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Memory: Encoding & Storage. Information Processing Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory and.

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Presentation on theme: "Memory: Encoding & Storage. Information Processing Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory and."— Presentation transcript:

1 Memory: Encoding & Storage

2 Information Processing Atkinson-Schiffrin three-stage model of memory includes a) sensory memory, b) short-term memory and c) long-term memory. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

3 Information Processing a) sensory memory-immediate, very brief recording of sensory information in the memory system Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

4 Information Processing b) short-term memory-activated memory that hold a few items briefly before it is stored or forgotten Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

5 Information Processing b) short-term memory-activated memory that hold a few items briefly before it is stored or forgotten Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

6 Information Processing c) long-term memory-relatively permanent and limitless storehouse of the memory system. Includes knowledge, skills, and experiences. Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

7 Modifications to the Three-Stage Model 1.Some information skips the first two stages and enters long-term memory automatically. 2.Since we cannot focus on all the sensory information received, we select information that is important to us and actively process it into our working memory.

8 Information Processing What is special about working memory? Bob Daemmrich/ The Image Works Frank Wartenberg/ Picture Press/ Corbis

9 Working Memory Store What happens if you need to keep information in working memory longer than 30 seconds? To demonstrate, memorize the following phone number (presented one digit at a time):

10 Working Memory Store

11 The number lasted in your working memory longer than 30 seconds So how were you able to remember the number? What is the number?

12 Maintenance Rehearsal Mental or verbal repitition of information allows it to stay in your working memory longer than the usual 30 seconds What is the number?

13 Encoding: Getting Information in

14 Encoding: Getting Information In How We Encode 1.Some information (route to your school) is automatically processed. 2.However novel information (friend’s new cell-phone number) requires attention and effort.

15 Automatic Processing Enormous amount of information is processed effortlessly by us, like: 1.Space: While reading a textbook you automatically encode place of a picture on a page. 2.Time: We unintentionally note the events that take place in a day. 3.Frequency: You effortlessly keep track of things that happened to you.

16 Effortful Processing Novel information committed to memory requires effort, like learning a concept from a text. Such processing leads to durable and accessible memories. Spencer Grant/ Photo Edit © Bananastock/ Alamy

17 Rehearsal Effortful learning usually requires rehearsal or conscious repetition. Ebbinghaus studied rehearsal by using nonsense syllables: TUV YOF GEK XOZ Hermann Ebbinghaus ( )

18 Rehearsal The more times the nonsense syllables were practiced on Day 1, the fewer repetitions were required to relearn them on Day 2.

19 Memory Effects 1.Next-in-line-Effect: When your recall is better for what other people say but poor for a person just before you in line. 2.Spacing Effect: We retain information better when our rehearsal is distributed over time. 3.Serial Position Effect: When your recall is better for first and last items, but poor for middle items on a list.

20 Serial Position Effect 1.TUV 2.ZOF 3.GEK 4.WAV 5.XOZ 6.TIK 7.FUT 8.WIB 9.SAR 10.POZ 11.REY 12.GIJ Better recall Poor recall

21 Memory Demo Handout 27-1

22 What We Encode 1.Encoding by meaning 2.Encoding by images 3.Encoding by organization

23 Encoding Meaning Q: Did the word begin with a capital letter? Structural Encoding Q: Did the word rhyme with the word “weight”? Q: Would the word fit in the sentence? He met a __________ in the street. Phonemic Encoding Semantic Encoding “Whale” Craik and Lockhart (1972) Intermediate Deep Shallow

24 Results

25 Visual Encoding Mental pictures (imagery) are a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined with semantic encoding. Showing adverse effects of meth use in a picture may be more powerful than simply talking about it.

26 Storage: Retaining Information  Sensory Memory  Working/Short-term Memory  Long-Term Memory  Storing Memories in the Brain

27 D é ja Vu means "I've experienced this before. ” Cues from the current situation may unconsciously trigger retrieval of an earlier similar experience.

28 Retrieval Cues Memories are held in storage by a web of associations. These associations are like anchors that help retrieve memory. Fire Truck truck red fire heat smoke smell water hose

29 Storage: Retaining Information the heart of memory is storage. Three stores of memory are : Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

30 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

31 Sensory Memory Sensory Memory Events Iconic memory—few tenths of a second Echoic memory—3 or 4 seconds

32 Working Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

33 Long-Term Memory Sensory Memory Working Memory Long-term Memory Encoding RetrievalEncoding Events Retrieval

34 Long-Term Memory Unlimited! Estimates on capacity range from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information. Clark’s nutcracker can locate 6,000 caches of buried pine seeds during winter & spring. Rajan Mahadevan recited 31, 811 digits of pi on July 4th, 1983

35 Hippocampus ≠ Cerebellum Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. explicit Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.

36 Explicit Memories Explicit Memory refers to facts and experiences that one can consciously know and declare. What is the capital of Kyirblahkyrstan?

37 Hippocampus ≠ Cerebellum Hippocampus – a neural center in the limbic system that processes explicit memories. explicit Cerebellum – a neural center in the hindbrain that processes implicit memories.

38 Implicit Memories Implicit memory involves learning an action, but the individual doesn ’ t know/declare what she knows.

39 Two Types of Long-Term Memory

40 Stress Hormones & Memory Heightened emotions (stress related or otherwise) make for stronger memories. Continued stress can disrupt memory.


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