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4 Operation, mechanisms and applications

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Presentation on theme: "4 Operation, mechanisms and applications"— Presentation transcript:

1 4 Operation, mechanisms and applications
Workshop MEMS MOEMS Nano 4 Operation, mechanisms and applications Ken Gilleo PhD ET-Trends LLC

2 Motion (actuators) Actuators (“motors”) Electrical (input)
Thermal (usually from electrical) Photonic (for MOEMS, OE) Sensors (output); usually electrical signals Capacitance Piezoresistive Resonant beam Electron tunneling Photonic Chemical Biological/biochemical POWER Change/output is caused by mechanical motion/force TYPES

3 Actuator Classes Electrostatic/capacitive Electromagnetic Thermal
Linear comb drive Rotary comb drive Horizontal parallel plates Electromagnetic Linear Rotary Integrated coils or external field Permanent or soft magnetic films Thermal Bimorph: dissimilar materials Shape memory alloys Pneumatic/hydraulic Mechanical conversions/translations

4 MEMS Engines Electrostatic; very efficient *
Thermal; easy to implement Electromagnetic, smaller Pneumatic Hydraulic Photoelectric (energy through fiber) *Surface area is relatively high, mass is very low; surface effects are important

5 Electrostatic (ES) Charged Anchor point shuttle ES Unit

6 Thermal Engines (T) Expansion High force, moderate displacement
Material, external; inkjet Bimorph beam - bending High force, moderate displacement Frequency limited by conductivity

7 Bimorph Beam (Thermal)
off Resistive heater Low CTE on High CTE

8 Electromagnetic U of Wisconsin CalTech

9 MEMS Pumps Actuation Mechanisms Direct Fluidic Actuation Electrostatic
Thermal Magnetic Pneumatic Piezoelectric Ultrasonic Direct Fluidic Actuation Fluidic phase change Electrohydrodynamic (EOF, electrophoresis, etc) Direct fluidic actuation mechanisms Debiotech STMicroelectronics insulin pump Thermal Inkjet Bellows: Air Pump

10 Accelerometers, mics, more
Sensors – the #1 Class Popular for Accelerometers, mics, more Capacitance Piezoresistive Resonant beam Electron tunneling Photonic Chemical Biological/biochemical Many principles

11 Inertial Sensors (motion)
Accelerometers Capacitor Resonant Multiple axis Gyroscopes ADI JPL ADI

12 Accelerometer/Gyros Consumer Military Industrial Automotive
Sensing: crash, torque, vibration (well-being) Navigation; GPS back-up Active suspension Consumer Input device; computer, games, phones Sports training, medical therapeutic Alarms; burglar, seismic (earthquake) Stabilization, camera Military Ordnance; guidance, condition, attack warning Operator input/control Aiming; gun, camera (stabilization) Industrial Sensing: vibration, tilt, direction, rate Stabilization Monitoring Robotics; position, contact, feedback, etc. ADI

13 INERTIAL Dual-Axis Gyroscope Resonant Accelerometers
Now owned by ADI INERTIAL Dual-Axis Gyroscope Resonant Accelerometers 3-Axis Accelerometer Z-Axis Gyroscope

14 Accelerometer Applications
Automotive Consumer Industrial/Scientific/Military ABS/Antiskid Airbag Deployment Anti-Rollover Detection Battery Disconnect Crash Alerting Dynamic Suspension Dynamic Ride Control Dynamic Cruise Control Electronic Park Brake Fleet Monitoring Fuel Shutoff Headlight Leveling Inertial Navigation – backup Misfire Detection Security/Antitheft Seatbelt Tensioning Stability Systems Tilt Sensing Tire Motion Tire Pressure Transmission Monitor Vehicle Performance Active Subwoofers Ambulatory Training Appliances Binoculars Blood Pressure Monitor Camcorders Stabilizer Digital Pens Digital Cameras Stabilizer Disk Drive Monitoring Game Controllers Handheld GPS Head Tracking Inertial Navigation Laptop Anti-Theft Laptop Drop Detection Joysticks Mouse - 3D Out-of-Balance Medical Devices Sleep Monitor Pedometers Sports Training – golf Sports Training – fly cast Sports Training – batting Tilt Sensing Virtual Reality I/O Wearable Computing I/O Antenna Alignment Antenna Switches Construction Leveling Machine Health Equipment Tilt Sensing Fork Lift Positioning Marine Navigation Platform Leveling Seat Damping Seismic Gas Shutoff Satellite Dish Alignment Satellite Gyroscopes Ship mechanical monitoring Shock Sensing UAVs UMVs Vibration Monitoring

15 Automotive Pressure Sensors Pressure Sensors Fuel Tire Manifold
Fuel Pressure Sensor Injector Pressure Sensor Automotive Pressure Sensors Pressure Sensors Fuel Tire Manifold Injector AC Mass air Break Fuel vapor Oil AC Pressure Sensor

16 Pressure Sensors Transducers Piezoresistor Capacitor Resonant beam
Internal ref. pressure Thin diaphragm Transducer Transducers Piezoresistor Capacitor Resonant beam Resonating beam (F1) Resonating beam is now under tension; (F2) Vacuum

17 Chemical Sensors i Chem-FET Heater
Reactive surface adsorbs gases i Heater Readily detects H2, CO, Alcohols, Hydrocarbons Chem-sensor gate; adsorbing metal like Pd Adsorption lowers threshold voltage since a dipole is induced. Chem-FET Vs Vd

18 Mechanical Transfer Gears Wheels Levers Rackets
Shuttles; walking beams Hinge & lock Articulated beams

19 Power Device Classes Extractors using ambient energy
Converters: energy-1 energy-2 Relays for power (not signal) Power controllers (beyond relays) Generators using fuel 1. Uses waste energy, 2. Uses generated energy

20 Power Extractors Typically utilize machine mechanical vibrations C1 C2
Changing capacitor plate spacing generates power; reverse damper. C2 C2 an be replaced with a magnet. Machines produce mostly 1 KHz to 5 KHz vibrations

21 10 to 100 watts 100 K to 1-million RPM
Power MEMS Chemical fuel to: Mechanical rotation, reciprocation, etc. Fluid or gas pumping force Electrical (fuel cell) Thrust; rocket Mechanical Electrical (turbo-generator) Photonic to electrical (really just a converter) Mechanical, electrical to chemical (battery) 10 to 100 watts 100 K to million RPM

22 Gas Turbine

23 TI MOEMS: DLP on off on on on on off on Over 8-million parts
Ref. “Digital Light Processing TM for High-Brightness, High-Resolution Applications” Larry J. Hornbeck,

24 1,400,000 mirrors in one module Texas Instruments DLPTM
animation by kbg

25 Session Summary Most MEMS are directly electrically powered
Electrostatic is simplest; very popular Bimorph is ideal for no/low wear beams Many kinds of mechanical transfer Sensors will remain largest market Reliability issues on some, but not all MEMS

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