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1 Soil Erosion. 2 Bird City, Kansas 3 4 St. Francis, Kansas.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Soil Erosion. 2 Bird City, Kansas 3 4 St. Francis, Kansas."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Soil Erosion

2 2 Bird City, Kansas

3 3

4 4 St. Francis, Kansas

5 5

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7 7

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9 9 San Luis Valley, Colorado

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14 14 Al Asad, Iraq

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18 18

19 19 The Dustbowl

20 20 How much soil is lost? 5 Billion Tons, Billion with a “B” lost each year 5 Billion Tons, Billion with a “B” lost each year 3.5 Billion tons due to Water 3.5 Billion tons due to Water 1.5 Billion tons due to Wind 1.5 Billion tons due to Wind

21 21 What is average loss? Scientists expect to lose 5 tons per acre per year Scientists expect to lose 5 tons per acre per year This much can be re-captured through soil formation This much can be re-captured through soil formation Water makes up 4.8 tons lost Water makes up 4.8 tons lost Wind makes up 3.3 tons lost Wind makes up 3.3 tons lost 8.1 tons is average 8.1 tons is average THIS IS TOO MUCH! THIS IS TOO MUCH!

22 22 Lasting effects of erosion Loss of topsoil-loss of productive organisms Loss of topsoil-loss of productive organisms Organic matter gone along with N-P-K Organic matter gone along with N-P-K Reduced Root Zone-less water holding capacity Reduced Root Zone-less water holding capacity Gullies make farming difficult Gullies make farming difficult Pollutes lakes, streams causing harm to wildlife Pollutes lakes, streams causing harm to wildlife Sediment fills up lakes, streams, and waterways Sediment fills up lakes, streams, and waterways Loss of $$$$ due to un- productive soil Loss of $$$$ due to un- productive soil Sediment fills and pollutes a lake

23 23 What affects erosion #1Texture and Structure #1Texture and Structure The coarser the texture, the higher infiltration rate, the lower amounts of run-off The coarser the texture, the higher infiltration rate, the lower amounts of run-off Fine particles detach easier than large particles Fine particles detach easier than large particles Silt erodes faster than sand Silt erodes faster than sand Good structures resist rain splash and wind lift Good structures resist rain splash and wind lift

24 24 What affects erosion #2 Slope #2 Slope Length and steepness or grade both need considered Length and steepness or grade both need considered Length accounts for volume of erosion Length accounts for volume of erosion Grade creates water velocity Grade creates water velocity Long fields have snowball effect with wind Long fields have snowball effect with wind Little loss at the head end, piles of soil at the bottom end Little loss at the head end, piles of soil at the bottom end

25 25 What affects erosion #3 Surface Roughness #3 Surface Roughness Rough soil slows water Rough soil slows water and reduces downhill flow and reduces downhill flow Tillage ridges are helpful Tillage ridges are helpful Tillage across slope prevents erosion, tillage with the slope promotes erosion Tillage across slope prevents erosion, tillage with the slope promotes erosion

26 26 What affects erosion #4 Surface Cover #4 Surface Cover Surface cover reduces impact from falling water and slows down movement of water Surface cover reduces impact from falling water and slows down movement of water Surface crops’ roots hold soil closely Surface crops’ roots hold soil closely Row crops need a foliage canopy to help protect soil Row crops need a foliage canopy to help protect soil

27 27 What affects erosion #5 Climate #5 Climate Dry soils and dry climates promote wind erosion Dry soils and dry climates promote wind erosion The drier the soil particles the greater risk of being picked up and moved elsewhere The drier the soil particles the greater risk of being picked up and moved elsewhere Dry weather promotes wind loss Dry weather promotes wind loss

28 28 Types of erosion #1 Splash Erosion #1 Splash Erosion Water hits the soil and can move particles as much as 5 feet! Water hits the soil and can move particles as much as 5 feet!

29 29 Types of erosion #2 Sheet erosion #2 Sheet erosion A thin layer of soil is removed as a sheet. A thin layer of soil is removed as a sheet. Sheet erosion hides until topsoil is lost and subsoil is exposed. Sheet erosion hides until topsoil is lost and subsoil is exposed. Sheet erosion exposes sub-soil in the circles

30 30 Types of erosion #3 Rill erosion #3 Rill erosion Many small channels on slopes Many small channels on slopes Running water carves out rills Running water carves out rills Still can be filled in by tillage Still can be filled in by tillage

31 31 Types of erosion #4 Ephemeral (e fem er al) #4 Ephemeral (e fem er al) Large rills Large rills Tillage won’t completely fill them in Tillage won’t completely fill them in The next rain will create gullies if not fixed The next rain will create gullies if not fixed

32 32 Types of erosion #5 Gully erosion #5 Gully erosion So large equipment cannot cross So large equipment cannot cross Begin on steep slopes where water creates enough energy to cut large channels in the earth Begin on steep slopes where water creates enough energy to cut large channels in the earth


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