2What is the Matriarchy Perplex? The definition of a Matriarchy is a social system in which the mother is head of the family.The Matriarchy Perplex involves the questioning of power and status of women roles throughout history.
3The beginning: Gender Equality In early civilization the power among men and women were fairly equal.However, women did have a bit more power advantage because of their contributions to society.Recognition was given for contributions made from both males and females.
4The First Shift of Male Power The first shift of imbalance of power between males and females arose from early technology.The invention of slings, stones, spears, and other weapons lead to the male specialization of hunting.Projectile hunting was argued to be the first real division of labor between males and females.
5The Second Shift of Power The second shift of male advantage occurred during proto-western cultures when men discovered their role in human procreation.It was quickly understood among women that males power in relation to procreation was very great.
6The Shift Towards Female Power Came about during the introduction of horticulture in the Neolithic period.Women were primarily in charge of cultivation.It was during this period that women reached an all time high in status and power.
8Neolithic era Causes of this Event cultivation of plantsdomestication of wild animals that both were acquired wild before.This period saw the major changes in human evolution, for example village life, religion, art, architecture, farming, advanced tools and weapons etc.
9James MellaartMale hunting gods become less frequent and gradually disappear , while representation of a female deity become more frequent and finally dominate as cultivation triumphsWomen reached the zenith of their power in the early Neolithic
10Then at some point in the later Neolithic, and particularly as the Bronze Age began, the pendulum began to swing the other way.From the Bronze Age men specialized in projectile weapons and uses of fire, there was a decline in status of power.
11Understanding Take Over Bronze AgeNeolithicNeolithicRoles in Laborand PowerWomenMen
12Outcome Religious Take Over Similar Take Overs: Christian Take over EuropeColonial Take Over Africa and America19th century Cults of Domesticity and Invalidism in England and USWhen Christians came over, they converted many of the natives.Thus how the movement of women’s roles changed
13Colonial Take Over Africa and America limited activities womenthe development of a hierarchy of clergy members with bishops, presbyters and deacons, and it's pretty firmly established that women should not be either bishops or priests.So that women tend to get excluded from those functions, [though] they do have some roles
14Connecting Roles of Women to the Change in Era The roles and power for women in the Neolithic era was easier than the bronze era because at the beginning of the bronze age, weapons were seen as power and roles of men had a higher political advantage.
15Presenter: Erika Martinez Social Class TheoryPresenter: Erika Martinez
16Karl MarxKarl Marx, a great social prophet; was a major figure in the history of economic and philosophical thought.Marx's vision was based on an evolutionary point of departure.
17The Social Class Theory The Social Class Theory is basically the social structure in which classes were develop with the introduction of industrialized.Within this social structure of classes, they each work individually, yet they need each others support in order to excel.
18Evolution of Human Needs Marx’s theory of social class is derived from the evolution of basic human needs. The needs for shelter, food, clothing, etc.From this the rise of production was introduced, and it was this economic factor that brought upon the social classes.
19A social class… To Marx, a social class arise when: A group of people who have particular social positions to which leads to particular social circumstances.Only when these people are occupying the typical positions become involved in common struggles.The class then develops a system of communicationIt is then that individuals become part of a unified class that consciously can openly express their common interests.The class becomes a self-conscious and history- making body only if they become aware of the similarity of their interests through their conflicts with opposing classes.
20The two main classes in industrialized capitalist societies: The Two Major ClassesThe two main classes in industrialized capitalist societies:Bourgeoisie (capitalists)Proletariat (landless wage workers)
21Bourgeoisie or Capitalists Class The capitalist class are the owners of production in an industrialized capitalist society.The ownership and control of production processes is what mainly classifies the class as the capitalist class.Marx believed that capitalist tended to take advantage of the working class (Proletariat) to gain wealth and profit.
22The Proletariat ClassThis class did not own any means of production, i.e land, factories, capital.The proletariat class was generally the working class of society.Mostly relied on capitalist for wages and worked manual labor in factories and other production processes.Karl Marx believed this group of people working with different personal interests, come together with the common interest. i.e. against their employer, bring them together.
23Marx Argued that:-Capitalist are destructive of their class interest in general.-They lead to the destruction of capitalism becausethey act rationally depending on their selfinterest it leads to ultimate economic crises and then this will lead to the destruction of the common interest common to all.
25Definition:Gender socialization: The process of learning the attitudes and behaviors that are considered culturally appropriate for boys and girls.Why is gender socialization so important?
26Gender socialization begins very early in life As the child gets older, he or she will begin to develop an identity for his or herself and establish a personality that reflects their masculinity or femininity.Nancy Chodorow's essay“ Family Structure and Feminine Personality" basically states that the development of a child is basically the same for boys and girls until the age of three.
27The difference between girls and boys GenderAllowance*Approximately 50% higher then girlsGirlsBoys$2.67$4.18
28Also, the survey goes into how many chores girls and boys do in order to earn their allowance. Boys only perform an average of three whereas girls perform twelve or more.
29Why are girls expected to do four times as much work around the house than the boys are? Chodorow's theory
30Gender and the MediaFor example, beer companies will target the twenty to thirty year old male audience and include scantily clad women enjoying their favorite beers.Popular women's magazines also use beautiful women to promote cosmetics and beauty products.
31Female ExploitationAdvertisers utilize female images to sell products.Society associates beauty with the female and we are more inclined to pay attention to a beautiful woman presented to us on a screen or a page in a magazine.
33Inventive AbilityInventive ability is probably independent of biological genderUltimate factors of inventive ability may be artistic ability and set-breaking thinkingThe difference in connections of the right and left side of the brain based on gender
34Equality of Women Inventors Dr. Mary WillardJeanne ManceChinese physicist
35Inventive Motive, Opportunity, & Achievement Motives and opportunities varied depending on the situationDivision of laborImproved processes and invented new tools to work more efficiently
36Inventive Motive, Opportunity, & Achievement cont’d. Discovered healing properties in herbs and invented remediesInvention of the LoomNeolithic Revolution
38Amanda Theodosia Jones (1835-1914) Presenter: Jenny Huang
39Amanda Theodosia Jones Born in East Bloomfield, Ontario County, New York, October 19th, 1835Had an educated familyFourth of twelve childrenSpent many years devoted to writing and to many personal pursuitsLived through several occupations:TeacherPoetSpiritualistInventorEntrepreneur
40Vacuum-Canning Process Also known as Pure Food Vacuum Preserving Process(es)The system involves food placed in a container, the air drained out through a series of tubes, and hot liquid (100 to 120°F) added to the container to complete the seal processBecame the standard canning method in the United States
41Vacuum-Canning Process Received help from Professor LeRoy Cooley of Albany, NYIn 1873 five patents covered the original methodTwo to Jones alone for preserving foodOne to Jones and Cooley jointTwo to Cooley alone with one also assigned to Jones for the vacuum method called Jones Process
42InventionsIn 1905 patented two more related inventions and two invention companies exploited her process and apparatusThe Woman’s Canning and Preserving Company of Chicago was the most interested- an all woman enterpriseJones left the company after 3 years because of the lack of support from fellow officersThe company lasted until 1921
43Inventions Vacuum process for dry food (1906) Ready-Tin Can Oil heating furnaceIn a Methodist magazine (1854) "Ladies' Repository" Amanda Jones was noted for writing several popular civil war folk songs and for her books of poetry