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1 4 Operation, mechanisms and applications Ken Gilleo PhD ET-Trends LLC.

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Presentation on theme: "1 4 Operation, mechanisms and applications Ken Gilleo PhD ET-Trends LLC."— Presentation transcript:


2 1 4 Operation, mechanisms and applications Ken Gilleo PhD ET-Trends LLC

3 2 Motion (actuators) Actuators (motors) Electrical (input) Thermal (usually from electrical) Photonic (for MOEMS, OE) Sensors (output); usually electrical signals Capacitance Piezoresistive Resonant beam Electron tunneling Photonic Chemical Biological/biochemical TYPES POWER Change/output is caused by mechanical motion/force

4 3 Actuator Classes Electrostatic/capacitive Linear comb drive Rotary comb drive Horizontal parallel plates Electromagnetic Linear Rotary Integrated coils or external field Permanent or soft magnetic films Thermal Bimorph: dissimilar materials Shape memory alloys Pneumatic/hydraulic Mechanical conversions/translations

5 4 MEMS Engines Electrostatic; very efficient Thermal; easy to implement Electromagnetic, smaller Pneumatic Hydraulic Photoelectric (energy through fiber) * Surface area is relatively high, mass is very low; surface effects are important *

6 5 Electrostatic (ES) Charged Anchor point shuttleshuttle ES Unit

7 6 Thermal Engines (T) Expansion Material, external; inkjet Bimorph beam - bending High force, moderate displacement Frequency limited by conductivity

8 7 Bimorph Beam (Thermal) Resistive heater off on Low CTE High CTE

9 8 Electromagnetic U of Wisconsin CalTech

10 9 MEMS Pumps Actuation Mechanisms Electrostatic Thermal Magnetic Pneumatic Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Direct Fluidic Actuation Fluidic phase change Electrohydrodynamic (EOF, electrophoresis, etc) Direct fluidic actuation mechanisms Debiotech STMicroelectronics insulin pump Bellows: Air Pump Thermal Inkjet

11 10 Sensors – the #1 Class Capacitance Piezoresistive Resonant beam Electron tunneling Photonic Chemical Biological/biochemical Popular for Accelerometers, mics, more Popular for Accelerometers, mics, more Many principles Many principles

12 11 Inertial Sensors (motion) Accelerometers Capacitor Resonant Multiple axis Gyroscopes ADI JPL

13 12 Accelerometer/Gyros Automotive Sensing: crash, torque, vibration (well-being) Navigation; GPS back-up Active suspension Consumer Input device; computer, games, phones Sports training, medical therapeutic Alarms; burglar, seismic (earthquake) Stabilization, camera Military Ordnance; guidance, condition, attack warning Operator input/control Aiming; gun, camera (stabilization) Industrial Sensing: vibration, tilt, direction, rate Stabilization Monitoring Robotics; position, contact, feedback, etc. ADI

14 13 Now owned by ADI 3-Axis Accelerometer Z-Axis Gyroscope Dual-Axis Gyroscope Resonant Accelerometers INERTIAL

15 14 Accelerometer Applications ABS/Antiskid Airbag Deployment Anti-Rollover Detection Battery Disconnect Crash Alerting Dynamic Suspension Dynamic Ride Control Dynamic Cruise Control Electronic Park Brake Fleet Monitoring Fuel Shutoff Headlight Leveling Inertial Navigation – backup Misfire Detection Security/Antitheft Seatbelt Tensioning Stability Systems Tilt Sensing Tire Motion Tire Pressure Transmission Monitor Vehicle Performance Active Subwoofers Ambulatory Training Appliances Binoculars Blood Pressure Monitor Camcorders Stabilizer Digital Pens Digital Cameras Stabilizer Disk Drive Monitoring Game Controllers Handheld GPS Head Tracking Inertial Navigation Laptop Anti-Theft Laptop Drop Detection Joysticks Mouse - 3D Out-of-Balance Medical Devices Sleep Monitor Pedometers Sports Training – golf Sports Training – fly cast Sports Training – batting Tilt Sensing Virtual Reality I/O Wearable Computing I/O Antenna Alignment Antenna Switches Construction Leveling Machine Health Equipment Tilt Sensing Fork Lift Positioning Marine Navigation Platform Leveling Seat Damping Seismic Gas Shutoff Satellite Dish Alignment Satellite Gyroscopes Ship mechanical monitoring Shock Sensing UAVs UMVs Vibration Monitoring Industrial/Scientific/MilitaryAutomotiveConsumer

16 15 Fuel Pressure Sensor Injector Pressure Sensor Pressure Sensors Fuel Tire Manifold Injector AC Mass air Break Fuel vapor Oil AC Pressure Sensor Automotive Pressure Sensors Automotive Pressure Sensors

17 16 Pressure Sensors Transducers Piezoresistor Capacitor Resonant beam Internal ref. pressure Thin diaphragm Transducer Resonating beam (F 1 ) Resonating beam is now under tension; (F 2 ) Vacuum

18 17 Chemical Sensors Readily detects H 2, CO, Alcohols, Hydrocarbons Reactive surface adsorbs gases i Heater Chem-sensor gate; adsorbing metal like Pd Adsorption lowers threshold voltage since a dipole is induced. Chem-FET VsVs VdVd

19 18 Mechanical Transfer Gears Wheels Levers Rackets Shuttles; walking beams Hinge & lock Articulated beams

20 19 Power Device Classes 1.Extractors using ambient energy 2.Converters: energy-1energy-2 3.Relays for power (not signal) 4.Power controllers (beyond relays) 5.Generators using fuel 1. Uses waste energy, 2. Uses generated energy

21 20 Power Extractors Typically utilize machine mechanical vibrations C1C1 C2C2 Changing capacitor plate spacing generates power; reverse damper. Machines produce mostly 1 KHz to 5 KHz vibrations C 2 an be replaced with a magnet.

22 21 Power MEMS Chemical fuel to: Mechanical rotation, reciprocation, etc. Fluid or gas pumping force Electrical (fuel cell) Thrust; rocket Mechanical Electrical (turbo-generator) Photonic to electrical (really just a converter) Mechanical, electrical to chemical (battery) 10 to 100 watts 100 K to 1-million RPM

23 22 Gas Turbine

24 23 TI MOEMS: DLP on off Ref. Digital Light Processing TM for High-Brightness, High-Resolution Applications Larry J. Hornbeck, on off Over 8-million parts

25 24 Texas Instruments DLP TM 1,400,000 mirrors in one module animation by kbg

26 25 Session Summary Most MEMS are directly electrically powered Electrostatic is simplest; very popular Bimorph is ideal for no/low wear beams Many kinds of mechanical transfer Sensors will remain largest market Reliability issues on some, but not all MEMS

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