3Aims To know the writing technique of a narrative. To be acquainted with some literary termsTo learn to use words to describe disasters and violenceTo appreciate the language featuresTo learn to write a story about disasters.
4Teaching Contents Pre-reading questions Background Text study The literary style and terms of narrationLanguage pointsComprehension QuestionsText Analysis and AppreciationExercisesTasks After Class
5Pre-reading questions 1. What types/styles of writing do you know? Explain them briefly.2. What is narration? How is a piece of narration developed? What elements are basically necessary in a narrative writing?3. What is Hurricane? What other related terms do you know?
6BackgroundHurricane: a tropical storm in which winds attain speeds greater than 75 miles (121 kilometers) per hour. The term is often restricted to those storms occurring over the North Atlantic Ocean. Incipient hurricanes usually form over the tropical N Atlantic Ocean and mature as they drift westward. Hurricanes also occasionally form off the west coast of Mexico and move northeastward from that area. An average of 3. 5 tropical storms per year eventually mature into hurricanes along the east coast of North America, usually over the Caribbean Sea or Gulf of Mexico.
7BackgroundHurricanes are given girls' names. The National Weather Service of the United States has used girls' names to identify hurricanes in the Atlantic, Caribbean, and Gulf of Mexico since 1953 and the names were given in alphabetical order. A semi-permanent list of 10 sets of names in alphabetical order was established in This practice of giving girls' names to hurricanes changed recently. In 1980 a hurricane was given a man's name and was called Hurricane David. Hurricane season begins June 1 and ends Nov. 30.
10BackgroundHurricane Camille: The storm lashed Mississippi and Louisiana for two days, Aug , in The death toll was 258.Hurricane Betsy: The- storm lashed Florida, Mississippi and Louisiana in 1965 from Sept , causing the death of 74 persons.
11BackgroundSalvation Army: Protestant denomination and international nonsectarian Christian organization for evangelical (福音的) and philanthropic (慈善的) work. It was founded by William Booth, with the assistance of his wife Catherine Booth. The movement, begun in 1865, was originally known as the East London Revival Society, shortly renamed the Christian Mission, and finally in 1878 designated the Salvation Army. A military form of organization, with uniforms and other distinctive features, was adopted in the interest of a more effective "warfare against evil." The organization
12Backgroundhas established branches in more than 75 countries throughout the world. Each country has its divisions and local corps, with a commander at the head of all. International headquarters are in London. The army operates hospitals, community centers, alcoholic and drug rehabilitation (恢复) programs, emergency and disaster services, social work centers and recreation facilities. Support of the vast undertakings in all parts of the world depends upon voluntary contributions and profits from the sale of publications.
13BackgroundRed Cross: international organization concerned with the alleviation of human suffering and the promotion of public health. The creation of the agency was spurred by Jean Henry Dunant ( ). Dunant, a Swiss citizen, urged the formation of voluntary aid societies for relief of war victims. He also asked that service to military sick and wounded be neutral. The Society genovoise d'utilite publique, a Swiss welfare agency, actively seconded Dunant's suggestion, the result being the formation ( 1863) of the organization that is today known as the International Committee of the Red Cross.
14BackgroundThe next year, delegates from 16 nations met in Switzerland and the Geneva Convention of 1864 for the Amelioration of the Condition of the Wounded and Sick of Armies in the Field was adopted and signed by 12 of the nations represented. It provided for the neutrality of the personnel of the medical services of armed forces, the humane treatment of wounded, the neutrality of civilians who voluntarily assisted them, and the use of an international emblem to mark medical personnel and supplies.
15BackgroundIn honor of Dunant's nationality a red cross on a white background -- the Swiss flag with colors reversed -- was chosen as the symbol (which in Moslem areas is replaced by a red crescent and in Iran by a red lion and sun). Today there are national Red Cross societies in over 100 countries of the world, each a self-governing organization, and two international groups with headquarters in Geneva: the International Committee of the Red Cross and the League of Red Cross Societies. The blanket agency for all Red Cross group is known as the International Red Cross,
17Text study The literary style and terms of narration Language points Comprehension QuestionsText Analysis and Appreciation
18The literary style Narration A piece of narration is mainly developed in the actual time sequence – chronological development. The writer tells the readers what happens first, what next. Narration is concerned with action, with life in motion, with a meaningful series of actions.
19The literary styleIt goes around people called characters in some kind of struggle or conflict against other people, nature, society or themselves.The actions, that is, incidents and events are generally presented in order of their occurrence, following the natural time sequence of the happenings (chronological order).
20The literary styleAs the conflict develops, suspense and tension increase until the highest point or the climax of the struggle is reached. After the climax, the story quickly moves to a conclusion, which is sometimes called a denouement.Action (lot) usually dominates narration; however, some narratives focus on character, theme (the idea behind the story), or atmosphere (the mood or tone).
22The Literary termsThe essentials of narration: 1. characters 2. plot A good story has a beginning, a middle, an end, even though it may start in the middle or at some other point in the action and move backward to the earlier happenings.
23The Literary termsCharacterizationThe process by which a writer presents the personal traits of the people in a story. Through characterization, writers make clear what the characters in their stories are like. Writers commonly use five methods of characterization: 1) they show their characters in action; 2) they tell what the characters say; 3) they give a physical description of the characters; 4) they tell how others react to the characters; 5) they state directly what the characters are like.
24The Literary terms Protagonist The central character in a story, the one upon whom the action centers. The protagonist faces a problem and must undergo some conflict* to solve it. The protagonist is opposed by an antagonist, * which may be a person, or some force of nature, or even a flaw in the protagonist's personality.
25The Literary terms Antagonist The character or force that opposes the protagonist,* who is the central character in a story. In a few stories, the antagonist is not a person, but an animal or a force, such as a storm or a weakness of character, that the protagonist is trying to overcome.
26The Literary terms Setting The place and the time in which a story happens. In some stories the setting is very important; it may actually determine what happens. Setting can also be used to create atmosphere or mood: in Jack London's "To Build a Fire," the frozen Yukon setting creates an atmosphere of bleakness and hostility.
27The Literary terms Plot The plot is an account of the conflict* that takes place between the antagonist and the protagonist. What happens in a story. Plot consists of a series of related events that are brought to some kind of conclusion. Most plots contain the following elements: a problem to be solved; a conflict;* suspense;* and a climax.*
28The Literary termsConflictThe struggle between opposing forces that is the basis of all of our stories. Usually the conflict is between two persons, but it may be between a person and a natural force, such as a flood, or between a person and society, or between a person and a weakness in that person's character. A conflict is external when it takes place between a character and some outside force. A conflict is internal when it takes place within a character's own mind or feelings. There often may be more than one kind of conflict in a story.
29The Literary terms Protagonist --Antagonist Face to face with Man natureMan manMan himselfFace to face withHurricane Camille /typhoon/volcano/earthquake/Pollution/global warming/population explosion/disease/Nuclear weapon/warfare/energy exhaustion/economic crises/Neighbors, friends,wife and husband, brother and sister, parents and children …
30The Literary terms Suspense a state of uncertainty Climax The point in a story when we find out whether or not the protagonist* has won the conflict.* The climax is usually the moment of greatest suspense and interest in a story.
31The Literary terms Denouement It is the ending or the conclusion of the story. After the climax, when all the conflicts are settled, the story quickly moves to a conclusion, which is called a denouement.
32The Literary terms Theme The main idea in a story. The theme of a story usually is an idea about life or about people. Writers sometimes state the story's theme outright, but more often they simply tell the story and let the reader discover the theme. It is important to understand the difference between theme and plot.* Theme is an idea revealed by the events of the story; plot is simply what happens in a story.
33The Literary terms Point of view The vantage point from which a story is told. When a story is told by a character in the story, it is told from the first-person point of view. The character telling such a story uses the pronoun I, which in grammar is called the first-person pronoun. A narrator using the first person can tell us only what he or she can hear and see as a character in the story. When a story is told by the writer as an outsider, it is told from the third-person point of view. Such a storyteller is not limited, but knows everything. Hence, the third-person point of view is sometimes called the omniscient point of view.
34The Literary terms Interposition A passage which is put between the action. The purpose is to add more information and to create suspense.
35The Literary termsFlashback The Interruption of chronological sequence by interjection of event of earlier occurrence.
37Language Points 1. Hurricane and other terms of wind hurricane strong tropical storm 2. strong fast wind which speeds more than 75 mph 3. western Atlantic Ocean 4. given a girl's name; named alphabetically / ordered according to the initial letter
38Language Pointstyphoon Western Pacific Ocean or China Sea 2. numbered
39Language Points whirlwind – a general term/ circular wind tornado – visible as a tube-shaped cloud of dust which moves in a relatively narrow path can be devastating in its destructivenesscyclone –a vortex, usually hundreds of miles in diameter; over the Indian Ocean
40Language Points Gale -- a general term for a very strong wind capable of doing considerable damage to property
41Language Points Tsunami a wave train, or series of waves, generated in a body of water by an impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column. Earthquakes, landslides, volcanic eruptions, explosions, and even the impact of cosmic bodies, such as meteorites, can generate tsunamis. Tsunamis can savagely attack coastlines, causing devastating property damage and loss of life.
44Language Points 2. Face to Face with Hurricane Camille: All headings and titles are generally succinct and particular care is given to the choice of words. The aim is to present the article, story, etc. as vividly and as forcefully as possible to attract the attention of would-be readers.
45Language Pointsface to face: confronting one another, connoting a sense of urgency and danger. The confrontation is generally with something dangerous, difficult or hard to resolve.e.g.face to face with the enemyface to face with the tigerface to face with the problem
46Language Points Analyse paragraph 1. Does it have a topic sentence, a central idea?How is the paragraph developed?What is the function of the last sentence?
47Language PointsThe topic sentence -- "John Koshak, Jr., knew that Hurricane Camille would be bad."This idea is developed or supported by facts or reasons showing how John Koshak, Jr., knew that Hurricane Camille would be bad．The last sentence introduces some other characters in the story and serves as a transition to the next important point in the story -- why John Koshak Jr. decided not to abandon his home．
48Language PointsSkim through the text and see how you can divide the first part.-- Para.1- Para.6What is the main idea?-- Knowing hurricane Camille would be bad and still reluctant to abandon their home, the Koshaks were preparing for the hurricane.
49Language Points 3. John Koshak, Jr: Jr.: the abbreviation of junior. Sr.: (senior) is sometimes put after the name of the father.If the name continues into the third generation, Roman numerals (I. II. III. etc.) are used, mainly among big, rich, tipper class families, e. g.John Rockefeller I / John Rockefeller II / John Rockefeller III
50Language Points 4. Radio and television warnings ... The weather report on Aug. 17:The weather forecast says "cloudy" today, with a strong wind from the northwest, grade five to six on the Beaufort Scale. The lowest temperature during the daytime will be eight degrees centigrade below zero.
51Language Pointslashed: a specific verb, meaning to strike with great force, e.g.Waves lashed the cliffs.Gulf of Mexico: Most hurricanes in this area are formed over the Caribbean Sea and they move over the Gulf of Mexico to strike the Gulf States of the United States -- Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, etc.
53Language Points 5. It was certain ... the Koshaks lived: pummel: to beat or hit with repeated blows.Gulfport: seaport in S. Miss., on the Gulf of MexicoMiss: abbreviation for MississippiGame-play:Test yourself and see how many abbreviations of US states you know.
56Language Points 6. Trying to reason out the course of action: Trying to find out the best way to deal with the hurricane by logical thinking and argument, …reason out: express logically by argument
57Language Points Reasons to stay: 1. He is a self-employed businessman managing his own company, which is right at home. implication: How great the loss it would be if the house was destroyed.2. His present house was in a better condition than his former house.
58Language Points 7. whose business was right there in his home: His business office, workshop, etc. were all in his home.Magna Products: name of the company owned and run by John Koshak Jr.engineering drawings: diagrams and sketches for machinesart work: designs, models, pictures for the various toys
59Language Pointsfirst floor: in U. S., the ground floor; in Europe and Great Britain, the floor above this8. Koshak had moved his family to a motel:motel: a blend word, formed by combiningparts of [mo(torist) + (ho)tel], e.g.brunch (breakfast + lunch)smog (smoke + fog)
60Language Pointsmotel (motor+hotel) boatel (boat+hotel) chunnel (channel + tunnel) 运河地下道 slurbs (slum + suburbs) slanguage (slang + language)Make a list of blend words after class.
61Language Points 9. We're elevated 23 feet: In British English one would probably say “We're 23 feet above sea level.”10. we're a good 250 yards from the sea:We're at least 250 yards distant from the sea.good: a general intensive, meaning "at least, "full", e.g.We waited a good six hours.
62Language Points 11. we can batten down and ride it out: two metaphors, comparing the house in a hurricane to a ship fighting a storm at sea. We can make the necessary preparations and survive the hurricane without much damage.batten down: to fasten canvas over the hatches of a ship, especially in preparing for a stormride it out: to stay afloat during. a storm without too much damage
63Language Points 12. The men methodically ... hurricane: The men in the house made all the necessary preparations to fight the hurricane and they went about their work in a systematic and orderly manner.methodically: systematically and orderly13. A power failure ... for the lantern:power failure: a breakdown in the supply of electricitycheck out: to examine
64 Language Points 14. gray clouds ... on the rising wind: scudded in: driven inland by the windGulf: the Gulf of MexicoRising wind: wind that was getting stronger and stronger15. A neighbor ... with the Koshaks:whose husband was in Vietnam: This was The husband of this neighbor was in the American army fighting in Vietnam.sit out the storm: to stay until the end of the storm
65Language Points Questions (paras 1-6): 1. How many people were there in Koshak’s family? Were there other people together with them?2. Did they know hurricane was bad? How did they know that?3. Was it the first time they met with hurricane? What happened to them then?4. Why did John Koshak decide to stay and face the dangers of a devastating hurricane?5. What does “Magna Products” stand for?6. How did they prepare for the hurricane?7. What kind of man is Koshak, Sr.?
66Language PointsWhere can you end the second part? What is this part about?-- Para. 7 – Para. 27Underline those words that can tell the force of hurricane while reading the nest part.Pay special attention to the sentence structures employed by the writer in this part.
67Language Points 16. Wind and rain now whipped the house: Metaphor. Strong wind and rain was lashing the house as if with a whip.17. Stay away ... storm-shattered panes:stay away: keep far away from; don't go nearconcerned about: anxious, uneasy, worried about
68Language Points 18. With mops .. . spreading water: The house was leaking very badly. The Koshaks had to use all the utensils they could lay their hands on to hold the leaking water.This scene of hurry suggests that hurricane is much worse than they had expected.19. The French doors ... windows disintegrated:French doors: two adjoining doors that have glass panes from top to bottom and they open in the middle
69Language Pointsgun-like reports: loud explosive noises like guns being fireddisintegrate: collapse, crumble, fall apart, break into many small pieces and is destroyede.g.Is society beginning to ~ ?Since the Soviet Union ~ed, the cold war came to an end.
70Language Points 20. The generator was doused, and the lights went out: Water got into the generator and put it out.douse: to put out (a light, fire, generators etc.) quickly by pouring water over it21. …that water tasted salty:From this he concluded they were in real trouble, for it seemed the sea had reached them although they were 23 feet above sea level and 250 yards from the sea.
71Language Points 22. water was rising by the minute: by the minute: every minute, minute by minute.23. Everybody out the back door to the cars:an elliptical sentence: showing the tension and urgency of the moment.More elliptical sentences can be found in this part. Short simple sentences are also found abundantly used.
72Language PointsWhy does the writer use so many elliptical and short simple sentences? Illustrate your answer with a few examples. -- Elliptical and short simple sentences generally increase the tempo and speed of the actions being described. Hence in dramatic narration they serve to heighten tension and help create a sense of danger and urgency. For more examples see the text, paragraphs and
73Language Points 24. The children in a fire brigade: Simile. 25. the electrical systems had been killed by water:kill: to cause (an engine, etc.) to stop (American English)26. The wind sounded like ... yards away:Simile, comparing the sound of the wind to the roar of a passing train
74Language Points 27. with outward calm: to appear calm (but to be worried in one's mind)28. his voice lacked its usual gruffness:The lack of gruffness shows the old man's sincerity and solemn feeling. In this critical situation the old couple tenderly express their mutual love.
75Language Points 29. Get us through this mess, will You?: You: God. "will you" is a rough form of request, indicates a request made out of desperation -- Oh God, please help us to get through this storm safely.mess: a state of trouble or difficulty.30. A moment later. .. through the air:Personification.in one mighty swipe: in a big, hard, sweeping blowskim: to throw so as to cause to bounce swiftly and lightly
76Language Points 31. marooned group: a group of people who were helpless and isolated by the storm32. Miami, Fla: Fla is abbreviated form of Florida, a southern state of the United States.
77Language Points Read Paras.19-20 and discuss: What are they about? -- About the ferocity of hurricane. It was graded as “the greatest recorded storm ever a populated area in the western hemisphere”.Explain the function of these two paragraphs.-- They were put in to provide further official account to show how strong and forceful the hurricane was. They were convincing.-- This unit serves as an interposition to add more information and to create suspense.
78Language Points 33. In its concentrated ... 200 m.p.h.: The hurricane was concentrated within a breadth of about 70 miles and in this area the hurricane threw or hurled out winds that reached nearly 200 m.p.h.m.p.h. (miles per hour)m.p.g. (miles per gallon)r.p.m. (revolutions per minute)g.p.m. (gallons per minute)f.p.s.: (feet per second)
79Language Points 34. devastated everything in its swath: destroyed everything in its pathswath: the space covered with one cut of a scythe; a long strip or track of any kind35. It seized ... miles away:Personification.The hurricane acted as a very strong person lifting something very heavy and dumping it 3.5 miles away.
80Language Points 36. It tore ... and beached them: Three large cargo ships were torn free from the cables and anchors that held them and were grounded on the beachto beach: to ground a boat on a beach37. Telephone poles... snapped them:Simile & Onomatopoeia. the sound of the snapping poles compared to the firing of guns20-incli-thick pines: pine tree, 20 inches in diameter
81Language Points 38. a hurricane party ... vantage point: The people in the Richelieu Apartments held a party to enjoy the unusual and impressive spectacle of the hurricane because the apartment provided an unusually clear and broad view of the storm.a hurricane party: a party held especially for watching the hurricane
82Language Pointsspectacular: a transferred epithet, modifying the "storm" and not "vantage point", meaning impressive to see and strikingly unusual, dramatic, breathtakingvantage point: a position that allows a clear and broad view
83Language Points 39. She carried ... trailed away: Grandmother Koshak sang a few words alone and then her voice gradually grew dimmer and stopped.bar: a measure in music; the notes between two vertical lines on a music sheettrail away: to grow gradually weaker, dimmer
84Language Points 40. Janis understood: Janis understood why her husband put his arm around her. At this critical moment when all their lives were in danger, John put his arm around her to encourage and comfort her.41. Dear Lord ... what I have to:Janis prayed to God to give her courage to face what she had to face. She, her husband and her children might die in the storm.
85Language Points 42. We won't let it win: We won't let the hurricane defeat us, kill us.These were words of self-encouragement, suggesting that they had recovered from their panic and desperation and were ready to fight against the storm – face to face with it.43. it toppled on him:The wall disintegrated and bricks and plasters fell on him.
86Language Points 44. Make it a lean-to against the Wind: Put up the mattress as a protection against the wind.a lean-to: noun; a shed or other small outbuilding with a sloping roof, the upper end of which rests against the wall of another building.45. Spooky flew off ... bookcase:Notice the active voice is used instead of the passive in order to create vividness.
87Language Points 46. The main thrust of Camille had passed: The direct and forceful attack of the hurricane had passed.At this point, the story comes to its climax. And with the retreating of the storm, the conflict is settled. The Koshaks finally survived the hurricane, which was a great victory.
88Language Points Questions (paras 7-27): Why did Charlie think they were in real trouble when he found the water tasted salty?Why did Grandmother Koshak, at this critical moment, tell her husband she loved him?Why did John Koshak feel a crushing guilt?Why did Grandmother Koshak ask the children to sing?What did Janis understand when John put his arm around her?
89Language PointsWhat are paras about? Can they be omitted? Why or why not?-- About the work of relief and reorganization of life.Is the last paragraph important? Why?
90Language Points 47. Strips of clothing festooned the standing trees: Metaphor. Bits of clothing were hanging on the trees as if decorating them with festoons.festoon: a wreath or garland of flowers, leaves, paper, etc. hanging in a loop or curve48. blown-down power lines ... over the roads:Simile. Blown-down power lines are compared to black spaghetti. They lay in a tangled mess on the ground.
91Language Points49. National Guard: in the U. S. the organized militia forces of the individual states, a component of the Army of the U. S when called into active Federal service 国民警卫队50. civil defense units: a system of warning devices, fallout shelters, volunteer workers, etc. organized as a defense of the population against enemy actions in time of war. The principal U. S. civil defense agency was established in 1950 and in 1961 civil defense functions were transferred to the Defense Department.民防队
92Language Points 52. The federal government ... business loans: The federal government also quickly supplied food, mobile homes, classrooms and loans to the stricken area.In these two paras the writer tries to show how rapidly and efficiently relief and rehabilitation work is carried out in the U. S. He also tries to show the deep concern for the stricken people shown by the different strata of American society from the federal government to individual volunteers.
93Language Points 53. Camille, meanwhile ... over the Atlantic Ocean: rake: scrape or sweep；move forward swiftlyraked its way: Metaphor. here meaning to attack and devastate as it moved along.rampaging floods: violent, raging floodsbreaking up over the Atlantic Ocean: the storm clouds finally dispersing as the hurricane reached the Atlantic Ocean
94Language Points 54. he pitched in with Seabees: He set to work energetically with the Seabees.pitch: [colloq.] set to work energeticallySeabee: members of the construction battalions of the Civil Engineer Corps of the United States Navy that build harbor facilities, airfields, etc. Seabee stands for CB, short for Construction Battalion.海军工程队
95Language Points 55. The children appeared ... power of the hurricane: Although the children were still frightened by the force and power of the hurricane which they could not understand, it seemed their minds had not suffered in any way from their experience.
96Language Points 56. Janis had just one delayed reaction: Janis displayed rather late the exhaustion brought about by the nervous tension caused by the hurricane. (A few nights after the storm, she awoke suddenly at 2 a.m., went outside and began to cry softly.)57. picking through the wreckage of the home:picking up things that might still be useful from the wrecked home
97Language Points 58. It could have been ... wrath of the storm: Going through the wrecked home picking up things could have a depressing effect, but it didn't. When they picked up some useful things they felt as if they had won some kind of a victory over the storm.each salvaged item: everything they picked up and that could still be put to use
98Language Points 59. But the blues ... the adults: But sometimes the grown-up people felt a bit unhappy and depressed.the blues: short for blue devils; a depressed, unhappy feeling (American colloquialism)60. We'll just start all over:We'll just start doing everything again from the beginning.
99Language Points 61. We lost practically . . . nothing important: The family came through it: The family survived the storm.These two sentences are rather important, for they express the writer's theme or purpose -- human lives not material possessions are important.
100Language Points Questions (paras 28-39): What do you think is the purpose of writing paras 28-38?At what point would you have ended the story? Why?What is the theme of the story? How is the theme revealed? Are there any other ways to reveal a theme?
101Comprehension Questions What is the organizational pattern of this piece of narration? How would you classify the first six paragraphs?What does the writer focus chiefly on -- developing character, action (plot), or idea (theme) ?Who is the protagonist or leading character in the story?What opposing forces make up the conflict?How does the writer build up and sustain the suspense in the story?How does the writer give order and logical movement to the sequence of happenings?What are the language features of this narrative writing?
102Text Analysis and Appreciation The main idea of the storyFace to Face with Hurricane Camille describes the heroic struggle of the Koshaks and their friends against the forces of a devastating hurricane. The story focuses mainly on action but the writer also clearly and sympathetically delineates the characters in the story.
103Text Analysis and Appreciation Organizational patternThe text is a piece of narration, which is organized as follows:IntroductionDevelopmentClimaxConclusion
104Text Analysis and Appreciation Introduction (paras 1-6)– the setting of the storybackground informationtimeplace charactersreasonspreparations
105Text Analysis and Appreciation Development (paras 7-27)How the family was brought face to face with the hurricane.How the family was fighting against it and survived.How many onslaughts the hurricane made on the Koshaks.When the story reaches its climax.
106Text Analysis and Appreciation (paras 19-20) interpositiongiving additional information about the devastating force of the hurricane, implying if anyone could survive, it must be a miracle.creating suspense
107Text Analysis and Appreciation Conclusion (paras 27~39) The writer states his theme in the reflection of Grandmother.the scene after the stormthe relief work done by the statethe relief work done by the Koshaksthe theme of the story -- Human beings are more important than anything else in the world. ( the material things)
108Text Analysis and Appreciation Language featuresLexically1. The effective use of verbs The effective use of verbs is the only way to focus on action, esp. one syllable verbs, because one syllable verbs save time and adds force.lash, lap, skim, scud, yell, dump, shot, snap, hit, whip
109Text Analysis and Appreciation 2. The words with sound effectsBy using the words with vowel sound [æ] the writer vividly describes the violence of the hurricane.[æ] -- quick, unpleasant effect lash, crack, snap, slashing, smash, shatter, rampage, collapse, lap
110Lexical CohesionJohn Rupert Firth (1890, Keighley, Yorkshire – 1960), commonly known as J. R. Firth, was an English linguist. Firth is noted for drawing attention to the context-dependent nature of meaning with his notion of ‘context of situation’. In particular, he is known for the famous quotation: You shall know a word by the company it keeps
111Lexical cohesionis a British linguist who developed the internationally influential systemic functional linguistic model of language. His grammatical descriptions go by the name of systemic functional grammar (SFG).
113Synonym and homoionym 如作者用了 “ｄａｍａｇｅ”，“ｄｅｓｔｒｏｙ”，“ｄｅｍｏｌｉｓｈ”，“ｄｅｖａｓｔａｔｅ”等一组词来描述飓风卡米尔的破坏性，但它们程度不一，所描述的状态也各不相同。又如在文章第２６自然段的第三句话和第四句话中作者分别用“ｖａｎｉｓｈｅｄ”来描述装着小猫的盒子在风中的消失及“ｄｉｓａｐｐｅａｒｅｄ”来描述猫妈妈的消失
114Synonym and homoionym 又如另一组词“ｌａｓｈ”， “ｐｕｍｍｅｌ”，“ｗｈｉｐ”，“ｈｉｔ”，“ｌａｐ”在中文里都有“打”的意思，但形态各异，所产生的声音各异。如“ｌａｓｈ”是用鞭子“抽打”的意思，所发出的声音正如暴风拍打波浪的声音，而“ｐｕｍｍｅｌ”是用拳头“捶打”的意思，声音较为沉闷，因为此时飓风已在文中主人公居住的地方登陆。这方面的例子可以说不胜枚举。他们的出现都为了凸显同一个主题及飓风卡米尔强大的破坏性。
115Text Analysis and Appreciation SyntacticallyElliptical and short simple sentencesa) to increase the tempo of actionb) to create the atmosphere of danger and urgency and to heighten the tension
116Text Analysis and Appreciation StructurallySuccessful achievement of chronological development achieved by : connectors -- so, then, but. transitional phrases -- seconds later, after that , for an instant, by this time, etc.
117Text Analysis and Appreciation RhetoricallyEffective figures of speech employed to enhance the vividness of languagemetaphorsimilepersonificationetc.
118Rhetorical Devices Metaphor "We can batten down and ride it out," he said. (Para. 4) metaphorWind and rain now whipped the house. (Para. 7) personification 、metaphor
119household and medical supplies streamed in by plane, train, truck and car. (Para. 31)
120Rhetorical Devices 2. Personification It seized a 600, 000-gallon Gulfport oil tank and dumped it 3.5 miles away.Richelieu Apartments were smashed apart as if by a gigantic fist, and 26 people perished.（Para. 20）simile、personification
121Rhetorical Devices 3. Simile The children went from adult to adult like buckets in a fire brigade. (Para.11)
1224. AlliterationHe held his head between his hands, and silently prayed: “Get us through this mess, will You?”(Para. 17)
1235. Several vacationers at the luxurious Richelieu Apartments there held a hurricane party to watch the storm from their spectacular vantage point. （Para. 20）transferred epithet
124Transferred Epithet Group2:adj.+ sth. →adj.+another thing Transferred epithet is a figure of speech where an epithet(an adjective or descriptive phrase) is transferred from noun it should rightly modify to another to which it does not really belong.The classification of transferred epithetGroup1: adj.+ sb. →adj.+ sth.The sailors swarmed into a laughing and cheering ring around the two man.The patient lay all night on his sleepless pillowGroup2:adj.+ sth. →adj.+another thingThe white silence seemed to sneer, and a great fear came upon him.寂静的茫茫雪野好像在冷笑，一阵恐惧朝他袭来。
125Transferred epithet Group3: adj.+ sth. →adj.+ sb. He is not an easy writer.
126Exercises Workshop (ppt.) 1. Work in groups and explain run-on sentences, sentence fragments, dangling modifiers, illogical or faulty parallelism and unnecessary shifts in point of view. Correct the mistakes in ⅩⅢ.2. Translate Paras.19-20, 30-31
128assume / presume The meaning of these words are quite close. assume -- to come to a conclusion on the basis of what is known or felt to be truepresume -- to come to a conclusion by supposing / connotes an arrogation (claim) of boldness and of unwarranted inference ( which might well be unjustified)
129assume/ presume1. After talking with you yesterday, I assumed you were going to the party.2. I saw them together and presumed they had reconciled their differences, but from what you tell me, I know I was wrong.assumption / presumption
130tilt / slant / slopetilt -- action to tilt sth is to incline it at an angle lowering or raising one sideslant – state, general word If sth slants, it lies along a line that is neither horizontal nor vertical an oblique placement or position
131tilt / slant / slopefig. suggesting a bias toward a particular point of viewWe call news so slanted propaganda.我们把这种倾斜性的新闻称之为宣传。
132slope –almost the same as slant, but is most often applied to a lay of land, e.g. a slanted line a sloping lawn
133diminish / minimizediminish -- make smaller less or less important, reduce, shrink, e.g.The aspirin tablets will diminish your pain.
134diminish / minimizeminimize -- reduce to the smallest possible amount, degree, size, belittleIt is always unwise to minimize the horrors of war.Since I am doing the best I am, you should not try to minimize my efforts.Minimize is an absolute term and should not be accompanied by adverbs" somewhat", "greatly"
135salvage / save / rescuesalvage -- save from loss or damage by wrecking , fire etc ~ things ~ a difficult situation
136save –If you save someone or sth, you help them to avoid harm or failure or to escape from dangerous or unpleasant situation. E.g. - An artificial heart could ~ his life. - They prayed for rain to save the village. - She saved him from drowning. - They were trying to save their marriage.
137salvage / save / rescuerescue -- if you rescue sb or sth, you take an action to help them get away from a dangerous or harmful situation. * All my attempts to ~ him were in vain. * They decided not to ~ the factory.
138destroy, demolish, raze, annihilate, exterminate, extinguish Antonyms:-- build, create, establish, repair, device These words refer to the complete and usually forcible breaking up or damaging of something so that it is no longer recognizable or effective.
139destroy-- a general word with few overtones beyond its emphasis on force and thoroughness.e.g.the fire that destroyed several houses on the road
140demolish / razegenerally applied to big or substantial things, such as buildings or other edificesA building is demolished if smashed to pieces.A building is razed if levelled to the ground.Demolish is often used figuratively of the reduction of any complex whole to ruins. E.g.to demolish a theory with a few incisive comments.
141annihilate-- the most extreme word in this list, literally meaning to reduce to nothing It denotes a severe degree of damage to a thing or person to destroy completely 歼灭， 绝灭
142exterminate / extinguish extinguish -- destroy purposefullyexterminate -- wipe out or kill in great numbers ~ insects by spraying with DDTextinguish -- put out as a fire, the word is also used metaphorically as a synonym for die, thus implying a comparison between life and a spark or flamee.g.His life was finally extinguished by the onset of pneumonia.
143rot, decay, moulder, decompose, putrefy, Antonyms-- bloom, flourish, grow -- refer to the breakdown of dead organic tissues by natural bacterial processes
144rot-- the least formal, the most effective, forceful of these words, suggesting an advanced point in this process of breakdown 损坏过程中最深的一种状态The tissues at this point might or might not be foul-smelling but they would in any case be almost unrecognizable.The snail has completely rotted away inside its shell.
145decay-- a more matter-of-fact word than rot 更为实用, applied generally to the whole process of breakdown, but particularly to the end point of total destructionThe corpse had already decayed, leaving only the skeleton intact.
146molder-- decay gradually and turn into dust his remains moldering in the tomb
147decompose-- more formal substitute for decay clinical word 临床学词汇 change chemically and begin to rot分解，腐败
148Tasks after classGo surfing on the net and download videoed documents, films or photos about different storms.The following is an outline for the comment on the characterization in the story. Complete the comment by giving supporting examples narrated in the story.
149Tasks after classThe writer portrays the character in a heroic and appreciative way.First, confronted with the formidable hurricane, the characters show firm determination and utmost courage to fight against the devastating natural force.Second, Their mutual encouragement signifies the humanistic greatness, which the writer mainly strives for in the story.
150Tasks after class Preview Lesson 2 What type of writing is this lesson? What do you know about this type of writing?How is the lesson organized? What is the main idea of each part?Who is the writer of this lesson? Give a brief introduction to the writer.Find some information about Morocco and Marrakech.