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Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan.

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Presentation on theme: "Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan."— Presentation transcript:

1 Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan

2 Composition of the blood.
Plasma: Serum + fibrinogen. Cells Red blood cells (erythrocytes) White blood cells (leucocytes). Neurtophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte. Platelets. June 2013 Blood and plasma

3 Physical properties. Color- red. [hemoglobin]
Osmolality: 290 – 300 m osmol/L. Osmotic pressure: 5000 mm Hg. [≈7 Atm] Colloid osmotic pressure [oncotic pressure] : 25 mm. Hg. Viscosity: 3 – 4 times that of water. Specific gravity: – June 2013 Blood and plasma

4 Functions of Blood Transport of, Water. Oxygen. Nutrients: Wastes:
Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, iron, calcium, etc. Wastes: Urea, carbon dioxide, bilirubin, heat, acid. Hormones: Water soluble, fat soluble. June 2013 Blood and plasma

Microcirculation. Hemostasis. Platelets, fibrinogen and clotting factors. Immunity. Antibodies, white blood cells. June 2013 Blood and plasma

6 BLOOD VOLUME. Blood : 8 % of the body weight. 80 ml / Kg ± 10 %
Plasma: 5 % of the body weight. Males 5-6, females 4-5 liters. June 2013 Blood and plasma

7 Control of Blood Volume.
Circulatory mechanism Volume receptor mechanism. Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone mechanism. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. June 2013 Blood and plasma

8 Circulatory Mechanism
Blood volume determines cardiac output. Cardiac output determines blood pressure. Blood pressure determines Urine production. Urine production determines ECF volume and blood volume. June 2013 Blood and plasma

9 Volume Receptor Mechanism.
Volume receptors in RA and IVC. [stimulated by stretch which represents blood volume] + [ ↑ impulses in afferents with volume] - Decreased blood volume. Post. Pituitary through Hypothalamus. [Reabsorption of water ↓, ↑Urine out put ] - [ ↓secretion.] Collecting ducts in Kidney. Anti Diuretic Hormone. June 2013 Blood and plasma

10 Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone Mechanism.
Renin is secreted by the Juxta Glomerular Cells in response to low sodium in tubule and low blood pressure in afferent arterioles. It converts angeotensinogen into angeotensin I which in turn gets converted to angeotensin II. Angeotensin stimulates secretion of Aldesteron. Aldesteron stimulates sodium re-absorption in distal tubule. Keeps blood volume due to osmotic force. June 2013 Blood and plasma

11 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide.
Stretch of the right atrium is determined by venus return which mainly depends on blood volume. ANP is secreted by Right Atrium in response to stretch. ANP causes Sodium and water loss in urine. June 2013 Blood and plasma

12 Properties of plasma. Straw color. Volume - 3.5 liters.
High Viscosity. Osmolality- 290 m Osmols/L Specific gravity Coagulability. June 2013 Blood and plasma

13 Composition of PLASMA. Proteins- 7.5 g/100 ml. (dL) Electrolytes.
Albumin g. Globulin g. Fibrinogen. 0.3 g. [source: liver, plasma cells.] Electrolytes. Nutrients. Hormones. Waste products. June 2013 Blood and plasma

14 Functions of plasma. Fluid exchange. Maintenance of pH- Buffering.
Transport of substances. Hemostasis- Clotting. Immunity. Reserve of body proteins. June 2013 Blood and plasma

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