Presentation on theme: "Blood and Blood Circulation Mr. Jeff Peterson Fulbright Exchange Teacher from Indiana, USA."— Presentation transcript:
Blood and Blood Circulation Mr. Jeff Peterson Fulbright Exchange Teacher from Indiana, USA
Blood and Blood Circulation ArteriesVeins All arteries carry pure blood except pulmonary artery. All veins carry impure blood except pulmonary vein. They have thick walls They have thin walls They have narrow lumen (space) so the pressure is high. They have broad lumen (space) so the pressure is less. They do not have valves They have valves to prevent the backward flow of blood They are deeply seated They are superficially present Blood flow in jerks Blood flow slowly
Blood and Blood Circulation Steps in blood clotting diagram Structure of Human Heart – It is located in thoracic cavity – It is found above diaphragm between 2 lungs – It is enclosed in a double walled membrane called pericardium – Pericardial fluid found between the heart and pericardium which acts like a shock absorber and prevents friction.
Blood and Blood Circulation Structure of Human Heart (cont.) – It contains 4 chambers (upper 2 chambers = auricles, lower 2 chambers = ventricle) – The walls of ventricles are thicker then auricles to withstand high pressure. – The right side is separated from left by A.V. Septum. – The right side contains impure blood and left side contains pure blood.
Blood and Blood Circulation Structure of Human Heart (cont.) – Tri-cuspid valves are found between right auricle and right ventricle. – Bi-cuspid valves are found between left auricle and left ventricle. – Valves to prevent backward flow of impure blood. – Pulmonary artery carries impure blood from right ventricle to lungs for purification.
Blood and Blood Circulation Structure of Human Heart (cont.) – Aorta carries pure blood from left ventricle to different parts of our body. – Right auricle receives impure blood from different parts of the body from superior venacava and inferior venacava. – Left auricle receives pure blood from lungs through pulmonary vein.
Blood and Blood Circulation Structure of Human Heart (cont.) – At the starting point of pulmonary artery and aorta semilunar valves are present to prevent backward flow of blood from arteries to ventricles.
Blood and Blood Circulation Immunity – The ability of the body to fight against the diseases is called immunity. – It is classified into 2 types. They are: Natural Immunity Acquired Immunity – Active – Passive
Blood and Blood Circulation Natural Immunity – It is the immunity present from the time of birth and is caused through the mother’s blood.
Blood and Blood Circulation Anaemia – In poor health and in certain diseases like malaria, the number of red corpuscles is very much reduced in the blood leading to a state of anaemia. – Symptom The oxygen supply of the body is reduced resulting in weakness, sluggishness, constant fatigue and loss of desire for food.
Blood and Blood Circulation Composition of Blood Plasma – It is the liquid part of the blood. – It is yellowish in color – It contains 92% of it is water, the balance 8% begin dissolved proteins and other nutrients together with mineral salts.
Blood and Blood Circulation Function of Plasma – It carries the absorbed nutrients to all parts of the body. – It also collects waste from it. – It equalizes the body temperature by removing excess of heat from one part to another or getting it lost through the skin.
Blood and Blood Circulation Thrombosis – Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vessel as a result of an injury. Antigens – Antigens are substances of the nature of proteins or of complex sugar and are found on the red blood cells. – An antigen is a substance foreign to the blood.
Blood and Blood Circulation Blood GroupAntigen in RBCAntibodies in Plasma AAAnti-B BBAnti-A AB None O Anti-B and Anti-A
Blood and Blood Circulation Acquired Immunity ActivePassive When weakened microbes are artificially introduced into our body, immediately the body produces antibodies for that particular antigen and becomes immune to that disease. It is developed when the antibodies of an antigen are artificially introduced into our body. This is long lasting.This will not remain for a long time. Eg: Polio, Chicken Pox, MeaselsEg: Tetanus
Blood and Blood Circulation Diastole – The relaxation of heart chambers is called diastole. – The blood pressure is measured by an instrument sphygmomanometer – Normal blood pressure is 120/80 120: systolic pressure 80: diastolic pressure
Blood and Blood Circulation Blood Pressure – The pumping action of the heart maintain the pressure of blood in the arteries is called blood pressure.