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Upper, Downers & All Arounders

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Presentation on theme: "Upper, Downers & All Arounders"— Presentation transcript:

1 Upper, Downers & All Arounders
Chapter 1 Today & Tomorrow

2 Five Themes of Drug Use Humans have a basic need to cope with their environment Found that certain plants would ease: Anxiety Reduce pain Treat illnesses Give pleasure Allow them to communicate with Gods

3 Five Themes of Drug Use 2. Human brain is affected by drugs to induce an altered state of consciousness Affects the primitive or old part of brain that controls emotions Natural physiological functions such as breathing & heart rate Emotional Memories Sensory perceptions Physical and emotional pain Instincts Reasoning and memory of new brain “neocortex”

4 Five Themes of Drug Use 3. Governments and Businesses involvement in cultivating, manufacturing, distribution, taxing and prohibition Struggle to control supply of drugs Use of opium by medicine men in ancient Sumeria for secret medicines Pharaohs in ancient Egypt gave beer to slaves as an incentive to build pyramids Monopolization of Coca leaf production by Conquistadors in Peru to increase tax revenues for spain

5 Five Themes of Drug Use Governments and Businesses (continued)
Exportation and excise taxes on whiskey, hemp and tobacco to finance the American Revolution Sale of opium to China by Britain, France & Japan to support their colonies Growing and smuggling opium in Afghanistan to support insurgent activities Prohibition or restriction of alcohol, tobacco, opium and other drugs by many countries to control excessive drug use.

6 Five Themes of Drug Use Technological Advances in refining and synthesizing drugs to increase their potency. Distilling alcohol (Arabia, 10th century) Refining morphine from opium (Germany 1803) Refine cocaine from coca leaves (Germany (1859) Creation of alcohol sedation pill form from synthesizing barbiturates (Germany, 1868/1908)

7 Five Themes of Drug Use Technological Advances (continued)
Synthesize amphetamines to replace cocaine (Germany, 1887 & 1932) Extracting LSD from ergot fungus (Switzerland, 1938) Simsemilla-growing to increase potency (THC) content in marijuana Modify amphetamine molecules to produce designer drugs MDA & MDMA (ecstasy) US 1910 to present)

8 Five Themes of Drug Use Development of more efficient & faster ways of putting drugs into the body has intensified effects. Mixing alcohol and opium (Sumeria 4000 BC) Absorb more juice from coca leaves by mixing with charred oyster shells (Peru 1450) Inhaling nitrous oxide (England 1800) Injecting morphine (England 1855) Snorting Cocaine to absorb drug more quickly (Europe 1900)

9 Five Themes of Drug Use Development of more efficient & faster ways of putting drugs into the body has intensified effects. Dissolve LSD to blotter paper to be absorbed by tongue (US 1960’s) Smoke freebase & crack cocaine to intensify high (US 1975 – 1985) Crush & inject time-released medications such as Oxycontin for big rush (US 2003) Altering amphetamine-products to produce smokable form of methamphetamine (ICE)


11 Heroin Cocaine Marijuana Afghanistan largest producer/grower of opium
Mexican Black Tar & Brown Heroin and Columbian White Cocaine Grown in South America: Columbia, Peru & Bolivia 1.2 American use on a regular basis Marijuana Widely available Supreme Court ruled in 2001 that federal law prohibits dispensing drug to seriously ill even if the state allows it. Legalization in states vary

12 Club Drugs Methamphetamines:
Reemerged due to raves that are parties held in clubs, warehouses or remote areas where a wide variety of drugs available, especially psychedelics MDMA: Estacy and GHB are common at raves Methamphetamines: Manufactured in makeshift home labs Sold as crank, crystal, meth & speed Spreading to number of countries Thailand produce small methamphetamine pills called “ya ba”

13 Oxycontin: formerly known as Percodan
Alcohol Kills over 130,000 people per year compared with 8,000 deaths from illegal drugs Causes include genetic susceptibility, neurobiology Treatment of alcoholism, include pharmacological interventions to reduce gravings Oxycontin: formerly known as Percodan Crushing drug the drug allows the time released capsules to be absorbed all at once Hydrocodone (Vicodin) most widely abused prescription drug

14 HIV, AIDS, and Hepatitis C
Spreads rapidly in part due to pathogens by intravenous drug use High-risk sexual practices resulting from lower inhibitions Behavioral Addictions: Eating disorders Compulsive gambling Sexual addictions Compulsive shopping Tend to have the same signs and symptoms of drug addictions

15 Major Drugs Uppers (cocaine, amphetamines, diet pills, Ritalin, khat, caffeine, nicotine) Physical effects: Stimulation of nervous system Increased heart rate Increase blood pressure Insomia Decrease in appetite Large doses can cause cardiovascular problems, seizures, stroke and sometimes death Mental/Emotional Effects Increase in confidence Euphoria Anxiety Paranoia Mental confusion Aggression & Anger

16 Major Drugs Downers (Depressants) depress the nervous system: opiates/opiods, sedative hypnotics, alcohol, antihistamines Physical Effects: Slows heart rate and breathing Relaxed muscles Dull senses Constipation Nausea Digestive problems Large doses can depress the respiratory system Mental/Emotional Effects: Small doses lower inhibitions Relaxed and diminished anxiety Long term use causes physical dependence

17 Major Drugs All Arounders (psychedelics) distort perceptions and can cause hallucinations, delusions or illusions Physical Effects: Nausea Dizziness Higher blood pressure LSD causes stimulation Mental/emotional effects; Distortion of physical stimuli Mental confusion along with delusions, hallucinations and illusions Varies among user depending on frequency of use, duration, amount used

18 Other Drugs & Addiction
Inhalants (gasses or liquids are inhaled) glue, gasoline, paints & nitrous oxide Effects: Dizziness Slurred speech Lack of coordination Lower blood pressure Various toxic effects on major organs Mental/emotional effects Excitability Irritability Delirium

19 Other Drugs & Addiction
Anabolic Steroids and other Sports Drugs, Steroids, amphetamines and several therapeutic drugs enhance performance Physical Effects Steroids include increased muscle mass High blood pressure Acne Hormonal changes Mental/emotional effects Stimulation Outbursts of anger

20 Other Drugs & Addiction
Psychiatric medications (Antidepressants, anti-psychotics & anti-anxiety drugs are used to rebalance brain chemistry) Physical effects: Act on heart and muscle systems Mental/emotional effects Works to counteract depression Control mood swings Counter psychoses Generally calms a person

21 Other Drugs & Addiction
Compulsive Behaviors (eating disorders, gambling, sex addiction, shopping, codependency affects the same areas of the brain as psychoactive drugs Physical Effects: Neurological Changes in the brain Mental/emotional effects: Involves tolerance, dependence and withdrawal

22 Controlled Substances Act of 1970
DEA classified all psychoactive drugs into five levels or schedules subject to control Schedule I: heroin, LSD, marijuana, peyote, psilocybin, mescaline & MDMA High abuse potential Supposedly no accepted medical use Schedule II: cocaine, methamphetamine, opium, morphine, hydromorphone, codeine, meperdine, oxycodone, and methylphenidate Have a high abuse potential with severe psychic or physical dependence Have medical uses

23 Controlled Substances Act of 1970
Schedule III (Tylenol Codeine, Some barbiturates) Less Abuse potential Include schedule II drugs when used in componds Schedule IV Have even less abuse potential the schedule II drugs Chloral hydrate, meprobamate, fenfluramine, diazepam (valium) and other bezodiazepines, Phenobarbital Schedule V Low abuse potential because they contain limited qualities of narcotic and stimulant drugs Robitusin AC, Lomotil, OTC Drugs

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