7 The literary styleA piece of narration is mainly developed in the actual time sequence. The writer tells the readers what happens first , what next.chronological development
8 The Literary termsThe essentials of narration: 1. characters 2. plot A good story has a beginning, a middle, an end, even though it may start in the middle or at some other point in the action and move backward to the earlier happenings.
9 The Literary termsNarration is concerned with action.It goes around people called characters in some kind of struggle or conflict against other people, nature, society or themselves.
10 The Literary terms suspense -- a state of uncertainty protagonist --- leading character antagonist -- the people or forces protagonist fights againstsuspense -- a state of uncertainty
11 The Literary termsflashback --- interruption of chronological sequence by interjection of event of earlier occurrenceclimax -- the most exciting, important interesting part on the story,denouement --- the ending of a story
22 What’s the function of the first six paragraphs?
23 The first six paras give us the framework we need for the beginning of the storm in para 7. Background and historical facts about the Koshak family and Hurricane are woven into the narrative of the story.
24 What does the writer focus chiefly on ----developing character, action (plot), or idea (theme)?
25 The focus is mainly on action The focus is mainly on action. We learn very little, except snatches, about the characters, and the main theme ( the importance of love and life over all else) is the direct result on the action.
26 How does the writer build up and sustain the suspense in the story?
27 He builds up the suspense a) by the careful explanatory introduction and gradual description of the onset of the storm. b) by relating a series of near tragic misshapes that gradually lessen the family's chances of survival, c) by inserting at an exciting moment facts about the power of the hurricane.
28 At what point in the story does the action reach its highest point?
29 At the end of prar 26, just before the storm begins to subside.
34 There are several descriptions indicate the feeling of the characters There are several descriptions indicate the feeling of the characters. Find them out and tell me what feelings indicated by the descriptions.
35 1.Grandmother Koshak tell her husband she loved him, and her husband answered “I love you”----his voice lacked its usual gruffness.She feared death would soon come, and she wanted to remind her husband of her undying love. This would help to encourage each other and make them feel better to face the death.
36 2. Grandmother Koshak ask the children to sing 2. Grandmother Koshak ask the children to sing.---- In order to get their minds off the storm and make them feel less afraid.
37 John put his arm around his wife----John was trying his best to comfort and encourage his wife, for he also felt they were going to die.
38 What’s the function of these kind of descriptions in a narration?
40 Now can you tell me how many parts are there in the text?
41 Organizational pattern Sect I. para 1-6 introduction – the setting of the storybackground informationtimeplace charactersreasonsactions
42 Organizational pattern Sect II para 7-27How the family was brought face to face with the hurricane.How the family was fighting against it and survived.How many onslaughts did the hurricane make on the Koshaks?
43 1. (p7) on the first floor the house was leaking 1. (p7) on the first floor the house was leaking. They used all kinds of utensils to fight against the water.2. (p 8-13 ) on the staircase When the sea water reached the house, they retreated to the staircase
44 3. (p 14-21) in the bedroom When the stirs were broken, they retreated to the bedroom. (p 19-20) interposition1) giving additional information about the devastating force of the hurricane, implying if anyone could survive, it must be a miracle.2) creating suspense
45 4. (p22-26) in the TV roomWhen the bedroom walls collapsed, they had to retreat to the TV room.
46 Organizational pattern Sect. III para 27~39 conclusion the scene after the storm the relief work done by the state the relief work done by the Koshaks
47 Organizational pattern The most important part is the last para. "I realize we lost nothing important".
48 Organizational pattern --- What 's the purpose behind the story by giving us a reflection from grandmother?Human beings are more important than anything else in the world. ( the material things)
49 Background (1-6)Developing of the action(7-26)Beginning (7)on the first floorRising action (8-13: on the staircase;14-21:in the bedroom (an interposition—19-20))Climax (22-26): in the TV roomEnding:27-39
52 Language features1. the effective use of verbs The effective use of verbs is the only way to focus on action, esp. one syllable verbs, because one syllable verbs save time.lash, lap, skim, scud, yell, dump, shot, snap, hit, whip
53 Language features 2. short elliptical sentences a) increase the tempo of actionb) create the atmosphere of tension, danger and urgency
54 Language features3. successful achievement of chronological developmentChronological development is achieved by : connectors --- so, then, but. transitional phrases -- seconds later, after that , for an instant, by this time, etc
55 Language features4. the words with [æ] which vividly describe the violence of the hurricane.[æ] --- quick, unpleasant effect lash, crack, snap, slashing, smash, shatter, rampage, collapse, lap