Presentation on theme: "Chemistry Chemical Interactions Ch. 1 Bell Work 1.What is matter? 2.What are the three states of matter? 3.What is an atom?"— Presentation transcript:
Chemistry Chemical Interactions Ch. 1
Bell Work 1.What is matter? 2.What are the three states of matter? 3.What is an atom?
Matter – is anything that has mass and takes up space. MATTER is never created or destroyed, it only changes form.
Atoms – The basic building blocks of all the substances in the universe. All things are made up of atoms. http://science.howstuffworks.com/nanotechn ology1.htm
Elements – Are made of one kind of atom grouped together and cannot be broken down into simpler substances. 1.Identical atoms make up elements 2. 110 elements make up all the known substances on earth!!!
Atomic number – the number of protons in an atom. Found above the element symbol. Mass number – is equal to the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. The number of neutrons is determined by subtracting the atomic number from the mass number.
Atoms contain one or more PROTONS, NEUTRONS, and ELECTRONS
Protons – Particles that have a positive electric charge. Neutrons – have no electric charge. Electrons – Particles with a negative charge located outside of the nucleus.
Protons and neutrons make up the nucleus of an atom. Electrons float around the nucleus of an atom. nucleus Electrons
The nucleus of the atom is positively charged (+). The negatively (-) charged electrons surround the nucleus to balance the charge of the atom to neutral. – The number of protons equals the number of electrons.
Bell Work Make the following chart on your paper and fill it in Atomic Number Atomic Mass # of Protons # of Neutrons Ca Ba Se Au Li
Bell Work 11/22/10 Make the following chart on your paper and fill it in ProtonsAtomic Mass NeutronsElectrons Ti Be Kr
Special atoms The number of protons always stays the same, however sometimes the number of neutrons or electrons changes. Electrically Stable – atoms that have no electric charge
Special Atoms Isotopes – atoms of the same element that have different numbers of neutrons.
Special Atoms Ions – formed when an atom loses or gains one or more electrons Lose 1 electron becomes + ion Gain 1 electron becomes - ion
Bell Work 11/23/10 Determine the name of each isotope 1.Protons = 62. Protons = 20 Neutrons = 7 Neutrons = 22 Determine the name of each ion 3. Protons = 74. Protons = 5 Electrons = 9 Electrons = 3
Bell Work For each problem write down the number of P, N, and e- then determine if each is an ion, isotope, or electrically stable and name the element 1.Protons = 113. Protons = 18 Neutrons = 11 Neutrons = 22 Electrons = 11 Electrons = 20 2. Protons = 104. Protons = 21 Neutrons = 10 Neutrons = 20 Electrons = 9 Electrons = 21
The number in the right corner of each element represents the amount of protons that element has……thus the amount of electrons.
Groups – are the numbers at the top of the periodic table that represent the number of electrons in the outermost shell (energy level). Periods – the number to the left of the periodic table that represents the number of shells an element will have.
Group number Period number
Bell Work Draw each of the following elements. Be sure to put the correct number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus. 1.Oxygen 2.Silicon 3.Lithium
1.Electrons circle around the nucleus in shells or energy levels. 2.As an element loses an electron it loses energy and as an element gains electrons it gains energy. 3.Each circle or shell is limited to how many electrons it can hold.
Valence electrons – electrons in the outermost energy level of an atom. The valence shell can have 1 to 8 electrons in it depending on its place on the periodic table. Elements to the left have 1 and elements to the right have 8.
Electrons in valence shells that are not full will either gain electrons or lose electrons to become full
Bell Work List the number of valence electrons in each element, then state how many electrons it will gain or lose in order to be full and name the ion. 1.Sodium 2.Aluminum 3.Fluorine 4.Sulfur
Metals – elements that conduct electricity, heat well, and have a shiny appearance Reactive metals- metals in group 1-2 of the periodic table, these metals are very reactive Transition metals –Generally less reactive than other metals.
Nonmetals – an element that is not a metal and has properties generally opposite of a metal. Halogens – elements in group 7. Very reactive nonmetals that easily form compounds called salts with many metals. Noble gases – elements in group 8. Almost never react with other elements. Metalloids- elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
Bell Work List the number of valance electrons for each of the following elements and name the ion to make them full and happy 1.Ne 2.Mg 3.P Draw the following element 4. Fluorine
Bell Work List the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons for the isotopes and ions. 1.Na – 25 2.F – 21 3.Cl -1 4.Ca +2 List the number of valance electrons for each of the following elements and name the ion that will make it happy and full. 5. Beryllium – Be 6. Sulfur – S
Bell Work 1.What is one row of the periodic table called? 2.What is one column of the periodic table called? 3.How does the atomic number change as you move from left to right in the periodic table? 4.What do the elements in Group 1 have in common? 5.Which are more reactive, the elements in Group 1 or the elements in Group 8?
Radioactive Decay Radioactive atoms produce energy and particles from their nuclei. The identity of these atoms changes because the number of protons changes. Occurs at a steady rate that is characteristic of the particular isotope Half-life – the amount of time it takes for one-half of the atoms in a particular sample to decay