Presentation on theme: "Elimination of Violence against Women and Girls IPA 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Elimination of Violence against Women and Girls IPA 2013
Introduction History Facts Stories Achievements Challenges Reflection What is violence?
Definition United Nations Declaration - violence against women/girls includes “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women/girls, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life (United Nations, 1993)”. The most common type of violence against women worldwide is “domestic violence” or the physical, emotional and/or Sexual abuse of women by their intimate partners or ex-partners(Heise et al., 1999).
Questions 1.Have you experienced or witnessed violence? 2.What was that like for you? 3.What patterns of violence do girls experience in schools, homes and communities? 4.How are these related to girls’ everyday interactions and relationships? 5.What can girls do to contest violence, to express their perspectives and influence decisions about matters that concern them? 6.How can these be expanded?
UN History re violence issue 1989, 1990, 1999, 2000 UNICRI - first International Crime Victimisation Survey (ICVS) 1992 General Recommendation of the United Nations Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). 1993 UN Declaration on Violence against Women/Girls 1995 Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action 2000 Special Rapporteur for Violence Against Women 2008 UNiTE to End Violence against Women campaign 2013 CSW 57 Elimination of Violence against Women
Unite to end violence against women “Violence against women and girls continues unabated in every continent, country and culture. It takes a devastating toll on women’s lives, on their families, and on societies as a whole. Most societies prohibit such violence – yet the reality is too often, it is covered up or tacitly condoned” (UN SG-Ban Ki Moon, 8 March 2007).
World Facts 70% women/girls suffer violence 40 – 70% of women murdered killed by close partner 162 countries have laws against violence but perpetrators walk free 4.8 million children aged 6 – 15 live in conflict areas. Over half are female and all are out of school Over 66% women in the Pacific are affected by DV. Boys start viewing pornography at 8 years of age More violent video games – ‘brutality cascade’
Facts - Australia 1 in 7 young women aged 12 – 20 experience rape or sexual assault Pay gap in Australia is 17.5% between men and women Women in government - 38% Top positions in companies - 8% women Stereotyping common “good mums have kids” 25% women experience sexual harassment in workplace Cost of DV in Australia estimated at $13.6 billion annually.
Why violence against women/girls? Lack of respect for human rights Structural factors include: dehumanising, forced labour, social exclusion Failure to deal with core problem (What is it?) Opt for short term solutions not long term planning There is lack of: prosecution, data, political will, policy coherence, gap between commitment and action; We all contribute to it indirectly!!!
What stops women/girls? Mindsets, Do you say “No”? Attitudes, How do you behave to others? Violence, What shows belittle girls? Culture, Does your boyfriend tell you what to wear? Undermining of effective decision making, Subtle discrimination (pregnancy, care giver, sidelining pay and promotion, less transparency, women left out of negotiations, assignment of work, entry to jobs)
Counteracting violence: Australia Elizabeth Broderick (Sex Discrimination Commissioner) Positives: paid parental leave, flexibility in work arrangements, pay rises for women, doubling of women in business, male champions on change, boys/men encouraged to change stereotypes
Violence against girls Every 3 seconds there is a child bride in the world 1 of 3 girls in developing countries (excluding China) is likely to marry before the age of 18 There were 14.1 million child brides in 2012 Most of these girls are poor, less-educated & live in rural areas 2010 – ,000 girls under 18 will be married each day Early marriage (10years) leads to higher mortality, fistula problems, school drop out, child bearing before maturity, etc Pregnancy and birth complications - main cause of death among adolescent girls in developing countries.
Child marriage TEHANI, AGE 8 (Yemen) “Whenever I saw him, I hid. I hated to see him,” Tehani (in pink) recalls of the early days of her marriage to Majed, when she was 6 and he was 25. The young wife posed for a portrait with former classmate Ghada, also a child bride, outside their home in Hajjah. Photo courtesy National Geographic How do you feel reading this?
Trafficking in Persons TIP Global report 2012 83% countries have TIP legislation 16% no convictions, 23% 1-10 convictions 34% no prosecutions Forced labour in Africa big issue, big flow from East Asia; fine line between TIP and exploiting migrants Often ‘victim’ prosecuted – employer freed TIP Report: practical way of making countries aware of extent of TIP & moral issues. Need better implementation. Root causes need addressing e.g. labour demand, poverty, inequality etc
Marta Santos Pais SRSG ‘Across the world, violence affects millions of children who are working, legally and illegally. Violence against children & child labour are closely related. Violence at home, school or institutions can push children into child labour. Work becomes a way to survive, even if it is hazardous or exploitative. UN Study on Violence against Children recognizes high incidence of violence in workplace, including ill-treatment by employers and sexual violence of child workers. It noted “of all the settings where children are exposed to violence, the workplace is among most difficult to address.” That is why violence against children in work place is a priority for my mandate as Special Representative of the Secretary- General on Violence against Children’.
How to Change Counteract violence/discrimination by: make discrimination visible, uncover situation, law suits, leadership from top, increase transparency, objective evaluation, flexibility, stop buying from companies that harass, monitor change. Women/girls need normative standards of equality, acceleration of practical equality & social change. Use CEDAW in approaching government “our government signed…”
What is being done Draw a line Look at positives: Women own 9 million small businesses worldwide Raise awareness: Austria re Domestic Violence – perpetrator removed from home - women, children stay at home. Positive male models re-educate men e.g. ‘Swedish’ model now in Iceland, Norway Strip clubs banned from making profit UN Trust fund works in 85 countries Anti-violence campaigns
NGO Working Group on Girls Set up in 1995, the International Network for Girls (INfG) has over 500 members in 100 countries. It publishes “Action for Girls”. With diverse programs in education, health, nutrition, child labour & sexual exploitation, Network members focus on improving girls’ rights INfG uses collective strength to advocate for girls’ rights worldwide
Positives Important factors: 1.Hiring motivated, educated, female teachers willing to teach in conflict regions 2.Female teachers are influential role models 3.Girls and their families can become motivated to make girls’ education a priority. 4.Ensuring community leaders encourage girls to attend schools. 5.Conflicts create new communities (refugee camps & migrants) community leaders help by pooling resources, creating alternative education strategies, alleviating localized violence against girls. 6.Educators build fences & walls around schools, hold classes in mosques or community centres, and create stronger buildings to sustain girls’ education during conflict.
Working Group on Girls - Julia Julia: ‘all issues [against girls’ education] together prevent universal girls’ education.’ The issues “unfairly victimize girls more than boys” & include girls roles during crises, exploitation of girls in economically unstable situations, lack of sanitation materials for girls. Julia advocates that UN hold governments accountable for HRs. She wants people to “be entrepreneurial. innovative, use new technology” Julia further argues that gender-neutral social values be taught to encourage more girls to pursue positions of leadership. She stresses need to “aid [girls], celebrate them, and raise their visibility…and [help them] identify their own passions and goals.” As a WGG Girl Advocate and Girls Learn International representative, Julia is on the Advocacy Task Force & attended several UN events. In March 2013, she moderated the WGG Girls Tribunal on Violence during the Commission on the Status of Women. For more information on how you can become a WGG Girl Advocate, to get
Action Plan to prevent violence 1. Create and implement school based curriculum 2. Public awareness campaign – explain & get men’s interest 3. Scale up by-stander intervention e.g. banging pots in Sth Africa, doorbell ringing in India, 4. Scale up media campaign 5. Develop scale of prevention strategies to help victims 6. Implement alcohol reduction strategies 7. Restrict access to guns 8. Minimize violence prevention programs as women gain skills 9. Parent training for fatherhood 10. Research and evaluate interventions
CSW57 Agreed Conclusions The Agreed Conclusions adopted by CSW57 condemns the pervasive violence against women and girls.Agreed Conclusions This agreement is one step more for realizing the rights and dignity of women and girls. By adopting this document, governments have made clear that discrimination and violence against women and girls has no place in the 21st century. The document calls for increased attention and accelerated action for prevention and response. The important focus is on prevention, including through education and awareness-raising, and addressing gender inequalities in the political, economic and social spheres.
Reasons to stop violence Violence against women/girls human rights issue World can’t afford cost of violence Full participation of women/girls is worthwhile economically and culturally Education of girls in Afghanistan Beyondance song 4 minutes psa/watch/world-humanitarian-day-2012-i-was-here-by- beyoncé/ What surprised you? What challenged you? What will you do?