetrieval
24Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events EncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalPreview Question 5: How does sensory memory work?Retrieval
25Whole Report R G T F M Q L Z S “Recall” R T M Z (44% recall) Sperling (1960)R G T F M Q L Z S“Recall”R T M Z(44% recall)50 ms (1/20 second)The exposure time for the stimulus is so smallthat items cannot be rehearsed.
26Partial Report S X T J R S P K Y “Recall” J R S (100% recall) Low Tone Medium ToneHigh Tone“Recall”J R S(100% recall)50 ms (1/20 second)Sperling (1960) argued that sensory memory capacity was larger than what was originally thought.
27Time Delay A D I N L V O G H “Recall” N _ _ (33% recall) Low Tone Medium ToneHigh Tone“Recall”N _ _(33% recall)TimeDelay50 ms (1/20 second)
28The longer the delay, the greater the memory loss. Sensory MemoryThe longer the delay, the greater the memory loss.20406080Percent Recognized0.150.300.501.00Time (Seconds)
29The duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses. Sensory MemoriesThe duration of sensory memory varies for the different senses.Iconic0.5 sec. longEchoic3-4 sec. longHepatic< 1 sec. long
30Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Events EncodingEventsEncodingRetrievalPreview Question 6: What are the limits of short-term memory?Retrieval
31Working MemoryWorking memory, the new name for short-term memory, has a limited capacity (7±2) and a short duration (20 seconds).Sir George Hamilton observed that he could accurately remember upto 7 beans thrown on the floor. If there were more beans, he guessed.
32Capacity M U T G I K T L R S Y P The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two: Some Limits on Our Capacity for Processing Information (1956).Ready?M U T G I K T L R S Y PYou should be able torecall 7±2 letters.George Miller
33Chunking F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-M FBI TWA CIA IBM 4 chunks The capacity of the working memory may be increased by “chunking.”F-B-I-T-W-A-C-I-A-I-B-MFBI TWA CIA IBM4 chunks
34The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec. Peterson and Peterson (1959) measured the duration of working memory by manipulating rehearsal.CHJMKTHIJ547547544541…CH??3 consonant groups and then count backwards y 3…after 3 seconds half letters were recalled…after 12 sec few were recalled. Without active processing, short-term memories have a limited life. Limited in duration and capacity.The duration of the working memory is about 20 sec.
40Storing Memories in the Brain Loftus and Loftus (1980) reviewed previous research data showing, through brain stimulation, that memories were etched into the brain and found that only a handful of brain stimulated patients reported flashbacks.Using rats, Lashley (1950) suggested that even after removing parts of the brain, the animals retain partial memory of the maze.Preview Question 8: How are memories recorded in the brain?
41Synaptic ChangesIn Aplysia, Kandel and Schwartz (1982) showed that serotonin release from neurons increased after conditioning.Classically conditioned with electric shock to withdrawal its gills when squirted with water. By observing the slugs neural connections before and after conditioning pinpointed changes in serotonin release at certain synapses which then become more efficient at transferring signals.Photo: Scientific American
42Synaptic ChangesLong-Term Potentiation (LTP) refers to synaptic enhancement after learning (Lynch, 2002). An increase in neurotransmitter release or receptors on the receiving neuron indicates strengthening of synapses.Both Photos: From N. Toni et al., Nature, 402, Nov Courtesy of Dominique Muller
43Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress-related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Flashbulb memories are clear memories of emotionally significant moments or eventsThe naturally stimulating hormones that we produce when excited or stressed make more glucoseenergy available to fuel brain activity, signaling the brain that something important has happened.The amygdala, an emotion-processing structure in the brain’s limbic system, arouses brain areasthat process emotion. These emotion-triggered hormonal changes boost learning and retention andhelp explain our flashbulb memories of surprising, significant events. Emotionless events meanweaker memories.Scott Barbour/ Getty Images
44Storing Implicit & Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. Implicit memory involves learning an action while the individual does not know or declare what she knows.
45Hippocampus Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit (declarative) memories.Brain scans of people recalling words and autopsies of people who had amnesia reveal that thehippocampus, a limbic system structure, plays a vital role in the gradual processing of our explicitmemories into long-term memory. The hippocampus is not the permanent storehouse, but a loadingdock that feeds new information to other brain circuits for permanent storage. Implicit memoriesare processed by the cerebellum. Research with rabbits in which different parts of the neuralpathway were temporarily deadened during eye-blink training pinpointed implicit memory in thecerebellum at the back of the head.Weidenfield & Nicolson archives
46Anterograde AmnesiaAfter losing his hippocampus in surgery, patient Henry M. (HM) remembered everything before the operation but cannot make new memories. We call this anterograde amnesia.AnterogradeAmnesia(HM)Memory IntactNo New MemoriesSurgery
47Implicit Memory HM is unable to make new memories that are declarative (explicit), but he can form newmemories that are procedural (implicit).CBAHM learned the Tower of Hanoi (game) after his surgery. Each time he plays it, he is unable to remember the fact that he has already played the game.
48Cerebellum Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit (procedural) memories.
49Retrieval: Getting Information Out Retrieval refers to getting information out of the memory store.Preview Question 9: How do we get information out of memory?Spanky’s Yearbook ArchiveSpanky’s Yearbook Archive
50Measures of MemoryIn recognition, the person must identify an item amongst other choices. (A multiple-choice test requires recognition.)Name the capital of France.BrusselsRomeLondonParis
51Measures of MemoryIn recall, the person must retrieve information using effort. (A fill-in-the blank test requires recall.)The capital of France is ______.
52Measures of MemoryIn relearning, the individual shows how much time (or effort) is saved when learning material for the second time.ListJetDaggerTreeKite…SilkFrogRingListJetDaggerTreeKite…SilkFrogRingOriginalTrialsRelearningTrials1 day laterSavingX 100RelearningTrials105X 10010It took 10 trialsto learn this listIt took 5 trialsto learn the list50%
53Retrieval CuesMemories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory.watersmellhoseFire Truckfiresmoketruckheatred
54PrimingTo retrieve a specific memory from the web of associations, you must first activate one of the strands that leads to it. This process is called priming.Priming is wakening of associations or “memoryless memory” invisible memory without explicit memory. Another example is that if you see a kidnapping poster you may then interpret any ambiguous adult-child interaction as a possible kidnapping. Although you may not remember the poster it predisposed your interpretations.
55Context EffectsScuba divers recall more words underwater if they learned the list underwater, while they recall more words on land if they learned that list on land (Godden & Baddeley, 1975).Fred McConnaughey/ Photo Researchers
57Context EffectsAfter learning to move a mobile by kicking, infants most strongly respond when retested in the same context rather than in a different context (Rovee-Collier, 1993).Courtesy of Carolyn Rovee-Collier,Rutgers University
58Moods and MemoriesWe usually recall experiences that are consistent with our current mood (state-dependent memory). Emotions, or moods, serve as retrieval cues. Our memories are mood-congruent.State-dependent memory is the tendency to recall information best in the same emotional or physiologicalstate as when the information was learned. Memories are somewhat mood-congruent.While in a good or bad mood, we often retrieve memories consistent with that mood. Moods alsoprime us to interpret others’ behavior in ways consistent with our emotions.Jorgen Schytte/ Still Pictures
59ForgettingAn inability to retrieve information due to poor encoding, storage, or retrieval.Preview Question 10: Why do we forget? At what points in the memory system can our memory fail us?
60We cannot remember what we do not encode. Encoding FailureWe cannot remember what we do not encode.
61Storage DecayPoor durability of stored memories leads to their decay. Ebbinghaus showed this with his forgetting curve.The course of forgetting is initially rapid and then levels off with time. Ex. language
62Retaining SpanishBahrick (1984) showed a similar pattern of forgetting and retaining over 50 years.Andrew Holbrooke/ Corbis
63Retrieval FailureAlthough the information is retained in the memory store, it cannot be accessed.Tip-of-the-tongue (TOT) is a retrieval failure phenomenon. Given a cue (What makes blood cells red?) the subject says the word begins with an H (hemoglobin).
64Interference Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information.Proactive Interference: something we learned in the past interferes with our ability to recall something we have recently learned.Retroactive Interference: something we have recently learned interferes with something we learned in the past.Retrieval failure can occur if we have too few cues to summon information from long-termmemory. It may also happen when old and new information compete for retrieval. In proactiveinterference, something we learned in the past interferes with our ability to recall something wehave recently learned. In retroactive interference, something we have recently learned interfereswith something we learned in the past.
67Motivated ForgettingMotivated Forgetting: People unknowingly revise their memories.Repression: A defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness.With his concept of repression, Sigmund Freud proposed that our memories are self-censoring. Toprotect our self-concepts and to minimize anxiety, we may block from consciousness painfulmemories and unacceptable impulses. In Freud’s view, this motivated forgetting submerges memoriesbut leaves them available for later retrieval under the right conditions. Increasing numbers ofmemory researchers think repression rarely, if ever, occurs. More typically, we have trouble forgettingtraumatic experiences.Culver PicturesSigmund Freud
68Why do we forget?Forgetting can occur at any memory stage. We filter, alter, or lose much information during these stages.
69Memory ConstructionWhile tapping our memories, we filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent.Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information into one's memory of an event.Preview Question 11: How accurate are our memories?
70Misinformation and Imagination Effects Eyewitnesses reconstruct their memories when questioned about the event.Depiction of the actual accident.
71MisinformationGroup A: How fast were the cars going when they hit each other?Group B: How fast were the cars going when they smashed into each other?
72Memory ConstructionA week later they were asked: Was there any broken glass? Group B (smashed into) reported more broken glass than Group A (hit).
73Source AmnesiaSource Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source that we experienced, heard, read, or imagined (misattribution).Our memory for the source of an event is particularly frail. In source amnesia, we attribute to thewrong source an event that we have experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined. Thus, wemay recognize someone but have no idea where we have seen the person. Or we imagine or dreaman event and later are uncertain whether it actually happened.
74Children’s Eyewitness Recall Children’s eyewitness recall can be unreliable if leading questions are posed. However, if cognitive interviews are neutrally worded, the accuracy of their recall increases. In cases of sexual abuse, this usually suggests a lower percentage of abuse.Because memory is often reconstructive, we can’t be sure a memory is real by how real it feels.Preschool children are particularly sensitive to suggestion, and their recollections of sexual abusemay be prone to error. When researchers have used suggestive interviewing techniques, they havefound that most preschoolers and many older children can be induced to report false events.However, even young children can accurately recall events if a neutral person talks to them inwords they can understand and uses less suggestive, more effective techniques.Innocent people have been falsely convicted of abuse that never happened, and true abusers haveused the controversy over recovered memories to avoid punishment. Forgetting of isolated pastevents, both negative and positive, is an ordinary part of life. Cued by a remark or an experience,we may later recover a memory. Controversy, however, focuses on whether the unconscious mindforcibly represses painful experiences and whether they can be retrieved by therapist-aided techniques.Memories “recovered” under hypnosis or drugs are especially unreliable, as are memoriesof things happening before age 3. Traumatic experiences are usually vividly remembered, not banishedinto an active but inaccessible unconscious.
75Are memories of abuse repressed or constructed? Many psychotherapists believe that early childhood sexual abuse results in repressed memories.However, other psychologists question such beliefs and think that such memories may be constructed.
76Constructed MemoriesLoftus’ research shows that if false memories (lost at the mall or drowned in a lake) are implanted in individuals, they construct (fabricate) their memories.Don Shrubshell
77Consensus on Childhood Abuse Leading psychological associations of the world agreeon the following concerning childhood sexual abuse:Injustice happens.Incest and other sexual abuse happen.People may forget.Recovered memories are commonplace.Recovered memories under hypnosis or drugs are unreliable.Memories of things happening before 3 years of age are unreliable.Memories, whether real or false, are emotionally upsetting.
78Improving Memory Study repeatedly to boost long-term recall. Spend more time rehearsing or actively thinking about the material.Make material personally meaningful.Use mnemonic devices:associate with peg words — something already storedmake up a storychunk — acronymsThe psychology of memory suggests several effective study strategies. These include overlearning,using spaced practice; active rehearsal; making new material personally meaningful by relating itto what is already known; mnemonic techniques; mentally recreating the contexts and moods inwhich the original learning occurred in order to activate retrieval cues; minimizing interference,for example, by studying just before sleeping; and testing one’s knowledge both to rehearse it andto determine what must still be learned.
79Improving MemoryActivate retrieval cues — mentally recreate the situation and mood.Recall events while they are fresh — before you encounter misinformation.Minimize interference:Test your own knowledge.Rehearse and then determine what you do not yet know.
81Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin’s classic three-stage model of memory includes all of the following, EXCEPT:A. short-term memory.B. long-term memory.C. flashbulb memory.D. sensory memory.Answer: C. flashbulb memory.
82When you hear familiar words in your native language, it is virtually impossible not to register the meanings of the words. This best illustrates the importance of:A. chunking.B. flashbulb memory.C. automatic processing.D. iconic memory.Answer: C. automatic processing.
83According to the serial position effect, you will remember more: A. items at the beginning and end of a list, than in the middle.B. items in the middle of a list, than at the beginning and end.C. vocabulary words if you process them visually.D. vocabulary words if you process them acoustically.Answer: A. items at the beginning and end of a list, than in the middle.
84Which of the following processes is likely to result in the best memory for words? A. visual encodingB. acoustic encodingC. rote memorizationD. semantic encodingAnswer: D. semantic encoding
85Which of the following is most likely to be stored as an implicit memory? A. a mental image of one's best friendB. the date of one's own birthC. a conditioned fear of gunsD. one's own nameAnswer: C. a conditioned fear of guns
86Priming refers to:A. the sense that one has been in a particular situation before.B. better recall for experiences that are consistent with one’s current mood.C. attributing a memory to an erroneous source.D. the activation of associations in memory.Answer: D. the activation of associations in memory.
87Each of the following “sins of memory” involves distortion, EXCEPT: A. suggestibility.B. bias.C. misattribution.D. absent-mindedness.Answer: D. absent-mindedness.
88The reason most North Americans cannot accurately describe the head of a penny is due to: A. storage decay.B. encoding failure.C. motivated forgetting.D. retrieval failure.Answer: B. encoding failure.
89After suffering a brain injury in a motorcycle accident, Adam cannot form new memories. He can, however, remember his life experiences before the accident. Adam's memory difficulty most clearly illustrates:A. repression.B. retroactive interference.C. encoding failure.D. source amnesia.Answer: C. encoding failure.
90During her evening Spanish language exam, Janica so easily remembers the French vocabulary she studied that morning that she finds it difficult to recall the Spanish vocabulary she rehearsed that afternoon. Her difficulty best illustrates:A. the spacing effect.B. proactive interference.C. retroactive interference.D. state-dependent memory.Answer: B. proactive interference.
91The surprising ease with which people form false memories best illustrates that the processes of encoding and retrieval involve:A. implicit memory.B. automatic processing.C. long-term potentiation.D. memory construction.Answer: D. memory construction.
92Which of the following would be predicted by Ebbinghaus’ famous forgetting curve? Several years after learning the dates of important historical events for a college class, students:A. will remember most of the dates, and will remember them for years to come.B. will remember most of the dates, and will slowly start to forget them.C. will have forgotten most of the dates, but what they do remember, they’ll remember for years to come.D. will have forgotten most of the dates, but during the years to come, they will again remember what they initially forgot.Answer: C. will have forgotten most of the dates, but what they do remember, they’ll remember for years to come.
93You are used to driving a car with a standard shift You are used to driving a car with a standard shift. Today you are driving a friend’s car that has an automatic transmission. As you drive, you keep trying to shift gears, but there is no shift. This tendency is most likely due to:A. retroactive interference.B. proactive interference.C. motivated forgetting.D. encoding failure.Answer: B. proactive interference.
94We have all had the experience of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon We have all had the experience of the tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon. We are asked to remember someone’s name. We are certain that we know the name and feel as if we are just about to remember it, yet it remains elusive. What type of forgetting might be at work here?A. encoding failureB. retroactive interferenceC. retrieval failureD. motivated forgettingAnswer: C. retrieval failure
95You are asked to recall the names of the Seven Dwarfs in the Snow White fairy tale. You are familiar with the story, and may have even seen a movie of the story, yet you cannot remember all seven names accurately. What type of memory problem might account for this?A. retrieval failureB. encoding failureC. proactive interferenceD. storage failureAnswer: A. retrieval failure
96As a child, Theo often looked at a picture album that included photos of a family reunion. Although Theo had not attended the reunion because he had been ill, he remembers being there. Theo’s mistake best illustrates the “sin” of:A. suggestibility.B. persistence.C. misattribution.D. transience.Answer: C. misattribution.
97Exam Results Average for Exam 1 = 79 Average for Exam 2 = 82 Max for Exam 1 =Max for Exam 2 = 112
98Class AverageClass Average = 84Highest Avg = 2 X 100