We think you have liked this presentation. If you wish to download it, please recommend it to your friends in any social system. Share buttons are a little bit lower. Thank you!
Presentation is loading. Please wait.
Published byPaige Barr
Modified over 2 years ago
Soil n composed of sand, silt, and clay, organic matter, living organisms, and pore spaces
Soil n classified according to percentage of sand, silt, and clay they contain.
Soil Particles n vary greatly in size n sand is the largest n silt - medium n clay - smallest
Clay n particles hold moisture and plant food elements more effectively than larger particles.
Soil Profile n consists of 3 basic layers n topsoil n subsoil n soil bedrock
Topsoil n represents depth normally plowed
Subsoil n deep rooting plants send roots down into subsoil
Sandy Soil n silt and clay make up less than 20% by weight n drain well n little water holding capacity
Clayey Soil n must contain at least 30% clay n holds more moisture than is good for plants n poor drainage
Loamy Soil n most desirable soil n equal parts sand, silt and clay
Soil Improvement n Drainage – change soil structure –add organic matter to encourage earth worms
Worms n their tunnels and castings result in better soil structure - aggregation - clinging together
Drainage n drainage tiles n raise planting beds n ditching between beds
Moisture retention n adding organic matter (o.m.) n sources of o.m. n animal manure n green manure - crop grown and plowed under to improve the soil
Sources of O.M. n peat moss n sawdust n mulches - compost or wood chips
Mulches n placed on the surface to help retain moisture n reduce runoff and evaporation n reduce weeds
Moisture retention n irrigation
Fertilizing n fertilize according to soil test results
Diseases n plant resistant varieties n chemicals n soil pasteurization –heat to 180 degrees F for 30 minutes.
Nutritional deficiencies n show on leaves of plants n Nitrogen - pale green leaves n Phosphorus - purple color on underside of leaves
Planting Media Mixes n Soil less mixes n advantages include : uniformity - doesnt vary in pH, fertility or texture
advantages n sterile n lightweight n good moisture retention and drainage n free of weed seeds
disadvantages n light weight - pots tip in strong wind n minor elements are missing n transplants may not adjust well to new media
Content of mixes n perlite n improve aeration n volcanic origin
Vermiculite n exploded Mica n improves aeration
Plant food and fertilizers n divided into two groups n Major elements (macro) n Nitrogen - N n Phosphorus - P n Potassium - K
minor elements (micro) n Calcium - Ca n Magnesium - mg n Sulfur - S n Iron - Fe
minor elements (micro) n Manganese - Mn n Boron - B n Copper - Cu n Zinc - Zn
Plant requirements n large amounts of major elements n relatively small amounts of minor elements
Commercial fertilizers n shows % or pounds per cwt. (100#) of the three major elements in large numbers on the container or bag.
Commercial fertilizers n n 5% N, 10% P, 5% K n remaining 80% is filler n NP&K are always listed in that order.
Soil tests n determine amount of elements needed for various plants.
Nitrogen n generally purchased in one of four forms n Nitrate of soda n ammonium nitrate
Nitrogen n ammonium sulfate n urea formaldehyde
Nitrogen n has most noticeable effect on plants n encourages above ground vegetative growth n regulates use of other elements
Too much N n lower disease resistance n weaken stem because of long soft growth n lower fruit quality
Too much N n delay maturity n increase winter damage to plants
Not enough N n yellow or light green color n stunted root and top growth
N lost easily from soil n leaching - being filtered down through soil with water n not held by soil particles, dissolved in water n O.M. holds insoluble N for slow release
Dont use excess N n quickly lost through leaching n can damage plants
Phosphorous n held tightly by soil particles n not easily leached
Phosphorous n effects plants in several ways n encourage cell division
Phosphorous n flowers and seeds dont form without it n hastens maturity, offsetting quick growth caused by N.
Phosphorous n encourage root growth n makes K more available n increase disease resistance n improves quality of grain, root and fruit crops
Phosphorous n container plants can be damaged by excess P n increases soluble salt content of medium n causes dehydration of roots
Phosphorous n Insufficient P n purple color on underside of leaf n reduced flower fruit and seed production
Insufficient P n susceptibility to cold injury n susceptibility to plant diseases n poor quality fruit and seeds
Potassium n modifies both fast soft growth of N and early maturity of P n is essential
Potassium n increase disease resistance n encourages healthy root systems n essential for starch formation
Potassium n development of chlorophyll n efficient use of CO2
Insufficient K n leaves appear dry and scorched with irregular yellow areas on the surface
Lime n CaCO3- Calcium Carbonate n acts as a plant food n affects soil acidity n soil acidity affects availability of plant food elements
Lime n furnishes Calcium
pH n measure of acidity or alkalinity n pH scale - runs from n most plants grow best from
pH n 7.0 is neutral n pH of 7 or above is alkaline or basic n pH below 7 is acidic
pH n as numbers decrease, solution becomes more acidic. n As numbers increase, solution becomes more basic or alkaline
pH n if soil is too acidic, lime is added to raise the pH n if soil is too alkaline, sulfur is added
Above ground environment n temperature n some plants prefer cool weather n some plants prefer warm weather
Temperature n there are temperatures above and below which plants stop growth n generally, plant growth rate increases as temps increase up to about 90 degrees
Light n must be present before plants can manufacture food n plants vary in light requirement n effects flowering
Photoperiodism n response to different periods of day and night in terms of growth and maturity
Photoperiodism n short day plants n chrysanthemum and Christmas Cactus n bloom when days are short and nights are long
Photoperiodism n long day plants n lettuce and radishes n bloom when days are long and nights are short
Photoperiodism n day length indifferent n do not depend on length of light or darkness n African Violet and tomato
Phototropism n plants appear to grow towards the sun or light source
Humidity n moisture level of the air n most plants grow best in % RH n Relative Humidity
Humidity n too high humidity may cause the spread of fungus diseases
Plant diseases and Insects n reduce production n lower fruit and vegetable quality
Gases and Air Particles n CO2 is vital to plants for Ps n Air pollutants can cause damage
Air Pollutants n Sulfur Dioxide - SO2 - from burning coal n Carbon Monoxide - CO - exhaust from cars
Carbon Monoxide n reduces plant growth n can kill plants
1 Requirements for Good Plant Growth. 2 Underground Environment Rhizosphere –The 24 inches of soil just below the earths surface. –Unlocking the secrets.
Soil Nutrients and Fertilizers 24.00: Explain the role of nutrients in quality plant growth.
Soils and Hydroponics Management Unit 9 AgriScience 1.
Soil Properties Explain the properties of soils and their relationship to plant growth.
Unit 8: Soils characteristics Spring Objectives Understand what soil is and how it is created Describe soil layers and how they differ Discuss how.
Mrs. Long Horticulture I Fall Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the earth. Soil is the unconsolidated cover on the surface of the.
Hydroponics. The growing of plants in a solution of nutrients necessary for plant growth, rather than directly in soil.
Unit D: Fruit and Vegetable Crop Production Lesson 1: Planning and Preparing a Vegetable Garden Site 1.
Turfgrass Soils by R.W.Daniels PhD Original Presentation Landscape New Brunswick, February 2013.
Bedding Plant Production Competencies:
Unit D: Fruit and Vegetable Crop Production Lesson 2: Planting and Maintaining a Vegetable Garden 1.
August 2008 Greenhouses In Horticulture Original David Berle, University of Georgia Modified by Georgia Agricultural Education Curriculum Office June 2006.
“Sustainable Agriculture: Looking at Soils, Seeds & Nutrition” Global Science, Ch. 6 p
Environmental Chemistry Option. E1.1 - Pollution Pollution refers to changes in the equilibrium (or balance) of biological and non-biological systems,
Chapter Five Weathering, Soil, and Mass Movements.
1 Unit F: Soil Fertility and Moisture Management Lesson 2: Determining the Value of Manure and Compost.
Emergency Preparedness Gardening. Gardening b Also available at b Extracted from b Living" storage b A few.
Physical Properties of Soil. Soil Texture What is Soil Texture? It is the proportion of three sizes of soil particles. Which are: Sand (Large) Silt (Medium)
Establishing a Lawn Lawns are a major part of the home landscape.
Soil Characteristics. Soil a layer of natural materials on the earths surface containign both organic and inorganic materials and capable of supporting.
Florida-Friendly Best Management Practices for Protection of Water Resources by the Green Industries Fertilizer Module 4 Draft FINAL Version August 24,
Chapter 18. Challenges & rewards of greenhouse plants Materials used for rooting media Formulating & pasteurizing rooting media Timing & methods.
Horticulture CD Unit C 4-1: Nursery, Landscaping, and Gardening.
Soil Fertility. Terms and definitions Essential Nutrient- Element necessary for plant growth and reproduction, for example: nitrogen, phosphorus, and.
Maintaining the Lawn Applying lime sulfur fertilizer.
Physical Science Applications in Agriculture Unit Physical Science Systems.
Chapter 15 Soil Resources. Overview of Chapter 15 o What is soil? o Soil Properties o Major Soil Orders o Soil Problems o Soil Conservation o Soil Reclamation.
Plant Science. Career Areas Forest careers are related to growing, managing, and harvesting trees for wood and wood by-products.
1 Unit 6 Seeds Horticulture/Landscape. 2 What is Propagation? There are many ways of propagating, or reproducing, plants. The most common method of reproducing.
© 2016 SlidePlayer.com Inc. All rights reserved.