2Bell WorkWhat is matter?What are the three states of matter?What is an atom?
3Matter – is anything that has mass and takes up space. MATTER is never created or destroyed, it only changes form.
4Atoms – The basic building blocks of all the substances in the universe. All thingsare made up ofatoms.
5Elements – Are made of one kind. of atom grouped Elements – Are made of one kind of atom grouped together and cannot be broken down into simpler substances.Identical atoms make up elements110 elements make up all the known substances on earth!!!
6Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom. Found above the element symbol.Mass number – is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. The number of neutrons is determined by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
7Atoms contain one or more PROTONS, NEUTRONS, and ELECTRONS
8Protons – Particles that have a positive electric charge. Neutrons – have no electric charge.Electrons – Particles with a negative charge located outside of the nucleus.
9Electrons Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom. Electrons “float” around the nucleus of an atom.nucleusElectrons
10The nucleus of the atom is. positively charged (+). The The nucleus of the atom is positively charged (+). The negatively (-) charged electrons surround the nucleus to balance the charge of the atom to neutral.The number of protons equals the number of electrons.
11Bell Work Make the following chart on your paper and fill it in Atomic NumberAtomic Mass# of Protons# of NeutronsCaBaSeAuLi
12Bell Work 11/22/10Make the following chart on your paper and fill it inProtonsAtomic MassNeutronsElectronsTiBeKr
13Special atomsThe number of protons always stays the same, however sometimes the number of neutrons or electrons changes.Electrically Stable – atoms that have no electric charge
14Special AtomsIsotopes – atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
15Special AtomsIons – formed when an atom loses or gains one or more electronsLose 1 electron becomes + ionGain 1 electron becomes - ion
16Bell Work 11/23/10 Determine the name of each isotope Protons = Protons = 20Neutrons = Neutrons = 22Determine the name of each ion3. Protons = Protons = 5Electrons = Electrons = 3
17Bell WorkFor each problem write down the number of P, N, and e- then determine if each is an ion, isotope, or electrically stable and name the elementProtons = Protons = 18Neutrons = Neutrons = 22Electrons = Electrons = 202. Protons = Protons = 21Neutrons = Neutrons = 20Electrons = Electrons = 21
18The number in the right corner of each element represents the amount of protons that element has……thus the amount of electrons.
19Groups – are the numbers at the top of the periodic table that represent the number of electrons in the outermost shell (energy level).Periods – the number to the left of the periodic table that represents the number of shells an element will have.
22Bell WorkDraw each of the following elements. Be sure to put the correct number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus.OxygenSiliconLithium
23Electrons circle around the nucleus in shells or energy levels. As an element loses an electron it loses energy and as an element gains electrons it gains energy.Each circle or shell is limited to how many electrons it can hold.
24Valence electrons – electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. The valence shell can have 1 to 8 electrons in it depending on its place on the periodic table. Elements to the left have 1 and elements to the right have 8.
25Electrons in valence shells that are not full will either gain electrons or lose electrons to become full
26Bell WorkList the number of valence electrons in each element, then state how many electrons it will gain or lose in order to be full and name the ion.SodiumAluminumFluorineSulfur
27Metals – elements that conduct electricity, heat well, and have a shiny appearance Reactive metals- metals in group 1-2 of the periodic table, these metals are very reactiveTransition metals –Generally less reactive than other metals.
28Nonmetals – an element that is not a metal and has properties generally opposite of a metal. Halogens – elements in group 7. Very reactive nonmetals that easily form compounds called salts with many metals.Noble gases – elements in group 8. Almost never react with other elements.Metalloids- elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
31Bell WorkList the number of valance electrons for each of the following elements and name the ion to make them “full and happy”NeMgPDraw the following element4. Fluorine
32Bell WorkList the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for the isotopes and ions.Na – 25F – 21Cl-1Ca+2List the number of valance electrons for each of the following elements and name the ion that will make it “happy and full”.5. Beryllium – Be6. Sulfur – S
33Bell Work What is one row of the periodic table called? What is one column of the periodic table called?How does the atomic number change as you move from left to right in the periodic table?What do the elements in Group 1 have in common?Which are more reactive, the elements in Group 1 or the elements in Group 8?
34Radioactive DecayRadioactive atoms produce energy and particles from their nuclei. The identity of these atoms changes because the number of protons changes.Occurs at a steady rate that is characteristic of the particular isotopeHalf-life – the amount of time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a particular sample to decay