2Renaissance Art in Northern Europe Should not be considered an appendage to Italian art.But, Italian influence was strong.Painting in OIL, developed in Flanders, was widely adopted in Italy.The differences between the two cultures:Italy change was inspired by humanism with its emphasis on the revival of the values of classical antiquity.No. Europe change was driven by religious reform, the return to Christian values, and the revolt against the authority of the Church.More princes & kings were patrons of artists.
3Characteristics of Northern Renaissance Art The continuation of late medieval attention to details.Tendency toward realism & naturalism [less emphasis on the “classical ideal”].Interest in landscapes.More emphasis on middle-class and peasant life.Details of domestic interiors.Great skill in portraiture.
8Jan van Eyck (1395 – 1441) More courtly and aristocratic work. Court painter to the Duke of Burgundy, Philip the Good.The Virgin and Chancellor Rolin, 1435.
9Giovanni Arnolfini and His Wife (Wedding Portrait) Jan Van Eyck 1434
10The Marriage of Giovanni Arnolfini and Giovanna Cenami; 1434 Symbol of faithfulnessAlmost every detail can be interpreted as a symbol. The companion dog is seen as a symbol of faithfulness and love. The fruits on the window ledge probably stand for fertility and our fall from Paradise. Even the discarded shoes are not thought to be incidental, but to signify the sanctity of marriage.In the mirror at the back of the room we see the whole scene reflected from behind, and there, so it seems, we also see the image of the painter and witness. We do not know whether it was the Italian merchant or the northern artist who conceived the idea of making this use of the new kind of painting, which may be compared to the legal use of a photograph, properly endorsed by a witness. But whoever it was that originated this idea, he had certainly been quick to understand the tremendous possibilities which lay in Van Eyck's new way of painting. For the first time in history the artist became the perfect eye-witness in the truest sense of the term.The mirror is painted with almost miraculous skill. Its carved frame is inset with ten miniature medallions depicting scenes from the life of Christ. Yet more remarkable is the mirror's reflection, which includes van Eyck's own tiny self-portrait, accompanied by another man who may have been the official witness to the ceremony.Symbolic candleThe solitary flame burning in bright daylight can be interpreted as the bridal candle, or God's all-seeing eye, or simply as a devotional candle. Another symbol is St Margaret (the patron saint of women in childbirth), whose image is carved on the high chairback.
11Jan van Eyck - Giovanni Arnolfini & His Wife (details)
14The greatest of German artists. A scholar as well as an artist. Albrecht Dürer ( )The greatest of German artists.A scholar as well as an artist.His patron was the Emperor Maximilian I.Also a scientistWrote books on geometry, fortifications, and human proportions.Self-conscious individualism of the Renaissance is seen in his portraits. Self-Portrait at 26, 1498.
15Dürer – Self-Portrait in Fur-Collared Robe, 1500
16It almost looks like photography He was an engraver!It almost looks like photographyge%20turf.albrecht%20durer.large.jpg
17Dürer Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse woodcut, 1498
18He did this just from an oral description. ge%20turf.albrecht%20durer.large.jpgHe did this just from an oral description.He never saw a real Rhinoceros!
21Hans Holbein, the Younger (1497-1543) One of the great German artists who did most of his work in England.While in Basel, he befriended Erasmus.Erasmus Writing, 1523 Henry VIII was his patron from 1536.Great portraitist noted for:Objectivity & detachment.Doesn’t conceal the weaknesses of his subjects.
22Artist to the TudorsHenry VIII (left), 1540 and the future Edward VI (above), 1543.
27Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569) One of the greatest artistic geniuses of his age.Worked in Antwerp and then moved to Brussels.In touch with a circle of Erasmian humanists.Was deeply concerned with human vice and follies.A master of landscapes; not a portraitist.People in his works often have round, blank, heavy faces.They are expressionless, mindless, and sometimes malicious.They are types, rather than individuals.Their purpose is to convey a message.
30New Ideas Humanist New Philosophical Ideas New Political Ideas New Ideas in Education
31Renaissance humanists Idealized the classical world of the ancient Greeks and RomansFocused on man and his intellectual powersFocused on the classical ideal of seeking fulfillment and meaning in daily lifeFocused on individual worth and potentialFocused on many secular (non-religious) aspects of life
32Erasmus and Christian Humanism The best known Christian humanist was Desiderius Erasmus.He developed what he called “the philosophy of Christ,” meant to show people how to live good lives on a daily basis rather than how to achieve salvation.He stressed inward piety, not external observance of rules and rituals.
33Erasmus and Christian Humanism To reform the Church, Erasmus wanted to spread the philosophy of Christ, educate people about Christianity, and criticize the abuses of the Church.In his 1509 work The Praise of Folly, he especially criticized the monks.Erasmus did not want to break away from the Church, as later reformers would.Yet people of his day said, “Erasmus laid the egg that Luther hatched.” What does this mean?
34Thomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded. Thomas More of EnglandThomas More wrote a famous book called Utopia which was about an “ideal” societyThomas More famously opposed the king and was beheaded.What is itWith theseBritish kingsAnd beheading!AuthorofUtopia…howironic!
35The Impact of PrintingThe Renaissance saw the development of printing in Europe.Johannes Gutenberg of Germany played a crucial role in the process.Gutenberg’s Bible, printed about 1455, was the first European book produced from movable type.
36Or the Impact of Computers The Impact of PrintingOr the Impact of ComputersMost papers and magazines are now digitalized.How has the computer changed communication today and an examination of current invasions of privacy?
37Objectives List three characteristics of the Renaissance Explain the three estates of Renaissance society.Explain Renaissance education.Describe artistic contributions of the Renaissance.Describe Christian humanismDescribe Luther’s role in the ReformationDescribe religious changes in Switzerland, in England, and within the Catholic Church.