Presentation on theme: "Unisys Imagine it. Done. Systems Integration. Outsourcing. Infrastructure. Consulting. Server Technology. The Thoroughly Modern Mainframe Dr. Michael Salsburg."— Presentation transcript:
unisys Imagine it. Done. Systems Integration. Outsourcing. Infrastructure. Consulting. Server Technology. The Thoroughly Modern Mainframe Dr. Michael Salsburg NTSMF Users' Group Dec 9, 2002
Imagine it. Done. unisys Agenda Large Scale WINTEL Servers Disruptive technology or trend? Scale Up or Scale Out ? A Workload-motivated discussion of SMP and CC-NUMA PCI-Based I/O Consolidation Emerging Technologies
Imagine it. Done. unisys Server Industry Trends Source: IDC Intel will dominate server chip market Windows 2000 will be pervasive server OS
Imagine it. Done. unisys Unisys ES7000 Aries 230 Unisys ES7000 Orion Egenera Blade Frame HP ProLiant DL760 HP rp8400 IBM eServer x440 Processors Supported Intel Xeon 1.4, 1.6 GHz Intel Xeon 1.4, 1.6 GHz Intel Xeon 1.4, 1.6 GHz Intel Xeon Pentium 700, 900 MHz HP PA- 8700 750, 875 MHz Intel Xeon 1.4, 1.5, 1.6 GHz Max Procs1632968168,16 by 2002 Max Mem32G64G288G16G64G Max PCI Slots 489612101672 The x440 Competition Gartner Oct 2002
Imagine it. Done. unisys A Comparison using Moores Law Comparison of CPU Speeds / tpcM for 4x cpu WINTEL systems
Imagine it. Done. unisys TPC-C Top 10
Imagine it. Done. unisys
Imagine it. Done. unisys Scale Up or Scale Out? Two of the 3-tiers in current application architectures use scale-out for growth Increase # of Web servers Increase # of Application Servers Database back end cannot be scaled out Scale up is needed for large database applications Scale out has some inherent down sides additional administrative/management attention Move headroom needed for heavy traffic
Imagine it. Done. unisys SMP / NUMA Workload Discussion As code executes on the processor, memory is referenced. This can be broken into three regions High Locality of Reference Memory is immediately re-referenced (> 95%) Working Set – the set of addresses on which the software primarily focuses Persistent Storage – addresses that are stored on physical devices
Imagine it. Done. unisys Scale Out- SMP or NUMA? Workload Interference When two processes are running on the same system, their memory references will interfere. It is preferable to only interfere at the persistent storage level Interference at higher levels can decrease cache efficiency and slow down processing, effectively reducing the CPU power
Imagine it. Done. unisys SMP / NUMA SMP Topology A bank of CPUs share a bank of Memory Each CPU has a local cache to optimize high locality of reference A cache miss has uniform latency time to get data from memory Dirty memory references require fetching the updated memory from another CPUs cache The CPU can stall waiting for a memory reference
Imagine it. Done. unisys SMP / NUMA Workload Discussion Percentages of references based on TPC-C workload profile Relative time units show orders of magnitude between cache hit and persistent storage Reference LevelPercentage CPU Cache98.0% Main Memory01.9% Persistent Storage 00.1% Reference Level Time Units CPU Cache1 Main Memory100 Remote Cache200 Persistent Storage 10,000
Imagine it. Done. unisys SMP / NUMA NUMA (Non-Uniform Memory Access) Overcome bus congestion and physical fabrication limitations found in a single bus architecture Two memory latencies – near and far The NUMA ratio is the ratio of far latency over near latency Originally 30, now it is around 3
Imagine it. Done. unisys SMP / NUMA Hybrid (Unisys ES7000) Another level of cache is introduced Memory accesses can be non-uniform when comparing Next Level Cache hits to memory references Overcomes the fabrication/congestion problems of a single bus architecture
Imagine it. Done. unisys PCI-Based I/O 2001 & earlier2002200320042005 1 4 3 2 533MHz 266 PCI-X 16X, or 8X@5Gb PCI-Express GB/sec Max Bus or per direction 133 66 1X 4X 8X PCI HyperTransport 6.4 GB 0.8 GB 6.4 GB SP2 SP1 Scalability Port
Imagine it. Done. unisys Enterprise-Level Backup / Restore
Imagine it. Done. unisys Enterprise-Level Backup / Restore Complete recovery of a 2.5 terabyte database: From tape, the database was recovered in only 88 minutes with a sustained throughput during restore of 2.2 TB/hr. From the hardware snapshot, the same database was recovered in only 11 minutes. Complete backup of a 2.5 terabyte database: Backup to tape took only 68 minutes with minimal impact on online operations and sustained throughput of 2.6 TB/hr.
Imagine it. Done. unisys Consolidation "[Our] servers were multiplying like rabbits," says Jeff Smith, manager of corporate network services at La-Z-Boy Inc., a Monroe, Mich.-based residential furniture producer that just completed a Windows NT server consolidation project. "Our distributed environment was becoming more and more difficult to manage." Thinning The Server Ranks Computerworld Aug 26, 2002
Imagine it. Done. unisys Consolidation How do you stuff over 130 CPUs worth of workload into a 32x CPU system? Veeerrrry carefully…… Why are current server farms filled with under-utilized servers? Web Hosting Sites New web servers are installed when Peak CPU utilization reaches above 35%. Speed and reliability are very important to your web site. All of our servers are maintained at less than 15% CPU utilization. This ensures that your web site downloads as fast as possible!
Imagine it. Done. unisys Consolidation Responsive Consolidation Which would you prefer – an average queue size of 0.2 on a 1x or a 32x system?
Imagine it. Done. unisys Consolidation Benefits Simplified Management / Administration Higher Utilization (less headroom) Less Variability of Service Less Overall CPU Overhead Less software licenses
Imagine it. Done. unisys Emerging CPU Technologies 32x INTEL CPU TPC-C Results Date Published tpm-CChipSpeedCacheMemory 11/11/2001165,218Pentium III Xeon 900MHz2MB64 GB 9/9/2002308,620Itanium II1GHz3 MB256 GB 11/4/2002203,518Pentium IV Xeon 1.6 GHz1 MB64 GB
Imagine it. Done. unisys Itanium II Whats so great about 64 bits? For transaction processing, memory addressing is increased and therefore the amount of main memory increases The top 5 TPC-C results were achieved using 64 bit computing TPC-C is a large database application – this is a sweet spot for 64 bit commercial computing Bigger is DEFINITELY Better!!