Presentation on theme: "Chemistry: Atoms First"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chemistry: Atoms First Julia Burdge & Jason OverbyChapter 2Atoms and thePeriodic TableKent L. McCorkleCosumnes River CollegeSacramento, CACopyright (c) The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.
2 2 Atoms and the Periodic Table 2.1 Atoms First 2.2 Subatomic Particles and Atomic StructureDiscovery of the ElectronRadioactivityThe Proton and the Nuclear Model of the AtomThe Neutron2.3 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes2.4 Average Atomic Mass2.5 The Periodic Table2.6 The Mole and Molar MassThe MoleMolar MassInterconverting Mass, Moles, and Numbers of Atoms
3 Atoms First2.1An atom is the smallest quantity of matter that still retains the properties of matter.An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into two or more simpler substances by any means.Examples: gold, oxygen, heliumAtoms can also be divided smaller and smaller until eventually only a single atom remains. Dividing it any smaller would give pieces that are no longer an atom.A DVD collection can be separated into smaller numbers until you have just one DVD left. But a single DVD cannot be separated into smaller pieces that are still DVDs.
4 Atoms FirstOnce a single atom has been obtained, dividing it smaller produces subatomic particles.The nature, number, and arrangement of subatomic particles determine the properties of atoms, which in turn determine the properties of all things material.
5 2.2 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure In the late 1800’s, many scientists were doing research involving radiation, the emission and transmission of energy in the form of waves.They commonly used a cathode ray tube, which consists of two metal plates sealed inside a glass tube from which most of the air has been evacuated.
6 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure When metal plates are connected to a high-voltage source, the negatively charged plate, or cathode, emits an invisible ray.The cathode ray is drawn to the anode where it passes through a small hole.Although invisible, the path is revealed when the ray strikes a phosphor-coated surface producing a bright light.
7 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Researches discovered that like charges repel each other, and opposite charges attract one another.J. J. Thomson ( ) noted the rays were repelled by a plate bearing a negative charge, and attracted to a plate bearing a positive charge.
8 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure This prompted him to propose the rays were actually a stream of negatively charged particles.These negatively charged particles are called electrons.By varying the electric field and measuring the degree of deflection of cathode rays, Thomson determined the charge-to-mass ratio of electrons to be 1.76×108 C/g. (C is coulomb, the derived SI unit of electric charge.)
9 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure R. A. Millikan ( ) determined the charge on an electron by examining the motion of tiny oil drops.The charge was determined to be ×10-19 C.
10 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Knowing the charge, he was then able to use Thomson’s charge-to-mass ratio to determine the mass of an electron.
11 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Wilhelm Rontgen ( ) discovered X-rays. They were not deflected by magnetic or electric fields, so they could not consist of charged particles.Antoine Becquerel ( ) discovered radioactivity, the spontaneous emission of radiation.Radioactive substances, such as uranium, can produce three types of radiation.
12 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Alpha (α) rays consist of positively charged particles, called α particles.Beta (β) rays, or β particles, are electrons so they are deflected away from the negatively charged plate.Gamma (γ) rays, like X-rays, have no charge and are unaffected by external electric or magnetic fields.
13 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Ernest Rutherford used α particles to prove the structure of atoms.The majority of particles penetrated the gold foil undeflected.Sometimes, α particles were deflected at a large angle.Sometimes, α particles bounced back in the direction from which they had come.
14 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Rutherford proposed a new model for the atom:Positive charge is concentrated in the nucleus.The nucleus accounts for most of an atom’s mass and is an extremely dense central core within the atom.A typical atomic radius is about 100 pmA typical nucleus has a radius of about 5×10–3 pm1 pm = 1×10–12 m
15 Subatomic Particles and Atomic Structure Protons are positively charged particles found in the nucleus.Neutrons are electronically neutral particles found in the nucleus.Neutrons are slightly larger than protons.
16 (number of protons + neutrons) Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes2.3All atoms can be identified by the number of protons and neutrons they contain.The atomic number (Z) is the number of protons in the nucleus.Atoms are neutral, so it’s also the number of electrons.Protons determine the identity of an element. For example, nitrogen’s atomic number is 7, so every nitrogen has 7 protons.The mass number (A) is the total number of protons and neutrons.Protons and neutrons are collectively referred to as nucleons.Mass number(number of protons + neutrons)Elemental symbolAtomic number(number of protons)
17 Atomic Number, Mass Number, and Isotopes Most elements have two or more isotopes, atoms that have the same atomic number (Z) but different mass numbers (A).1 proton0 neutrons1 proton1 neutron1 proton2 neutronsIsotopes of the same element exhibit similar chemical properties, forming the same types of compounds and displaying similar reactivities.
18 Worked Example 2.1Determine the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following species: (a) Cl, (b) Cl, (c) K, and (d) carbon-14.35173741Strategy Recall the superscript denotes the mass number (A) and the subscript denotes the atomic number (Z). If no subscript is shown, the atomic number can be deduced from the elemental symbol or name. Atoms are neutral so the number of electrons equals the number of protons.SolutionZ = 17, so 17 protonsA = 35, so = 18 neutrons# of electrons = # of protons, so 17 electronsElement is chlorine again, so Z must be 17; 17 protonsA = 37, so = 20 neutrons17 protons, so 17 electrons
19 Worked Example 2.1 (cont.)Determine the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following species: (a) Cl, (b) Cl, (c) K, and (d) carbon-14.35173741Strategy Recall the superscript denotes the mass number (A) and the subscript denotes the atomic number (Z). If no subscript is shown, the atomic number can be deduced from the elemental symbol or name. Atoms are neutral so the number of electrons equals the number of protons.Solution(c) Potassium’s atomic number is 19, so 19 protonsA = 41, so = 22 neutrons# of electrons = # of protons, so 19 electrons
20 Worked Example 2.1 (cont.)Determine the numbers of protons, neutrons, and electrons in each of the following species: (a) Cl, (b) Cl, (c) K, and (d) carbon-14.35173741Strategy Recall the superscript denotes the mass number (A) and the subscript denotes the atomic number (Z). If no subscript is shown, the atomic number can be deduced from the elemental symbol or name. Atoms are neutral so the number of electrons equals the number of protons.Solution(d) Carbon-14 can also be represented as CCarbon’s atomic number is 6, so 6 protonsA = 14, so = 8 neutrons6 protons, so 6 electrons14Think About It Verify that the number of protons and the number of neutrons for each example sum to the mass number that is given. In part (a), there are 17 protons and 18 neutrons, which sum to give a mass number of 35, the value given in the problem. In part (b), 17 protons + 20 neutrons = 37. In part (c), protons + 22 neutrons = 41. In part (d), 6 protons + 8 neutrons = 14.
21 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom 2.4Average Atomic MassAtomic mass is the mass of an atom in atomic mass units (amu).1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atomThe average atomic mass on the periodic table represents the average mass of the naturally occurring mixture of isotopes.Average mass (C) = (0.9893)( amu) + (0.0107)( amu)IsotopeIsotopic mass (amu)Natural abundance (%)12C98.9313C1.07= amu21
22 Worked Example 2.2Oxygen is the most abundant element in both Earth’s crust and the human body. The atomic masses of its three stable isotopes, O ( percent), O ( percent), O (0.205 percent), are , , and amu, respectively. Calculate the average atomic mass of oxygen using the relative abundances given in parentheses.168178188Strategy Each isotope contributes to the average atomic mass based on its relative abundance. Multiplying the mass of each isotope by its fractional abundance (percent value divided by 100) will give its contribution to the average atomic mass.Solution( )( amu) + ( )( amu) + ( )( amu)= amuThink About It The average atomic mass should be closest to the atomic mass of the most abundant isotope (in this case, oxygen-16) and, to four significant figures, should be the same number that appears in the periodic table on the inside front cover of your textbook (in this case, amu).
23 2.5The Periodic TableThe periodic table is a chart in which elements having similar chemical and physical properties are grouped together.
24 The Periodic TableElements are arranged in periods, horizontal rows, in order of increasing atomic number.
25 The Periodic TableElements can be categorized as metals, nonmetals, or metalloids.Metals are good conductorsof heat and electricity.Nonmetals are poorconductors of heat orelectricity.Metalloids haveintermediate properties.
26 The Periodic TableA vertical column is known as a group.
27 The Periodic TableGroup 1A elements (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, Fr) are called alkali metals.
28 The Periodic TableGroup 2A elements (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Ra) are called alkaline earth metals.
29 The Periodic TableGroup 6A elements (O, S, Se, Te, Po) are called chalcogens.
30 The Periodic TableGroup 7A elements (F, Cl, Br, I, At) are called halogens.
31 The Periodic TableGroup 8A elements (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn) are called the noble gases.
32 The Periodic TableGroups 1B and 3B-8B are called the transition elements or transition metals.
33 2.6The Mole and Molar MassThe mole is defined as the amount of a substance that contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in exactly 12 g of carbon-12.This experimentally determined number is called Avogadro’s number (NA).We normally round this to 6.022×1023.1 mole = 6.022×1023, just like 1 dozen = 12 or 1 gross = 144.NA = x 1023
34 Worked Example 2.3Calcium is the most abundant metal in the human body. A typical human body contains roughly 30 moles of calcium. Determine (a) the number of Ca atoms in moles of calcium and (b) the number of moles of calcium in a sample containing 1.00×1020 Ca atoms.Strategy Use Avogardo’s constant, 1 mole = 6.022×1023, to convert from moles to atoms and from atoms to moles.Solution30.00 mol Ca ×1.00×1020 Ca atoms ×6.022×1023 Ca atoms1 mol Ca= 1.807×1025 Ca atoms1 mol Ca6.022×1023 Ca atoms= 1.66×10-4 mol CaThink About It Make sure that units cancel properly in each solution and that the result makes sense. In part (a), for example, the number of moles (30) is greater than one, so the number of atoms is greater than Avogadro’s number. In part (b), the number of atoms (1×1020) is less than Avogadro’s number, so there is less than a mole of substance.
35 Salt (Sodium Chloride) The MoleOne mole each of some familiar substances:Helium (in balloon)WaterSugar (Sucrose)AluminumCopperSalt (Sodium Chloride)
36 Molar MassThe molar mass of a substance is the mass in grams of one mole of the substance.By definition, the mass of a mole of carbon-12 is exactly 12 g.Mass of 1 carbon-12 atom: exactly 12 amuMass of 1 mole of carbon-12: exactly 12 gAlthough molar mass specifies the mass of one mole, making the units (g), we usually express molar masses in units of grams per mole (g/mol) to facilitate cancellation of units in calculations.
37 Worked Example 2.4Determine (a) the number of moles of C in g of carbon, (b) the number of moles of He in g of helium, and (c) the number of moles of Na in g of sodium.Think About It Always double-check unit cancellations in problems such as these–errors are common when molar mass is used as a conversion factor. Also make sure that the results make sense. For example, in the case of part (c), a mass smaller than the molar mass corresponds to less than a mole.Strategy Molar mass of an element is numerically equal to its average atomic mass. Use the molar mass for each element to convert from mass to moles.Setup (a) The molar mass of carbon is g/mol. (b) The molar mass of helium is g/mol. (c) The molar mass of sodium is g/mol.Solution25.00 g C ×10.50 g He ×15.75 g Na ×1 mol C12.01 g C= mol C1 mol He4.003 g He= mol He1 mol Na22.99 g Na= mol Na
38 Interconverting Mass, Moles, and Number of Atoms Molar mass is the conversion factor from mass to moles, and vice versa.Avogadro’s constant converts from moles to atoms.
39 Worked Example 2.5Determine (a) the number of C atoms in g of carbon, and (b) the mass of helium that contains 6.89×1018 He atoms.Strategy Use the conversions depicted in the previous slide to convert (a) from grams to moles to atoms and (b) from atoms to moles to grams.Think About It A ballpark estimate can help you prevent common errors. For example, the mass in part (a) is smaller than the molar mass of carbon. Therefore, you should expect a number of atoms smaller than Avogadro’s number. Likewise, the number of atoms in part (b) is smaller than Avogadro’s number. Therefore, you should expect a mass of helium smaller than the molar mass of helium.Setup (a) The molar mass of carbon is g/mol. (b) The molar mass of helium is g/mol. NA = 6.022×1023Solution0.515 g C ×6.89×1018 He atoms ×1 mol C12.01 g C6.022 ×1023 C atoms1 mol C×= 2.58×1022 C atoms1 mol He6.022 ×1023 He atoms4.003 g He1 mol He×= 4.58×10-5 g He
40 2 Chapter Summary: Key Points Atoms Elements The Atomic Theory Discovery of the ElectronRadioactivityThe Proton and the NucleusNuclear Model of the AtomThe NeutronAtomic NumberMass NumberAverage Atomic MassThe Periodic TableMolar Mass
41 Group Quiz #2: Subatomic Particles Fill in the table below:# protons# neutrons# electrons23Na21Na1+32S2-