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WASON CARD SORT: DATA ANALYSIS Week 3 Practical

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WEEK 3 PRACTICALWASON CARD SORT WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8 WEEK 9 WEEK 10 LECTURE 1PRACTICAL NONPARAMETRICS 11 ST PRACTICAL NONPARAMETRICS 21 ST ANALYSIS IN SPSS SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS1 ST ANALYSIS BY HAND HYPOTHESIS TESTING2 ND PRACTICAL RELATED T-TEST2 ND ANALYSIS IN SPSS INDEPENDENT T-TEST INDEPENDENT ANOVA DEPENDENT ANOVA NO LECTURE 2 ND ANALYSIS BY HAND 3 RD PRACTICAL 3 RD ANALYSIS IN SPSS NO PRACTICAL NO LECTURENO PRACTICAL

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LEARNING OUTCOMES BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Use the graphs to interpret your chi-square findings. Use SPSS to test the second experimental hypothesis of the Wason card sorting experiment and produce a related graph. Use SPSS to test the first experimental hypothesis of the Wason card sorting experiment and produce a related graph. Make a start on writing up your RESULTS and DISCUSSION sections for your lab report. WASON CARD SORT

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Research Questions WASON CARD SORT Base your hypotheses on the following research questions: METHOD RECAP Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? DESIGN Half of the people in the room did the concrete first, half did the abstract. ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS The first column shows subject number. And yes, there are 180. The second column shows which type of problem each individual solved first. 1 = 2 = ABSTRACT CONCRETE The third column shows whether the individual got their first problem right or wrong. The fourth column shows whether the individual got the abstract problem right or wrong. 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Let’s make the data look a little more meaningful by changing the numeric values into textual values. Go to variable view and select values. 1 = 2 = ABSTRACT CONCRETE CORRECTA CORRECT1 first_problem For first_problem, CORRECT1 and CORRECTA, associate the values (e.g., 1, 2) with the appropriate value labels (e.g., abstract, concrete; wrong, right). 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS ABSTRACT (1 st ) CONCRETE (1 st ) Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? vs. If we are interested in comparing categorises of responses, then the chi-square test is appropriate. In SPSS, the chi-square test is hidden away underneath descriptive statistics > crosstabs. Let’s go there now.

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? In order to build a chi-square table, we need to put our various categories into rows and columns. Let’s put first_pr as a row and CORRECT1 as a column. This will show us the frequency distributions. Under statistics, we also need to make sure the chi-square test is performed, so tick that. Under cells, also make sure that both observed and expected are clicked. ABSTRACT (1 st ) CONCRETE (1 st ) vs.

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? The second table (after case processing summary) confirms our 180 observations and displays the frequency distribution of right and wrong responses for the two kinds of Wason card sort test. The third table provides us with the chi-square value, which may be reported as: χ 2 (1) = 19.74, p <.001 ABSTRACT (1 st ) CONCRETE (1 st ) vs. First problem solved * First problem correct Crosstabulation First problem correct Total RightWrong First problem solvedAbstractCount88290 Expected Count20,569,590,0 ConcreteCount Expected Count20,569,590,0 TotalCount Expected Count41,0139,0180,0

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? χ 2 (1) = 19.74, p <.001 Degrees of freedom Chi-square value Significance level

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? You will need to graphically represent your results, too Don’t forget to give your Figure a number and a title When you refer to the Figure in the main text, make sure you give the exact descriptive statistics Note: no error bars, because this is categorical data

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WASON CARD SORT Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? If we are interested in comparing categorises of responses, then the chi-square test is appropriate. In SPSS, the chi-square test is hidden away underneath descriptive statistics > crosstabs. Let’s go there now. RESULTS ABSTRACT (2 nd ) ABSTRACT (1 st ) vs.

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WASON CARD SORT In order to build a chi-square table, we need to put our various categories into rows and columns. Let’s put first_pr as a row and CORRECTA as a column. This will show us the frequency distributions. Under statistics, we also need to make sure the chi-square test is performed, so tick that. Under cells, also make sure that both observed and expected are clicked. RESULTS Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? ABSTRACT (2 nd ) ABSTRACT (1 st ) vs.

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WASON CARD SORT The second table (after case processing summary) confirms our 180 observations and displays the frequency distribution of right and wrong responses for the two kinds of Wason card sort test. The third table provides us with the chi-square value, which may be reported as: χ 2 (1) = 0.53, p =.47 RESULTS Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? ABSTRACT (2 nd ) ABSTRACT (1 st ) vs. First problem solved * Abstract problem correct Crosstabulation Abstract problem correct Total RightWrong First problem solved AbstractCount88290 Expected Count9,580,590,0 ConcreteCount Expected Count9,580,590,0 TotalCount Expected Count19,0161,0180,0

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WASON CARD SORTRESULTS Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? Once again, you will need to graphically represent your results Don’t forget to give your Figure a number and a title When you refer to the Figure in the main text, make sure you give the exact descriptive statistics Note: no error bars, because this is categorical data If you have trouble, refer back to the Excel graph-making guides on Graham’s webpage, or ask a tutor for help

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WASON CARD SORTDISCUSSION GET TOGETHER IN GROUPS OF THREE OR FOUR AND REFLECT ON TODAY’S EXPERIENCE USING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS Why have I done this particular statistical test? What implications do the data have for the studies outlined in the intro? What do the data actually tell me with respect to my experimental hypotheses?

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LEARNING OUTCOMES BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS Use the graphs to interpret your chi-square findings. Use SPSS to test the second experimental hypothesis of the Wason card sorting experiment and produce a related graph. Use SPSS to test the first experimental hypothesis of the Wason card sorting experiment and produce a related graph. Make a start on writing up your RESULTS and DISCUSSION sections for your lab report.

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