WEEK 2 PRACTICALWASON CARD SORT WEEK 1 WEEK 2 WEEK 3 WEEK 4 WEEK 5 WEEK 6 WEEK 7 WEEK 8 WEEK 9 WEEK 10 LECTURE 1PRACTICAL NONPARAMETRICS 11 ST PRACTICAL NONPARAMETRICS 21 ST ANALYSIS IN SPSS SAMPLING DISTRIBUTIONS1 ST ANALYSIS BY HAND HYPOTHESIS TESTING2 ND PRACTICAL RELATED T-TEST2 ND ANALYSIS IN SPSS INDEPENDENT T-TEST INDEPENDENT ANOVA DEPENDENT ANOVA NO LECTURE 2 ND ANALYSIS BY HAND 3 RD PRACTICAL 3 RD ANALYSIS IN SPSS NO PRACTICAL NO LECTURENO PRACTICAL
Begin to explore the downloaded data set with respect to testing the experimental hypotheses using an appropriate test. Appreciate the way in which the study was carried out and the hypotheses the study is testing. Perform various versions of the Wason Card Sorting task and appreciate the differences between them. BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Make a start on writing up your INTRODUCTION and METHOD sections for your lab report. WEEK 2 PRACTICALWASON CARD SORT
You will be assigned to condition 1 or 2. In each condition, you will have two problems to solve. After being given the appropriate stimuli, please wait for a tutor to tell you to begin. You will then be given a second 5 minutes to answer the second question, so think carefully again! You will have 5 minutes to answer the first question, so think carefully! PROCEDUREWASON CARD SORT
INTRODUCTIONWASON CARD SORT Everybody will have now completed the abstract version of the Wason (1966) card sorting task. Most of you may not have done so well: a)Participants may neglect to search for disconfirming evidence (maybe there is an E on the back of the number 7). b)Participants may pick an irrelevant card such as 4 because it matches the nature of the proposition (note: the proposition does not say that if there is an even number on one side, there must be a vowel on the other side). Failure at this task is usually meant to indicate how bad people are at deductive or logical reasoning. AD47 IF A CARD HAS A VOWEL ON ONE SIDE, IT HAS AN EVEN NUMBER ON THE OTHER SIDE
WASON CARD SORT BEERCOKE1917 IF A PERSON IS DRINKING BEER, THEN THEY MUST BE OVER 18 Everybody will have now completed another version of the Wason (1966) card sorting task. Most of you may have done a little better here. The above version is by Griggs & Cox (1983) who showed that performance is markedly improved when concrete examples are used. Cosmides (1989) argues however that the reason such examples are more successful is because the situations reflect social contracts… INTRODUCTION
Research Questions WASON CARD SORTMETHOD Q2: Is performance on the abstract task affected if it follows a concrete scenario? Q1: Is performance better on some versions of the Wason card sorting task than others the first time it is performed? DESIGN So, half of the people in the room did the concrete first, half did the abstract. ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then ABSTRACTCONCRETE then So, is this a within- or between-subjects design?
PARTICIPANTS WASON CARD SORT We will use data collected from last year. METHOD So here is some demographic information that might be useful. 100 female, 80 male Age range: 18-45 years Mean: 22 years S.D.: 2.5 years DOWNLOAD AND SAVE THE FILE WASONRAWDATA.SAV
WASON CARD SORTRESULTS The first column shows subject number. And yes, there are 180. The second column shows which type of problem each individual solved first. 1 = 2 = ABSTRACT CONCRETE The third column shows whether the individual got their first problem right or wrong. The fourth column shows whether the individual got the abstract problem right or wrong. 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT 1 = 2 =WRONG RIGHT
WASON CARD SORTDATA TYPES Nominal Name E.g. Gender Ratio Real zero E.g. Height Interval Imaginary zero E.g. Temperature Ordinal Order E.g. Horse racing Note: You do not have to cover this in your lab report
WASON CARD SORTDISCUSSION GET TOGETHER IN GROUPS OF THREE OR FOUR AND REFLECT ON TODAYS EXPERIENCE USING THE FOLLOWING QUESTIONS What kind of statistical test might you use next week and why? Do you foresee any problems in interpreting the data? Were there any problems in the way the experiment was carried out? How could you improve this?
WASON CARD SORTNOTES FOR WRITE UP INTRODUCTION METHOD Like a funnel- all roads should lead to the rationale for the experiment. What were the previous studies that lead up to the current one? What were the important psychological concepts and / or distinctions? What was the outline of the current study and what were the hypotheses? Must be include enough detail for someone else to replicate the experiment. Standard structure: Participants / Materials / Design / Procedure. Refer the reader to appendices if including lengthy materials (hint hint). Avoid bullet points or lists because the method section is prose too.
BY THE END OF THE SESSION, YOU SHOULD BE ABLE TO: Begin to explore the downloaded data set with respect to testing the experimental hypotheses using an appropriate test. Appreciate the way in which the study was carried out and the hypotheses the study is testing. Perform various versions of the Wason Card Sorting task and appreciate the differences between them. Make a start on writing up your INTRODUCTION and METHOD sections for your lab report. WEEK 2 PRACTICALWASON CARD SORT