Presentation on theme: "Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan. June 2013Blood and plasma2 Blood – introduction. Blood is a liquid tissue. It has different types of cells. Intercellular."— Presentation transcript:
June 2013Blood and plasma2 Blood – introduction. Blood is a liquid tissue. It has different types of cells. Intercellular substance is Plasma. There are no tight junctions, collagen, and hyaluronic acid.
June 2013Blood and plasma3 Composition of the blood. Plasma: –Serum + fibrinogen. Cells –Red blood cells (erythrocytes) –White blood cells (leucocytes). Neurtophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte. –Platelets.
June 2013Blood and plasma4 Physical properties. Color- red. [hemoglobin] Osmolality: 290 – 300 m osmol/L. Osmotic pressure: 5000 mm Hg. [≈7 Atm] Colloid osmotic pressure [oncotic pressure] : 25 mm. Hg. Viscosity: 3 – 4 times that of water. Specific gravity: 1.050 – 1.060.
June 2013Blood and plasma5 Functions of Blood Transport of, Water. Oxygen. Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, iron, calcium, etc. Wastes: –Urea, carbon dioxide, bilirubin, heat, acid. Hormones: –Water soluble, –fat soluble.
June 2013Blood and plasma6 FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD-ctd.. Microcirculation. Hemostasis. –Platelets, fibrinogen and clotting factors. Immunity. –Antibodies, white blood cells.
June 2013Blood and plasma7 BLOOD VOLUME. Blood :8 % of the body weight. Blood :8 % of the body weight. 80 ml / Kg ± 10 % 80 ml / Kg ± 10 % Plasma: 5 % of the body weight. Plasma: 5 % of the body weight. Males 5-6, females 4-5 liters.Males 5-6, females 4-5 liters. Distribution in the vessels: Lungs- 20 % [1 Liter.] Veins-60 %[3 Liters.] Heart, Arteries, capillaries: 20 %[1 Liter.]
June 2013Blood and plasma8 Distribution in Detail. Structure.Percentage Aorta02 Arteries08 Arterioles01 Capillaries.05 Veins- venules, veins, vena cave 54 Heart12 Pulmonary vessels18
June 2013Blood and plasma9 Measurement. Dilution method. V1C1 = V2C2. Plasma volume. Evans blue, Rose Bengal, Vital Red, Radioactive Iodine etc. Blood volume. –Red Cells labeled with Radio active Chromium.
June 2013Blood and plasma10 Factors that Affect Blood Volume. ECF volume- Sodium ions Dehydration. Water Balance. Blood loss.
June 2013Blood and plasma11 Control of Blood Volume. Circulatory mechanism Volume receptor mechanism. Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone mechanism. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide.
June 2013Blood and plasma12 Circulatory Mechanism Blood volume determines cardiac output. Cardiac output determines blood pressure. Blood pressure determines Urine production. Urine production determines ECF volume and blood volume.
June 2013Blood and plasma13 Volume Receptor Mechanism. Volume receptors in RA and IVC. [stimulated by stretch which represents blood volume] Post. Pituitary through Hypothalamus. Anti Diuretic Hormone. Collecting ducts in Kidney. Decreased blood volume. + [ ↑ impulses in afferents with volume] - [ ↓secretion.] -[Reabsorption of water ↓, ↑ Urine out put ] -
June 2013Blood and plasma14 Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone Mechanism. Renin is secreted by the Juxta Glomerular Cells in response to low sodium in tubule and low blood pressure in afferent arterioles. It converts angeotensinogen into angeotensin I which in turn gets converted to angeotensin II. Angeotensin stimulates secretion of Aldesteron. Aldesteron stimulates sodium re-absorption in distal tubule. Keeps blood volume due to osmotic force.
June 2013Blood and plasma15 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. Stretch of the right atrium is determined by venus return which mainly depends on blood volume. ANP is secreted by Right Atrium in response to stretch. ANP causes Sodium and water loss in urine.
June 2013Blood and plasma16 Properties of plasma. Straw color. Volume - 3.5 liters. High Viscosity. Osmolality- 290 m Osmols/L Specific gravity- 1.025. Coagulability.
June 2013Blood and plasma17 Composition of PLASMA. Proteins- 7.5 g/100 ml. (dL) –Albumin.4.5 g. –Globulin.2.5 g. –Fibrinogen.0.3 g. –[source: liver, plasma cells.] Electrolytes. Nutrients. Hormones. Waste products.
June 2013Blood and plasma18 Functions of plasma. Fluid exchange. Maintenance of pH- Buffering. Transport of substances. Hemostasis- Clotting. Immunity. Reserve of body proteins.
June 2013Blood and plasma19 MEASUREMENT OF VISCOSITY. Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate. Height of clear plasma at the end of the first hour of standing. Determinants of ESR: –VISCOSITY of plasma. –ROULEAUX formation. Westegran tube in ESR stand. VISCOMETER.