Presentation on theme: "Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan. June 2013Blood and plasma2 Composition of the blood. Plasma: –Serum + fibrinogen. Cells –Red blood cells (erythrocytes)"— Presentation transcript:
Blood and Plasma Prof. K. Sivapalan
June 2013Blood and plasma2 Composition of the blood. Plasma: –Serum + fibrinogen. Cells –Red blood cells (erythrocytes) –White blood cells (leucocytes). Neurtophil, eosinophil, basophil, monocyte, lymphocyte. –Platelets.
June 2013Blood and plasma3 Physical properties. Color- red. [hemoglobin] Osmolality: 290 – 300 m osmol/L. Osmotic pressure: 5000 mm Hg. [≈7 Atm] Colloid osmotic pressure [oncotic pressure] : 25 mm. Hg. Viscosity: 3 – 4 times that of water. Specific gravity: 1.050 – 1.060.
June 2013Blood and plasma4 Functions of Blood Transport of, Water. Oxygen. Nutrients: Glucose, amino acids, fatty acids, iron, calcium, etc. Wastes: –Urea, carbon dioxide, bilirubin, heat, acid. Hormones: –Water soluble, –fat soluble.
June 2013Blood and plasma5 FUNCTIONS OF BLOOD-ctd.. Microcirculation. Hemostasis. –Platelets, fibrinogen and clotting factors. Immunity. –Antibodies, white blood cells.
June 2013Blood and plasma6 BLOOD VOLUME. Blood :8 % of the body weight. Blood :8 % of the body weight. 80 ml / Kg ± 10 % 80 ml / Kg ± 10 % Plasma: 5 % of the body weight. Plasma: 5 % of the body weight. Males 5-6, females 4-5 liters.Males 5-6, females 4-5 liters.
June 2013Blood and plasma7 Control of Blood Volume. Circulatory mechanism Volume receptor mechanism. Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone mechanism. Atrial Natriuretic Peptide.
June 2013Blood and plasma8 Circulatory Mechanism Blood volume determines cardiac output. Cardiac output determines blood pressure. Blood pressure determines Urine production. Urine production determines ECF volume and blood volume.
June 2013Blood and plasma9 Volume Receptor Mechanism. Volume receptors in RA and IVC. [stimulated by stretch which represents blood volume] Post. Pituitary through Hypothalamus. Anti Diuretic Hormone. Collecting ducts in Kidney. Decreased blood volume. + [ ↑ impulses in afferents with volume] - [ ↓secretion.] -[Reabsorption of water ↓, ↑ Urine out put ] -
June 2013Blood and plasma10 Renin - Angiotensin – Aldesterone Mechanism. Renin is secreted by the Juxta Glomerular Cells in response to low sodium in tubule and low blood pressure in afferent arterioles. It converts angeotensinogen into angeotensin I which in turn gets converted to angeotensin II. Angeotensin stimulates secretion of Aldesteron. Aldesteron stimulates sodium re-absorption in distal tubule. Keeps blood volume due to osmotic force.
June 2013Blood and plasma11 Atrial Natriuretic Peptide. Stretch of the right atrium is determined by venus return which mainly depends on blood volume. ANP is secreted by Right Atrium in response to stretch. ANP causes Sodium and water loss in urine.
June 2013Blood and plasma12 Properties of plasma. Straw color. Volume - 3.5 liters. High Viscosity. Osmolality- 290 m Osmols/L Specific gravity- 1.025. Coagulability.
June 2013Blood and plasma13 Composition of PLASMA. Proteins- 7.5 g/100 ml. (dL) –Albumin.4.5 g. –Globulin.2.5 g. –Fibrinogen.0.3 g. –[source: liver, plasma cells.] Electrolytes. Nutrients. Hormones. Waste products.
June 2013Blood and plasma14 Functions of plasma. Fluid exchange. Maintenance of pH- Buffering. Transport of substances. Hemostasis- Clotting. Immunity. Reserve of body proteins.