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A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Digital Data Collection Demonstration A comparison of two methodologies: digital and paper-based.

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Presentation on theme: "A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Digital Data Collection Demonstration A comparison of two methodologies: digital and paper-based."— Presentation transcript:

1 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Digital Data Collection Demonstration A comparison of two methodologies: digital and paper-based

2 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Global Relief Technologies Proprietary and Confidential

3 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH

4 Digital Data Collection Methodology 4 CollectionDigitizationTransmission Data Validation and Back up Analytics

5 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Paper-Digital Hybrid Solution In-Field VNOC

6 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Paper Methodology Collection Shipment Digitization Analysis * * Modification of collection not always possible

7 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Paper-based methodology overview Steps: Printed, completed, shipped, scanned, coded, analyzed Steps: Printed, completed, shipped, scanned, coded, analyzed Paper/pencil/hard-copies used for capturing interview and survey data Paper/pencil/hard-copies used for capturing interview and survey data Data collectors hand write notes during collection phase then type up final files Data collectors hand write notes during collection phase then type up final files Hard/soft copies (shipped) to home office for intake then shipped to off-site scanning company Hard/soft copies (shipped) to home office for intake then shipped to off-site scanning company Up to 12,000 pieces of paper produced per country – includes surveys and interviews Up to 12,000 pieces of paper produced per country – includes surveys and interviews

8 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Performance and cost Performance Efficiency – how well it worked Efficiency – how well it worked Flexibility – how easy it was to use Flexibility – how easy it was to use Time – how long it took to prepare & deploy Time – how long it took to prepare & deployCost Paper - Printing, shipping, scanning Paper - Printing, shipping, scanning Digital – Equipment, transmission, support Digital – Equipment, transmission, support

9 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Field Performance - Digital Efficiency Reduces (not eliminates) paper/pencil needs Reduces (not eliminates) paper/pencil needs 20,000 sheets of paper and 3000 sharpened pencils needed for Nicaragua20,000 sheets of paper and 3000 sharpened pencils needed for Nicaragua 6 devices in one 6 devices in one Data logger, camera, camcorder, audio recorder, GPS, cell phoneData logger, camera, camcorder, audio recorder, GPS, cell phone Data assessments, photos and audio automatically tagged and catalogues saves time in intake/cataloguing later Data assessments, photos and audio automatically tagged and catalogues saves time in intake/cataloguing later Near real-time security for data as it is transmitted Near real-time security for data as it is transmittedFlexibility Adjustments made to forms in the field (e.g. adding new schools, new fields to forms, etc 15 – 60 minutes) Adjustments made to forms in the field (e.g. adding new schools, new fields to forms, etc 15 – 60 minutes) Spot checking of data sets as they are collected Spot checking of data sets as they are collectedTime Instruments formatted for PDAs within a week of receipt Instruments formatted for PDAs within a week of receipt Speeds up data process via scanning (double sided) in the field and not after Speeds up data process via scanning (double sided) in the field and not after minutes per school (100 student surveys, school/classroom observation forms = 126 sheets of paper) minutes per school (100 student surveys, school/classroom observation forms = 126 sheets of paper)

10 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH

11 Field Performance - Paper Efficiency Efficiency Notes on hard copy fast and easy to writeNotes on hard copy fast and easy to write Inputting responses in non-sequential orderInputting responses in non-sequential order Print quality varied – pages omitted, added – effects scanningPrint quality varied – pages omitted, added – effects scanning Risk of losing data if papers go missingRisk of losing data if papers go missing Flexibility Flexibility Sense of security with hard copiesSense of security with hard copies Once printed, modification of instruments must be done manuallyOnce printed, modification of instruments must be done manually Additional equipment needed for cameras and voice recordersAdditional equipment needed for cameras and voice recorders Time Time Hard copies had to be received in the field at least 4 days prior to arrival for printingHard copies had to be received in the field at least 4 days prior to arrival for printing Needed to be collated for each school prior to each visitNeeded to be collated for each school prior to each visit Sent to HO, Scanning Company, Analysis, Reports (4 weeks total after field visit)Sent to HO, Scanning Company, Analysis, Reports (4 weeks total after field visit)

12 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Cost - Digital Nicaragua Costs for one week deployment - $8,244 Equipment - $995 Equipment - $995 One Laptop;One Laptop; Three PDAs;Three PDAs; One BGAN Satellite terminal;One BGAN Satellite terminal; One ScannerOne Scanner RDMS Licenses for the PDAs and Virtual Network Operation CenterRDMS Licenses for the PDAs and Virtual Network Operation Center Transmission - $168 Transmission - $168 Updating/refreshing instruments as neededUpdating/refreshing instruments as needed Uploading data sets dailyUploading data sets daily Accessing VNOCAccessing VNOC Support - $7,075 Support - $7,075 Prep before the visitPrep before the visit Field 1 person/1 weekField 1 person/1 week Expenses ($1080 – airfare, meals, lodgings)Expenses ($1080 – airfare, meals, lodgings) GRT 24/7 Home office tech support includedGRT 24/7 Home office tech support included Post field supportPost field support Two week deployment would be $10,975 plus expenses and additional transmission Two week deployment would be $10,975 plus expenses and additional transmission Costs will decrease as GRT LOE decreases with increased familiarity with the system Costs will decrease as GRT LOE decreases with increased familiarity with the system

13 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Cost - Paper Printing Printing Nicaragua - $790Nicaragua - $790 Ranges from up to $3,500 (Nigeria) Ranges from up to $3,500 (Nigeria) Suitcases and containers neededSuitcases and containers needed Sharpened pencils requiredSharpened pencils required Shipping Shipping Nicaragua - $0Nicaragua - $0 To U.S. varies for each country ranging from $0 - $3K To U.S. varies for each country ranging from $0 - $3K To scanning company ($70/country)To scanning company ($70/country) Scanning Scanning Nicaragua - $1,500Nicaragua - $1,500 $.58 survey up to 126/school = $73/school or $1,827/country $.58 survey up to 126/school = $73/school or $1,827/country Includes student, teacher and director surveys Includes student, teacher and director surveys Does not include observation and qualitative data and school records data Does not include observation and qualitative data and school records data Total Cost for Nicaragua - $2,290 Total Cost for Nicaragua - $2,290 Total Cost Average for UNICEF CFS - $5,827 Total Cost Average for UNICEF CFS - $5,827

14 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Value added proposition of Digital Data Security – Data back-ups start from the first transmission and all data is backed up and secured at AIR Hqs before the project team leaves the country. Data Security – Data back-ups start from the first transmission and all data is backed up and secured at AIR Hqs before the project team leaves the country. Real-time Monitoring Capability – AIR and customer can monitor the progress of the collections effort, validate the integrity of the data and identify issues with regards to collections instruments or collectors while the teams are still in-country. Real-time Monitoring Capability – AIR and customer can monitor the progress of the collections effort, validate the integrity of the data and identify issues with regards to collections instruments or collectors while the teams are still in-country. Flexibility – If an issue with an instrument is identified, data collections forms on the PDA can be dynamically updated via the web to reflect the updated instrument while collectors are still in the field and in country. Flexibility – If an issue with an instrument is identified, data collections forms on the PDA can be dynamically updated via the web to reflect the updated instrument while collectors are still in the field and in country. Reduction of Logistics Complexities – Use of the PDAs and digitized instruments could significantly decrease logistics complexities and burden associated with a paper based instruments Reduction of Logistics Complexities – Use of the PDAs and digitized instruments could significantly decrease logistics complexities and burden associated with a paper based instruments

15 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Conclusions - Digital StrengthsStrengths Changes to research questions (e.g. Architecture to school safety) can happen on the fly to all instruments Changes to research questions (e.g. Architecture to school safety) can happen on the fly to all instruments Combo of 6 devices in one: GPS tagging schools, cellular/photo capabilities Intake cataloguing and organizing of files is automatic Combo of 6 devices in one: GPS tagging schools, cellular/photo capabilities Intake cataloguing and organizing of files is automatic Rapid, near real-time reporting Rapid, near real-time reporting Data review while in the field allows for adjustments if needed Data review while in the field allows for adjustments if needed Data secured upon transmittal Data secured upon transmittal Can be set to require answers for all or some questions to avoid blank fields Can be set to require answers for all or some questions to avoid blank fields Illegible handwriting avoided Illegible handwriting avoided Nearly instantaneous digitization, quasi-analysis and quasi- reporting greatly reduces duration of study Nearly instantaneous digitization, quasi-analysis and quasi- reporting greatly reduces duration of study WeaknessesWeaknesses More conducive to quantitative close ended questions More conducive to quantitative close ended questions (multiple choice or number formats are best e.g. number of kids in classroom)(multiple choice or number formats are best e.g. number of kids in classroom) Respondents limited to number of PDAs (100 students surveyed in each school) Respondents limited to number of PDAs (100 students surveyed in each school) Learning and comfort curve required for effective use Learning and comfort curve required for effective use

16 A MERICAN I NSTITUTES FOR R ESEARCH Conclusions – Paper based StrengthsStrengths High comfort level High comfort level Qualitative/text interface Qualitative/text interface WeaknessesWeaknesses Numbers of copies needed not known until at schools Numbers of copies needed not known until at schools Hard copies must be clean (no “dog ears”), legible and on 60 lb paper for effective scanning Hard copies must be clean (no “dog ears”), legible and on 60 lb paper for effective scanning Large/suitcases/water proof containers needed to be purchased for internal transport of hard copies Large/suitcases/water proof containers needed to be purchased for internal transport of hard copies 135 sharpened pencils required per school (135x25=3,375 average pencils per country) 135 sharpened pencils required per school (135x25=3,375 average pencils per country) Changes on the fly difficult to make to instruments (e.g. changing “grupos minorias” to “grupos ethnicos”) – need to be noted and remembered Changes on the fly difficult to make to instruments (e.g. changing “grupos minorias” to “grupos ethnicos”) – need to be noted and remembered Handwriting of respondents/data collectors sometimes illegible Handwriting of respondents/data collectors sometimes illegible Questions sometimes unanswered Questions sometimes unanswered Shipping outpost not always available Shipping outpost not always available Data vulnerable to being lost or damaged until digitized Data vulnerable to being lost or damaged until digitized Intake of data was time consuming Intake of data was time consuming Several weeks required for digitization, analysis and reporting Several weeks required for digitization, analysis and reporting


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