Presentation on theme: "The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents"— Presentation transcript:
1 The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents The Role of Schools in Promoting Youth Physical ActivityNARRATIVE:Today I am going to introduce you to the 2008 Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents and discuss how schools, in partnership with families and communities, can help promote youth physical activity.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:Insert your name, school district, the name of your organization or group you represent, and the date of presentation in the text box. You can also remove this text box.Your NameOrganization or GroupDate of Presentation
2 Presentation Objectives Identify the benefits of regular physical activity among youthDescribe the key physical activity guidelines for children and adolescentsDescribe the role of schools, in partnership with families and communities, in promoting physical activity among children and adolescentsNARRATIVE:By the end of this presentation you will be able toIdentify the benefits of regular physical activity among youth.Describe the key physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents.Describe the role of schools, in partnership with families and communities, in promoting physical activity among children and adolescents.
3 A Day in the Life of Colin: A 7-Year-Old Child Walks to and from schoolJumps rope and does gymnastics in physical education classPlays on the playground during recessDoes homeworkWatches televisionPlays soccer with familyPlays video gamesNARRATIVE:Before we start talking about the Physical Activity Guidelines, I want to introduce you to Colin.Colin is a 7-year-old child.He participates in many types of activities in many places.The following activities describe a day in the life of Colin:He walks to and from school almost every day.During his physical education class, he jumps rope and does gymnastics and sit-ups.During recess, he plays on the playground. These activities involve running and climbing.After school, he watches his favorite television show, does homework and eats dinnerAfter dinner, he plays soccer with his family.At night, he finishes homework plays video games.Some of these activities are physical activities while others are sedentary activities.In order to better understand how these activities are different from one another, let’s first talk about what physical activity is and why it is important for children and adolescents.NOTE TO FACILITATOR: You may change the child’s name and/or activities (replace with similar level of physical activity) that are familiar and appropriate for your audience.
4 What Are the Benefits of Physical Activity? Promotes health and fitnessBuilds healthy bones and muscles1Reduces the risk of developing obesity and risk factors for diseases such as type 2 diabetes and heart disease1Reduces the symptoms of anxiety and depression1Can positively affect concentration, memory, and classroom behavior21. HHS. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report;20082. J Pediatr 2005;146(6):732–7.NARRATIVE:Physical activity is a bodily movement that uses energy to contract muscles. (NOTE TO FACILITATOR: Provide a visual demonstration to the audience by moving your arms or legs.)NARRATIVE, CONTINUED:Physical activity can be structured, like playing on a basketball team, or unstructured, like playing tag outside or riding bikes. Physical activity can also be part of everyday activities such as taking the dog for a walk or sweeping the floor.There are many health benefits associated with regular physical activity.Physically active youth have higher levels of cardiovascular fitness compared with youth who are inactive.Physical activity helps to build and maintain stronger bones and muscles.Many of the risk factors for chronic diseases, including heart disease, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes, begin to develop early in life.Regular physical activity reduces the risk of developing these risk factors and of becoming obese.Regular physical activity also reduces the symptoms of anxiety and depression.Research shows that physical activity among adolescents can positively affect their concentration, memory and classroom behavior.Establishing regular physical activity early in life makes it more likely that children will remain healthy as adults.
5 How Much Physical Activity Do Youth Need? Children and adolescents should do 60 minutes (1 hour) or more of physical activity daily.Aerobic Activities: Most of the 60 or more minutes per day should be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activity. Include vigorous-intensity physical activity at least 3 days per week.Muscle-strengthening Activities: Include muscle-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week, as part of the 60 or more minutes.Bone-strengthening Activities: Include bone-strengthening physical activity on at least 3 days of the week, as part of the 60 or more minutes.Activities should be age-appropriate, enjoyable, and offer variety.NARRATIVE:In 2008, the federal government published the Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans to provide information and guidance to policymakers, health professionals, and members of the public on the types and amounts of physical activity that provide substantial health benefits.These are the first physical activity guidelines ever to be published by the federal government.The guidelines are science-based recommendations for persons aged 6 and older, including children and adolescents aged 6–17.The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents state thatChildren and adolescents should do 1 hour (60 minutes) or more of physical activity per day.The guidelines state that the physical activity should at least be of moderate-intensity, and include vigorous-intensity activities at least 3 days per week.Muscle-strengthening and bone-strengthening activities should each be included at least 3 days a week, as part of the 60 minutes of daily physical activity.Each of these types of physical activity offer important health benefits.At first glance, these guidelines might appear complicated. However, keep in mind the following two key points:Vigorous, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening activities should be part of the 60 minutes of daily physical activity2) Many physical activities combine vigorous activity, muscle-strengthening, and bone-strengthening. For example, jumping rope is both vigorous and bone-strengthening.The guidelines also emphasize the importance of participating in a variety of activities that are age-appropriate and enjoyable.
6 What Does This Really Mean? At least 60 minutes every dayMostly aerobic activitiesAdd variety and funNARRATIVE:What does all of this actually mean?The key points to remember are that children and adolescents should doAt least 60 minutes of physical activity every day; andMost of the 60 minutes should be spent doing aerobic activities.It is very important that children and adolescents participate in a variety of activities, especially activities that they enjoy.This enhances skill development, reduces the risk of overuse injuries and increases the likelihood of continuing to be active as they get older.It is also important to know that the Guidelines take into consideration the natural activity patterns of children.Children often move between short bursts of activity and short periods of rest.All episodes of moderate- or vigorous-intensity activities count towards the daily requirement.Unstructured active play can provide all 3 types of physical activity.
7 What are Aerobic Activities? Activities that keep your body moving enough to increase your heart rate and make you breathe harderThere are two intensities of aerobic activity:Moderate-intensityVigorous-intensityNARRATIVE:Now let’s talk about each of the three types of physical activity outlined in the guidelines.The first is aerobic activity.Aerobic activities keep your body moving enough to increase your heart rate and make you breathe harder.There are two intensities of aerobic activity.moderate-intensityvigorous-intensityExamples of aerobic activities include running, hopping, skipping, jumping rope, swimming, dancing and bicycling.The intensity levels of these activities can be either moderate or vigorous depending on factors such as speed and level of effort.
8 Judging the Intensity of Aerobic Activities Moderate-intensity ActivityHeart will beat faster than normal and breathing will be harder than normalOn a scale of 0 to 10, moderate-intensity activity is a 5 or 6Vigorous-intensity ActivityHeart will beat much faster than normal and breathing will be much harder than normalOn a scale of 0 to 10, a vigorous-intensity activity is 7 or 8NARRATIVE:Children and adolescents can meet the guidelines by doing a combination of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic physical activities.However, youth should not only do moderate-intensity activity. It is important to include vigorous-intensity activities because they can help to improve cardiorespiratory fitness.What is the difference between moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities?It can sometimes be difficult to distinguish between moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities.As a rule of thumb, on a scale of 0 to 10, where sitting is a 0 and the highest level of effort possible is 10, moderate-intensity activity is a 5 or 6. Young people doing moderate-intensity physical activity will notice their heart beating faster than normal and breathing will be harder than normal.Vigorous-intensity activity is a 7 or 8 out of 10. Young people doing vigorous-intensity activity will notice their heart beating much faster than normal and breathing will be much harder than normal.The same activities, such as bike riding or walking, could be a moderate- or vigrous-intensity activity, depending upon the amount of energy the person is exerting.
9 Types of Moderate- and Vigorous- Intensity Aerobic Activities Type of Physical ActivityAge GroupChildrenAdolescentsModerate-intensity aerobicActive recreation, such as hiking, skateboarding, rollerbladingBicycle ridingBrisk walkingActive recreation, such as canoeing, hiking, skateboarding, rollerbladingBicycle riding (stationary or road bike)Housework and yard work, such as sweeping or pushing a lawn mowerGames that require catching and throwing, such as baseball and softballVigorous-intensity aerobicActive games involving running and chasing, such as tagJumping ropeMartial arts, such as karateRunningSports such as soccer, ice or field hockey, basketball, swimming, tennisCross-country skiingActive games involving running and chasing, such as flag footballVigorous dancing, cross-country skiingNARRATIVE:This chart shows examples of moderate- and vigorous-intensity aerobic activities for children and adolescents.As you can see, some of the activities are appropriate for both age groups and can be either moderate- or vigorous-intensity depending on the level of effort.
10 What are Muscle-Strengthening Activities? Activities that make muscles do more work than usual activities of daily lifeActivities that can be part of unstructured playClimbing treesPlaying tug-of-warActivities that can be structuredPush-ups, pull-upsWorking with resistance bandsLifting weightsNARRATIVE:The second type of physical activity outlined in the physical activity guidelines for children and adolescents is muscle-strengthening activity.Muscle-strengthening activities make muscles do more work than the usual activities of daily life.Children can increase their muscle strength through unstructured activities that involve lifting or moving their own body weight.Examples of muscle-strengthening activities from unstructured play include playing on playground equipment, climbing trees and playing tug-of-war.Muscle-strengthening activities also can be structured activities such push-ups and pull-ups, working with resistance bands or lifting weights.Let’s look at some other examples of muscle-strengthening activities that are appropriate for children and adolescents.
11 Types of Muscle-Strengthening Activities Type of Physical ActivityAge GroupChildrenAdolescentsMuscle-strengtheningGames such as tug-of-warModified push-ups (with knees on the floor)Resistance exercises using body weight or resistance bandsRope or tree climbingSit-ups (curl-ups or crunches)Swinging on playground equipment/barsPush-ups and pull-upsResistance exercises with exercise bands, weight machines, hand-held weightsClimbing wallNARRATIVE:This chart shows examples of muscle-strengthening activities for children and adolescents.It is important to point out that some activities meet the criteria for more than one type of physical activity.Two examples are gymnastics and rowing.Both activities can be moderate- or vigorous-aerobic activity, depending on the level of exertions, and both activities are also muscle-strengthening.These physical activities allow young people to maximize the health benefits gained from both aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities at once.
12 What Are Bone-Strengthening Activities? Activities that produce a force on the bones that promotes bone growth and strength, such as jumpingActivities that are especially important for young people because the greatest gain in bone mass occur during the years just before and during pubertyNARRATIVE:The third type of activity outlined in the guidelines for children and adolescents is bone-strengthening activity.Bone-strengthening activities produce a force on the bones that promotes bone growth and strength. This force is usually produced by an impact with the ground.These activities are especially important for youth because the greatest gains in bone mass occur during the years just before and during puberty, and the majority of peak bone mass is obtained by the end of adolescence.Let’s look at some examples of bone-strengthening activities for children and adolescents.
13 Types of Bone-strengthening Activities Type ofPhysical ActivityAge GroupChildrenAdolescentsBone-strengtheningGames such as hopscotchHopping, skipping, jumpingJumping ropeRunningSports such as gymnastics, basketball, volleyball, tennisNARRATIVE:This chart provides examples of bone-strengthening activities that are appropriate for children and adolescents.As you can see, some of these activities are also aerobic and muscle-strengthening. For example, running can be a vigorous aerobic activity as well as a bone-strengthening activity.
14 How Are the Guidelines for Youth Different from the Guidelines for Adults? Take into consideration natural activity patterns of childrenAll episodes of moderate- or vigorous-intensity activities count toward daily requirementUnstructured active play can provide all three types of physical activityDaily physical activity requiredSpecify need for bone-strengthening activities and vigorous-intensity activities each weekNARRATIVE:It is worth noting the differences between the physical activity guidelines for youth compared with the guidelines for adults.The adult guidelines count episodes of physical activity that are at least 10 minutes in duration towards the total target amount. However, the youth guidelines account for the intermittent activity patterns of children and count all episodes of moderate- or vigorous-intensity activity towards the daily requirement, regardless of duration. The guidelines for youth also specify that all of a child’s activity needs can be met through active play.The guidelines for adults provide a minimum number of minutes of physical activity required for the week. Adults can decide how to distribute this time throughout the week. However, in order for children and adolescents to gain comprehensive health benefits, they require 60 minutes of physical activity every day.The guidelines for adults include increased bone strength as a benefit of muscle strengthening activities. However, because of the importance of bone development during childhood and adolescence, the guidelines for youth specify the need for bone-strengthening activities each week.In addition, the guidelines for youth emphasize the need for both moderate- and vigorous-intensity activities, whereas the adult guidelines require different amounts of physical activity depending on the intensity level.Each of these differences takes into account the developmental needs and natural activity patterns of youth.
15 Meeting the Guidelines Getting and Staying ActiveNARRATIVE:I am now going to share some of the current data describing physical activity levels among children and adolescents, and show examples of youth who meet the guidelines.
16 How Physically Active Are High School Students? NARRATIVE:CDC conducts a national survey that monitors health-risk behaviors among youth enrolled in public and private schools in grades 9–12.Data from the 2007 survey shows that among high school students, 11% of females and 24% of males said that they were physically active at least 60 minutes per day.With such a low proportion of high school students meeting the physical activity guidelines, it is clear that there is a need to help youth get and stay active.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:Customize this slide by adding results from your local or state YRBS (Youth Risk Behvaior Survey). Go to for more information.Add a slide (following slide #16): Enter local data on the fitness of students from the results of your school, district, or state Fitnessgram, the Physical Fitness Test from the President’s Challenge, the Health Fitness Test from the President’s Challenge, the Youth Fitness Test from the YMCA, or any other fitness test.* Were physically active doing any kind of physical activity that increased their heart rate and made them breathe hard some of the time for a total of at least 60 minutes/day during the 7 days before the survey.Source: National Youth Risk Behavior Survey, 2007.
17 How Much Do 9- to 13- Year-Olds Participate in Physical Activity? Race/EthnicityOrganized ActivityFree-Time ActivityBlack, non-Hispanic24%75%Hispanic26%White, non-Hispanic47%79%Total39%77%NARRATIVE:National data on physical activity among younger age groups are presented in this table.Among 9–13 year olds, only 39% said they participated in organized physical activity.This finding indicates a great opportunity to identify ways to provide more organized activity for youth.NOTE TO FACILIATOR:Organized physical activity was considered participation in at least 1 organized activity during the last 7 days; free-time physical activity was 4 or more sessions in the last week.Source: MMWR 2003;52(33):785–8.
18 Meeting the Guidelines Youth Who Don’t Meet the GuidelinesSlowly increase activity in small stepsParticipate in enjoyable activitiesYouth Who Meet the GuidelinesContinue being active on a daily basisWork toward becoming more activeYouth Who Exceed the GuidelinesMaintain activity levelVary the kinds of activities to reduce the risk of injuryNARRATIVE:As we have seen, youth vary in their physical activity participation.Youth who do not currently meet the guidelines should slowly increase their activity in small steps by gradually increasing the number of days and the amount of time spent being active.It is also important for youth to engage in activities that are enjoyable.Both of these recommendations will help to decrease the risk of injury and increase the likelihood of participating in lifelong physical activity.Youth who exceed the guidelines should maintain their activity level and vary the kinds of activities that they do in order to reduce the risk of an overuse injury.Youth who meet the guidelines should continue being active on a daily basis and work towards becoming more active.Evidence suggests that more than 60 minutes of physical activity every day may provide additional health benefits.
19 A Day in the Life of Colin Walks to and from school (20 minutes)Jumps rope and does gymnastics in physical education class (10 minutes each).Plays on the playground during recess (10 minutes)Does homework (20 minutes)Watches television (30 minutes)Plays soccer with family (20 minutes)Plays video games (30 minutes)Total physical activity time = 60 minutesVigorous-intensity aerobic activity: jumping ropeBone-strengthening activities: jumping rope, gymnasticsMuscle-strengthening activities: gymnasticsNARRATIVE:Let’s now revisit Colin, the 7-year-old child.He walks to and from school, which takes a total of 20 minutes.He jumps rope for 10 minutes and he does gymnastics for another 10 minutes.He plays on the playground during recess for 10 minutes.He actively plays with his family for 20 minutes.In total, Colin is active for 60 minutes and does all three types of physical activity.Walking to school is moderate-intensity aerobic activity.Jumping rope is both vigorous-intensity aerobic activity and bone-strengthening.Gymnastics is bone-strengthening and muscle-strengthening.Colin also watches television for 30 minutes and plays video games for 30 minutes for a total or 1 hour of ‘screen time’. This meets the recommendation for children, which is less than 2 hours per day of screen time.This example illustrates how a child can meet and even exceed the guidelines doing multiple activities throughout the day. It also demonstrates how some activities can meet the criteria for more than one type of activity.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:If you changed the child’s name in slide #3, enter that name on these slides, or create your own “Day in the Life of . . .” slides.
20 Colin’s Weekly Physical Activities MondayWalks to and from school20 minutesPlays on playground10 minutesJumps ropeDoes gymnasticsPlays soccer with familyTuesday25 minutesClimbs on playground equipment15 minutesWednesdayPlays actively with friendsRuns5 minutesDoes sit ups2 minutesNARRATIVE:Here is a record of Colin’s activities for one week.As you can see, his activities vary from day to day.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:If you changed the child’s name in slide #3, enter that name on these slides, or create your own “Day in the Life of . . .” slides.
21 Colin’s Weekly Activities, cont. ThursdayPlays actively with family30 minutesPlays soccerFridayWalks to and from school20 minutesPlays actively with friends25 minutesBicycles15 minutesSaturdayPlays on playgroundClimbs on playground equipmentSunday10 minutes40 minutesPlays tag with familyNARRATIVE:Overall, Colin is meeting the guidelines by engaging in at least 60 minutes of physical activity a day and by doing vigorous-intensity aerobic activities, bone-strengthening activities, and muscle-strengthening activities on at least three days of the week.He does vigorous-intensity aerobic activities six times during the week: jumping rope on Monday and Wednesday, running on Wednesday, playing soccer on Thursday and Sunday, and playing tag on Sunday.Colin does bone-strengthening activities six times during week: jumping rope on Monday and Wednesday, running on Wednesday, soccer on Thursday and Sunday, and playing tag on Sunday.He also does muscle-strengthening activities four times during the week: gymnastics on Monday, climbing on playground equipment on Tuesday and Saturday, and sit-ups on Wednesday.Now let’s look at another example.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:If you changed the child’s name in slide #3, enter that name on these slides, or create your own “Day in the Life of . . .” slides.
22 Maria: A 16-Year-Old Adolescent Maria participates in many types of physical activities in many placesShe plays tennis and does sit-ups and push-ups during physical education classShe likes to play basketball at the YMCA, do yoga, and go dancing with her friendsShe likes to walk and hike with her dogNARRATIVE:Maria is a 16-year-old adolescent. Her activity patterns are different than Colin’s.During her physical education class, she plays tennis and does sit-ups and push-ups.She likes to play basketball at the YMCA, do yoga, and go dancing with her friends.She also likes to walk and go hiking with her dog.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:You may change the child’s name and/or activities (replace with similar level of physical activity) that are familiar and appropriate for your audience, or create your own “Day in the Life of . . .” slides.
23 A Day in the Life of Maria Walks dog (10 minutes)Plays tennis (30 minutes)Does sit-ups and push-ups (5 minutes)Plays with children at the park while babysitting (15 minutes)Total physical activity time = 60 minutesVigorous-intensity aerobic activity: tennisBone-strengthening activity: tennisMuscle-strengthening activity: sit-ups and push-upsNARRATIVE:The following activities describe a typical day for Maria.She walks her dog for 10 minutes.In her physical education class, Maria plays tennis for 30 minutes and does sit-ups and push-ups for 5 minutes.After school, she plays with children at the park while babysitting for 15 minutes.Maria has accumulated 60 minutes of physical activity for the day.She has done moderate-intensity aerobic activity, vigorous-intensity aerobic activity, bone strengthening activity and muscle-strengthening activity.Although Colin and Maria engage in different types of activities, they both meet the guidelines.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:You may change the child’s name and/or activities (replace with similar level of physical activity) that are familiar and appropriate for your audience, or create your own “Day in the Life of . . .” slides.
24 Barriers to Meeting the Guidelines PersonalAttitudeBelief in ability to be physically activeSocialInfluence of their peersParental supportEnvironmentalSafe locations to be activeAccess to equipmentFinancial costs of physical activitiesTimeNARRATIVE:There are many barriers that make it difficult for young people to meet the physical activity guidelines.Young people may not believe that physical activity is important for a healthy lifestyle or feel that they have the ability to perform a physical activity.Lack of support from family and friends also can prevent youth from meeting the guidelines.Environmental factors that make it difficult to participate in physical activity include low availability of safe locations to be active and physical activity equipment, costs of physical activities, and time constraints.
25 YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NARRATIVE:Despite the many barriers that prevent children and adolescents from being active, there are multiple opportunities for promoting physical activity among youth.Each of the sectors in this diagram play an important role in helping young people engage in physical activity.Today, we are going to focus on the roles of schools in promoting physical activity in partnership with families and communities.YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
26 Youth Physical Activity The Role of SchoolsNARRATIVE:Schools can play a unique role in promoting the physical activity guidelines and can increase physical activity through a comprehensive physical activity program.
27 Why is Physical Activity Important For Schools? Associated with lower levels of stress and anxiety1Can positively affect concentration, memory, and classroom behavior among adolescents2Can improve standardized test scores3NARRATIVE:Physical activity is associated with lower levels of stress and anxiety among children and adolescents.Research shows that physical activity can positively affect their concentration, memory, and classroom behavior among adolescents.One of the main concerns among educators is that spending more time in physical education class will negatively impact student’s standardized test scores. However, research has not found this to be the case.Research shows that spending more time in physical education class does not negatively affect scores on standardized tests, and in some cases, can actually improve test scores.1. HHS. Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Report;2008.2. J Pediatr 2005;146(6)719–20.3. Res Q Exerc Sport 1999;70(2):127–34.
28 Physical Education and Academic Achievement1 Nationally representative sample: 5,316 students starting kindergarten in 1998–1999, followed through 5th gradePhysical education (PE) measure: Low (0–35 mins/week), Medium (36–69), High (70–300)Academic achievement measure: Mathematics and reading tests designed by expertsResults: A small but significant benefit on both math and reading tests were observed for girls in the high PE category compared with those in the low PE category; findings not seen in boysNARRATIVE:One recent study examined the relationship between the amount of time spent in physical education class and academic performance.Academic performance was measured using standardized mathematics and reading exams developed by the National Center for Education Statistics.This study followed a nationally representative sample of 5,316 students starting in kindergarten through 5th grade.The results showed that girls who participated in higher amounts of physical education had better math and reading tests scores compared with girls with minimal amounts of physical education. These findings were not seen in boys. However, no negative effects on test scores were among boys in the study.1. Am J Pub Health 2008;98(4):72–7.
29 Comprehensive School-Based Physical Activity Program1 Components include:Quality physical educationDaily recess periodActivity breaks throughout the dayIntramural sportsInterscholastic sportsWalk- and bike-to-school programsStaff wellness and involvementFamily and community participationNARRATIVE:Schools can provide students with a range of opportunities for physical activity through a comprehensive physical activity program.The cornerstone of a comprehensive physical activity program is quality physical education classes, which we will talk about in a few minutes.A comprehensive physical activity program allows students to practice and apply skills that are taught during physical education.Schools can promote physical activity outside of physical education through policy development, implementation, and accountability. These policies may be related to:Recess, activity breaks, intramurals, interscholastic sports, and walk and bike to school programs.Staff wellness and involvement also are important to a comprehensive physical activity program.Staff wellness programs increase access to places for staff to be physically active and provide the opportunity for role modeling of healthy behaviors.It is also important to include family and community participation in school-based physical activity. We will be discussing ways to do this later in the presentation.1. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs Package; 2008.
30 Physical Activity vs. Physical Education1 Physical activity = behaviorPhysical education = curricular area that teaches about physical activityProvides students with the skills needed to participate in a lifetime of physical activityNARRATIVE:Before I discuss each of the components of a comprehensive physical activity program, I first want to talk a little bit about the differences between physical activity vs. physical education.The guidelines for youth focus on physical activity, which is a behavior and can be either unstructured or structured.However, not all forms of physical activity provide students with knowledge and skills.Physical education is a curricular area that teaches the skills needed to participate in a lifetime of physical activity.A comprehensive physical activity program provides quality physical education, as well as other opportunities for physical activity.1. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Understanding The Difference: Is It Physical Education or Physical Activity?;2005.
31 What is Quality Physical Education? Opportunity to learnAdequate time, equipment, and facilitiesHighly qualified, certified, or licensed teachersMeaningful contentWritten standards-based curriculumSequential, developmentally appropriate learning activities for grades K–12Appropriate instructionFull inclusion of all studentsWell-designed lessons that facilitate learningSufficient practice opportunities for class activitiesStudent assessmentNARRATIVE:Quality physical education provides the unique opportunity for young people to acquire the knowledge and learn skills needed to establish and maintain physically active lifestyles.This requires an adequate amount of teaching time, equipment, facilities, and highly qualified physical education teachers to provide developmentally appropriate instruction.Quality physical education also provides students with meaningful content through curriculum and instruction that is based on physical education standards.Curriculum and instruction should be sequential and provide students with a variety of opportunities to enhance physical, mental, social and emotional development.Quality physical education requires appropriate instruction.This means full inclusion of all students, including those with disabilities.Maximum practice opportunities through well-designed lessons and a variety of student assessment protocols such as student self-assessments and teacher observations, should be provided to enhance student learning.Teachers may also want to include out of school assignments that foster learning, such as identifying physical activity opportunities in their community that are low- or no-cost.
32 Other Characteristics of Quality Physical Education Programs Enjoyable experience for all studentsMeet the needs and interests of all studentsKeep students active for most of class timeMore than 50% of class time spent in moderate- to vigorous-intensity activityPolicy Recommendation: Schools should require daily PE for students in kindergarten through grade 121Elementary school = 150 minutes per weekSecondary school = 225 minutes per weekNARRATIVE:Physical education should encourage students to believe that physical activity is important and enjoyable.It is important that physical education programs meet the needs of all students. This can be achieved byIncluding a range of lifetime physical activities such as walking, bicycling and tennis, and not overemphasizing team sports.Modifying activities to include all students.And, including measurable physical education goals in students’ Individualized Education Program (IEP).It is important that physical education classes keep students active more than 50% of class time.Curricular and instructional changes can increase the likelihood of keeping students active during the majority of class time.This can be accomplished by making physical education classes longer or more frequent.Incorporating fitness activities into physical education classes.Modifying game rules to make them more active.Replacing games that involve elimination, such as traditional tag or dodgeball, with more active games.It is important that schools have policies regarding the amount of physical education time students receive.The National Association for Sports and Physical Activity recommends that all students in kindergarten through grade 12 participate in daily physical education classes.Specifically, elementary school students should receive 150 minutes of physical education per week and high school students should receive 225 minutes of physical education per week.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:You may want to enter the state and/or school district requirement for minutes of physical education per week to compare with the recommendation on the slide.1. National Association for Sports and Physical Education. Moving into the Future: National Standards for Physical Education, 2nd ed;2004.
33 RecessOpportunity to participate in free-time physical activity and practice skills learned in physical education classesEnhances cooperation and negotiation skillsImproves attentiveness, concentration, and time-on-task in the classroomNARRATIVE:A comprehensive school-based physical activity program includes recess periods.Recess periods, especially in elementary schools, can help children accumulate a portion of their recommended 60 minutes of daily physical activity.Recess provides an opportunity for students to practice the skills they learn in physical education classes as well as enhance cooperation and negotiation skills.Recess has also been shown to improve attentiveness, concentration, and time-on-task in the classroom.Recess should not, replace physical education or be used to meet time requirements set forth in physical education policies.The National Association for Sport and Physical Education recommends that elementary schools provide all students with at least one 20 minute period of recess per school day.Schools can try to enhance the amount of physical activity that students get during recess by providing students with space, facilities, equipment, and supplies that can make participation in activity appealing.Schools can also provide organized physical activities such as four-square, active tag, and flag football for interested students.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:You may want to enter the state and/or school district requirement for the number of minutes of recess per day for elementary schools students to compare with the recommendation on the slide.Policy Recommendation: Schools should provide at least 20 minutes of recess per day, in addition to physical education classes11. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Recess in Elementary Schools;2006.
34 Physical Activity Breaks Independent of physical education and recessCan enhance positive classroom behavior of studentsIncorporates activity in the classroom as part of planned lessonsPhysical Activity Break Ideas: Ask students to identify and act out action words from a story through physical activity or take a walk outside as part of a science classNARRATIVE:Another strategy for increasing physical activity in schools is to incorporate activity in the classroom as part of planned lessons.These activities have been shown to enhance positive classroom behavior.There are several programs that are specifically designed to add physical activity to planned lessons, including Take 10, Brain Breaks, and Energizers.
35 Intramural Sports Can be offered before, during, and after school Provide students with a choice in activitiesOffer every student an equal opportunity to participate regardless of ability levelIncorporate lifetime physical activities such as walking, running, hiking, swimming, tennis, dancing, and bicyclingNARRATIVE:Intramurals offer another opportunity for students to engage in physical activity. These opportunities can be offered before, during, and after school.Intramurals are open to all students regardless of ability level and students can be involved in planning and implementing the activities.Intramurals should incorporate lifetime physical activities such as walking, running, hiking, swimming, tennis, dancing, and bicycling.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:You may want to include the types of intramural sports that are offered locally in your school or district.
36 Interscholastic Sports Help establish cooperative and competitive skills1Help students learn sport-specific and performance-based skillsMay be related to higher levels of overall physical activity2Associated with improved mental health and reduction in some risky health behaviors3–4NARRATIVE:School sports programs provide structured time to accumulate minutes of physical activity.Participating in sports helps students to establish cooperative and competitive skills, and learn sport-specific and performance-based skills.Some evidence indicates that participation in sports is related to higher levels of participation in overall physical activity.In addition, participation in sports programs has been associated with improved mental health and a reduction in some risky health behaviors such as, cigarette smoking, illegal drug use, and having sexual intercourse.Although typically limited to students who are athletically gifted, interscholastic sports provide unique opportunities for applying skills taught in physical education such as sport-specific movements and behaviors such as self-monitoring and management.1. National Association for Sports and Physical Education. Eight Domains of Coaching Competencies;2006.2. Pediatr Exerc Sci 1998;10:378–86.3. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 2000;154:904–11.4. The President's Council on Physical Fitness and Sports. Research Digest 1997;2:1–12.
37 Benefits of Active Commuting to School Increases physical activity levels1–3Reduces the number of cars and decreases traffic near schoolsPromotes partnerships among students, parents and community organizations and membersNARRATIVE:Walking and biking to schools offers several important benefits.A growing body of research shows that young people who use active transportation have higher levels of physical activity and are more likely to meet physical activity recommendations.Parents of younger children also can accumulate physical activity minutes by walking to school with their children.Additional benefits of walking or biking to schools are a reduction in the number of cars and traffic near schools and the promotion of partnerships among students, parents, and community organizations and members.1. Am J Prev Med 2005;29(3):179–84.2. BMJ 2005;331(7524)1061–2.3. Med Sci Sports Exerc 2005;37(12):2062–9.
38 Prevalence of Active Commuting to or from School NARRATIVE:Despite the numerous benefits associated with active commuting, few children and adolescents walk or bike to school.The U.S. Department of Transportation conducts an ongoing National Household Transportation Survey.The survey collects information on all trips taken by members of selected households during the randomly assigned survey day.This survey includes a question about students walking or biking to school.This graph compares the prevalence of active commuting to or from school in 1969 and In 1969, 40.7% of students walked or biked to school; by 2001, only 12.9% of students walked or biked to school.The decrease in active commuting to or from school represents a loss of an opportunity for physical activity among American students.Source: Am J Prev Med 2007;32(6):509–16.
39 Walk and Bicycle to School Programs Activity Recommendation: Schools should participate in International Walk to School Week and support ongoing walk and bike to school programsResources:Safe Routes to SchoolsWalking School BusKidsWalk GuideNARRATIVE:Schools can encourage physical activity by participating in International Walk to School Week in October and supporting ongoing walk and bike to school programs.It is important to point out that some school districts may discourage walking or biking to school because of safety concerns such as busy streets to cross, crime, or gangs in the neighborhood.Safe Routes to School programs focus on preventing injury while encouraging walking to school.One of the activities that Safe Routes to School encourages is a walking school bus.A walking school bus is a group of children walking to school together with one or more adults.It can be as informal as two families taking turns walking their children to school, to having a specific meeting point, schedule of volunteers to lead the walk, and timetable for “picking-up” students along the route.A variation on the walking school bus is a bicycle train, which is a group of children and adult leaders ride together to school.Safe Routes to School has developed a guide to help adults start a walking school bus or bicycle train in their community.The CDC has developed the KidsWalk Guide to help communities with develop and implement walk and bicycle to school programs. The guide provides users with a step-by-step checklist, implementation tools, safety tips, and ideas to make walking to school an active and exciting part of a child's day.NOTES TO FACILITATOR:You may want to add your own local resources for walk & bicycle to school programs, if available.
40 Working Together: Joint Use Agreements Share resources: athletic fields, playgrounds and fitness facilities with other community members and organizations.Open school facilities to provide physical activity programs to students, families, school staff, and community members.Seek funding from local businesses, community groups and health organizations for physical activity programs and eventsNARRATIVE:It is not always possible to build new places for physical activity. However, joint use agreements allow schools, communities and local governments to share resources such as facilities or land.For example, schools can allow organizations and the public to utilize their athletic fields, playgrounds, and fitness facilities, after school hours and on weekends.This increases the school’s capacity to provide physical activity opportunities for youth and other community members.Community organizations can provide physical activity programs or workshops to students, families, school staff, and other community members, using school facilities.Local businesses, community groups and health organizations may be potential sources of funding for physical activity programs and events.NOTE TO FACILITATOR:Add your ideas for joint-use agreements to promote youth physical activity and cross-sector collaboration.
41 Working Together: Community Involvement In School-Based Physical Activity Support school-based physical activityJoin the school health advisory councilDonate equipment, money or encourage staff to volunteer timeSupport Safe Routes to School programsOffer after-school physical activity programsNARRATIVE:Schools can encourage family and community involvement in school-based physical activity in a variety of ways:Fostering open communication among schools, families, and community members can increase understanding of youth physical activity.For example, schools can inform families about opportunities for physical activity at school and in the community using a variety of communication methods to disseminate information including, flyers, newsletters, s, message boards, telephone calls, conversations at school, and media coverage.Schools can also include families and community representatives on the school health advisory council.Schools can offer opportunities for family participation in physical activity programs. This could include family homework assignments, activity newsletters, and family nights that engage participants in health promoting activities.
42 YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY NARRATIVE:Each of the sectors shown on this diagram has a role in promoting physical activity among children and adolescents.No one sector can solely promote and improve youth physical activity.Collaboration across sectors will likely have the most effective impact, through consistent messaging and multiple opportunities to engage youth in physical activity.YOUTH PHYSICAL ACTIVITY
43 Questions? Be Active and Play, 60 minutes, every day! Thank you!Questions? Be Active and Play, 60 minutes, every day!Information in this presentation is provided by U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion Division of Adolescent and School HealthNARRATIVE:Are there any questions?NOTE TO FACILITATOR:After answering participant questions, distribute one copy of the Youth Physical Activity, The Role of Schools fact sheet to each participant.Introduce and conduct the optional final activities.Thank participants for attending and ask participants to complete and submit the feedback form for The Physical Activity Guidelines for Children and Adolescents presentation.