Presentation on theme: "FactorInformation Needed Enterprise: Natural Resources Unit: Soil Judging I. Intro- duction A. Protecting resources, like soil, is an important career."— Presentation transcript:
FactorInformation Needed Enterprise: Natural Resources Unit: Soil Judging I. Intro- duction A. Protecting resources, like soil, is an important career area in agriculture. B. The soil judging contest is a fun, competitive way to learn about soils.
A. There are three parts: 1. Measuring soil properties 2. Interpreting, determining class 3. Management decisions B. A soil judging site: 1. A 100 x 100 area 2. A staked slope of 50 or 100 3. A pit II. Contest Basics
III. Soil Properties A. There are five soil properties: Soil texture 1. Soil texture ( a combination of sand, silt and clay give soil its texture class.) a. coarse- mostly sand, wont ribbon b. moderately coarse- sandy soil, weak >1 ribbon. Very gritty. c. medium- good mix, ribbon less 1, smoother texture. d. moderately fine- some clay, 1-2 ribbon. e. fine- clay soils, will ribbon more than 2, smooth texture that will get shiny.
2. Soil Depth- depth available for rooting, check for rock or gravel layer. 3. Past erosion- compares current topsoil depth to original soil depth (given) a. deposition- more than original b. none to slight- less than 25% c. moderate- 25-75% d. severe- greater than 75% 1. formula: original depth - current depth / original depth x 100 = % of soil loss.
Slope- 4. Slope- is the amount of feet a slope drops over 100 of length. It will be 50 or 100 in the contest. If a 50 slope is staked, your estimate must be doubled. a. Depression is a low spot Stoniness- 5. Stoniness- number of 10 stones a. none to slight- ave. 1 stone every 30 b. moderate- 1 stone/ 5 to 30 c. excessive- 1 stone 5 or less
IV. Interpretive Properties A. These are determined from the above information 1. Permeability 1. Permeability- affected by subsoil texture a. rapid- coarse b. moderate- moderately coarse, medium, mod. Fine- the 3 Ms c. slow- fine textured d. very slow- rare
2. Surface Runoff a. rapid- above 6% slope b. moderate- 3 to 6% slope c. slow- 0 to 3% slope d. ponded- depression 1] If the top soil is coarse add 3% to slopes 3. Water Table may be given under field conditions and would affect limiting factors. a. >20 is a (1) b. 10 - 20 is (2) c. 0 - 10 is a (3) d. ponded is (5)
VI. Land Capability Class A. The worst limiting factor factor determines the land capability classification. VII. Field Conditions A. These are posted at the pit and just need to be filled in. Water table is used for limiting factors. V. Limiting factors A. Check all boxes that were marked worse than one (1) on the cheat sheet.
VIII. Land Treatments A. Easy to complete after determining the land capability class of the site. Vegetative treatments 1. Vegetative treatments- mark any that fall within the ranges given. Mechanical Erosion Treatments 2. Mechanical Erosion Treatments overhead water a. diversion terraces- marked if overhead water is given on field conditions. b. Farm on the contour- check if a 3 to 6%
c. Terrace- mark if 6% to 15% d. grassy waterway- marked if overland water is given under field conditions Fertility Treatments 3. Fertility Treatments a. To determine fertility treatments look at the field conditions sheet at the pit. B. subtract the soil test and manure value from the amount needed from the crop raised. This is the amount you list on the score card.
C. Potassium levels can exceed needs when manure is added, Nitrogen and Phosphorus can not exceed levels.