Presentation on theme: "Writing IEPs to Standards"— Presentation transcript:
1 Writing IEPs to Standards Alabama Department of EducationSpecial Education ServicesJuly, 2011For more information contact :DaLee Chambers, Ph.D.Alabama Department of EducationSpecial Education Services
2 Alabama Department of Education, Special Education Services Reproductions of the slides and/or information from the slides in this PowerPoint related to Writing IEPs to Standards should be credited to:Alabama Department of Education,Special Education ServicesP.O. BoxMontgomery, AL 36130
3 Objectives Review access to the general education curriculum Provide an overview of state curriculum guidesDiscuss steps in developing standards-based IEPsDiscuss similarities and differences in IEPs based on AL COS Standards and AL Extended Standards
4 Standards-Based Reform Major Elements:Increased AccountabilityAligned AssessmentsHigher Academic Standards
5 Standards-Based Reform in Alabama Higher Academic StandardsAlabama Courses of StudyAlabama Extended StandardsAligned AssessmentsAlabama Reading and Math Test (ARMT)Alabama High School Graduation Exam (ASHGE)Alabama Alternate Assessment (AAA)Increased AccountabilityAdequate Yearly Progress (AYP)
6 Alabama Courses of Study and Academic Content Standards A course of study is a document that specifies what students should know and be able to do in a particular subject area by the end of each grade level or course. Minimum content for each grade level is delineated in the academic content standards.
7 Alabama’s College and Career Readiness Standards
8 Alabama’s College and Career Readiness Standards Expecting Excellence!
9 Purpose of Standards Access to the general education curriculum Access means that all students have opportunities to participate in the knowledge and skills that make up the general education curriculum
10 Access Is Not…Special Education students sitting in a general education classroom doing activities unrelated to the general education curriculumTeachers writing an IEP goal based on content standards but teaching material unrelated to the content standardsTeaching the content standards after all other classroom activities have occurred
11 Opportunity to LearnTeachers create opportunities for students to learn grade-level expectations (content standards).
12 Content Standards and Extended Standards IEPs must be based on either contentstandards or extended standards.Content standards are measured by the ARMT and/or the AHSGE.Extended standards are measured by the AAA.
13 Alabama Curriculum Guides Students Who Are Not Performing at Grade Level Alabama Curriculum Guides Include objectives that are prerequisite to the standard and/or break the standard down into smaller instructional units
14 Alabama Curriculum Guides Mathematics (Grades 1-8)Prereqs. to Alg. I (Grades 9-12)Revised version Mathematics Grades K-12 pending, January 2012.Language Arts (Grades K-12) Revised version scheduled, January 2013.Social Studies (Grades K-12)Science (Grades K-12)To access Alabama Curriculum Guides:Click on Curriculum
15 Alabama Curriculum Guides LA 5.2: Use a range of strategies, including drawing conclusions such as opinions about characters based on their actions and summarizing passages, to comprehend fifth-grade literary/recreational materials in a variety of genres. LA5.2.1: Relate character traits from a provided list to characters from a given passage. LA5.2.2: Compare characters in a given passage who have similar character traits. LA5.2.3: Compare characters in a given passage who have contrasting character traits.
16 Alabama Curriculum Guides LA5.2.4: Write a sentence describing characters from a given passage. LA5.2.5: Write sentences retelling key ideas from a given passage. LA5.2.6: Retell a story in a few sentences.
17 Content Standards Legend for IEPs subjectgrade levelcontent standardobjectiveStandard R 3. 3Use a wide range of strategies, including using context clues and predicting outcomes, to comprehend third-grade literary/recreational materials in a variety of genres.R Make and confirm predictions based on information from a story.
18 Developing Standards-Based IEPs The IEP is the cornerstone of access to the general curriculum.
19 Developing Standards-Based IEPs What steps do IEP Teams need to follow to develop effective standards-based IEPs?
20 Step 1:. Collect and examine materials for Step 1: Collect and examine materials for making data-based IEP decisions.Courses of study and/or curriculum guidesCurrent assessment dataState assessmentsClassroom assessments (curriculum-based)Eligibility data (if current and related to learning the standards)Student work samplesPrevious year’s IEPOther information (e.g., grades, discipline referrals, attendance reports)
21 Step 2: Analyze data to develop the student profile. The profile should include general statementsregarding:StrengthsNeedsHow the disability affects involvement/progress in the general education curriculumAssessment/EvaluationStatus of prior IEP goalsTeacher/Parent/Student inputTransition needs (at least by age 16)
22 Student Profile vs. Present Level SimilaritiesData-basedProvides a snapshot of the studentProvides a sense of where the student is functioning in regard to specific areaDifferencesProfile is overview of where student is functioning in relation to their school experiencesProfile is general picture of the student’s functioning in all areas relevant to the IEPPresent level provides a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s academic achievement on specific standards or skills.
23 Sample Student Profile Katie is a fifth grade student who is experiencing difficulty achieving grade level academic content standards in all areas. Katie repeated kindergarten and has received supplemental support in reading and math since she was in the second grade. Katie’s scores on achievement tests indicate that she falls in the below-average range in mathematics and reading. Her fourth-grade state assessment results showed math as a relative strength. Katie takes pride in finishing her work and frequently requests more time to complete her assignments. When given an accommodation of additional time, Katie will continue to work until she is told that time is up. As her skills improve, Katie will work to decrease the time it takes for her to complete her assignments.Katie has problems with oral reading fluency and comprehension. She scored in the at risk range on the fifth grade DIBELS Oral Reading Fluency spring benchmark. Katie can read words of connected text per minute with 100% accuracy. Her performance is consistent with the expectations for a student at the end of second grade. Katie’s problems with oral reading fluency affect comprehension skills in all academic areas of the general curriculum. She is improving in the areas of reading with expression and in self-correcting when she misses a word.AssessmentEvaluationStrengthsThe boxes on the left side of the page identify areas that should be included in the Profile.Katie has a history of learning problems as well as behavioral concerns. She has been receiving special education services for three years and has made progress, particularly in the area of math. She has learned to read but has problems with oral reading fluency and comprehension. Her reading skills are more like those expected of a student finishing second grade (rather than fifth). She does not initiate interaction with adults or peers, but likes to play with her younger sister and her sister’s friends.Katie has many strengths, including a desire to finish her assignments and her willingness to work on assignments until time is up. Katie’s math skills are better than reading skills.Katie's profile contains information that will help teachers develop the rest of the IEP. The descriptions in the Profile provide a picture of Katie that will enable us to develop an individualized educational program designed with her strengths and needs in mind.NeedsImpacts performance
24 Sample Student Profile - continued Katie is working on fourth grade academic content standards in math. Results from state and classroom-based assessments (CBAs), indicate that Katie has learned math third-grade content standards with the exception of word problems. Progress monitoring data support the need for additional instruction in solving word problems at the third-and fourth-grade levels.Home and school rating scales reveal significant difficulty in the areas of social interaction and communication skills. Teachers report that Katie is quiet in class and rarely volunteer answers or seeks teacher assistance. She does not often initiate interaction with peers or adults. Katie’s parents state that she does not frequently interact with others in church/community activities, but she likes to play with her younger sister and younger children. Katie loves music and has recently begun to take dance lessons. Her mother hopes that dance will help Katie feel more comfortable with children her age and improve communication skills.AssessmentEvaluationTeacher/ Parent/ Student InputKatie seems to be aware that she does not learn as quickly as many of her classmates but does not ask for assistance when she needs help in class. Teachers report that Katie does not often participate in classroom activities but sits quietly at her desk. Her parents report, however, that Katie plays with her sister and with younger children in the neighborhood/community.In order for Katie to be meaningfully involved and make progress in the general curriculum, she not only needs to work on academic skills, but also needs to improve her skills in communicating and interacting with others.
25 Step 3: Use data to summarize the present level. The present level answers the question: What is the student doing now?”
26 Present Level Purposes To provide a summary of baseline information that indicates the student’s academic achievementTo identify current functional performanceTo provide an explanation of how the disability affects the student’s involvement/progress in participating in the general curriculum26
27 Present Level Characteristics Standards centered Data driven UnderstandableMeasureable27
28 Present Level Components Strengths Needs How the student’s disability affects performance in the general education curriculum (for preschool children, how the disability affects the child’s participation in age appropriate activities)28
29 Present Level Strengths Student’s response to: Learning strategies AccommodationsInterventionsStandards InstructionAsk…What have we learned about this student’s strengths?29
30 Present LevelNeedsFocus on needs that affect progress in the general education curriculumAsk…What prerequisite skills/knowledge does the student need to close the gap between his/her present level and the grade-level content standards?30
31 Present Level How disability affects performance Consider how the student’s disability affectsprogress in learning the grade-level contentStandardsExample:Tasha's limited vocabulary knowledge is affecting herprogress in achieving reading standards that includesynonyms, antonyms, and multiple-meaning words.31
32 Present LevelDO NOT use the student’s exceptionality to explain how the disability affects involvement/progress in the general curriculum!Example of what NOT to write:Marcus’ learning disability affects his progress in the general curriculum.Example of what to write:Marcus’ weakness in applying strategies, such as making inferences and making complex predictions, affect his progress in comprehending sixth-grade literary materials.32
33 Present Level of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance Sample Present LevelPresent Level of Academic Achievement and Functional PerformanceResults from classroom assessments show that Katie is experiencing difficulty solving math word problems (M 4.6) that involve addition and subtraction of four-digit numbers. She averages one of four word problems correct on weekly grade five classroom assessments. Katie can solve simple word problems involving single-digit numbers (M 3.2.2) and, when given additional time, can solve addition and subtraction problems (with the exception of word problems) involving two and three-digit numbers with and without regrouping (M 4.6.4)Katie’s difficulties with reading passages containing complex sentences and her lack of reading fluency negatively affect her progress in solving word problems within time limits specified for fifth-grade classroom assessments.Standards-BasedIncludesAssessmentsIncludes Strengthsand WeaknessesHow DisabilityImpactsLearningNote that present level has both 3rd and 4th grade standards.All of the student’s skills will not fall neatly into grade levels.Katie’s present level involves skills in both math and reading.Katie’s present level provides information that will be useful to the IEP team when deciding on instructional and assessment accommodations.
34 Present LevelRemember… The present level of academic achievement and functional performance sets the stage for developing IEP goals!
35 Step 4: Write Annual Goals. PurposeTo describe what a student can reasonably expect to accomplish in one school yearAnnual Goals answer the question“What should the student be doing?”GOAL FOCUS A goal must focus on an area of need that will make the biggest difference to the student. The focus of the goal must help the student develop skills to access, participate and make progress in the general curriculum and the life of the school.(These notes are from: Measurable Annual IEP Goals, Massachusetts Department of Education, 8/2005)Other Possible Areas of Need for Students Working Toward Extended StandardsSelf Help ToiletingBehavior Fine/Gross MotorCommunication ?Other Possible Areas of Need for Students Working Toward General Education StandardsMemory BehaviorCommunication Study SkillsTime Management Self ConceptSelf Advocacy MotivationOrganization ?
36 Selecting the Content Standards Consider content standardsLook at all grade-level content standardsDiscuss intent of standardDetermine which standards are most important for each student (based on progress in the general education curriculum)Compare standard(s) with student’s areas of needs and the impact of the disabilityUse data to determine the areas the student will find difficult without additional supports
37 Annual Goals Annual goals are related to needs resulting from the student’s disabilitythat directly affect involvement andprogress in the general educationcurriculum.For preschool children, as appropriate, to participate in age-appropriate activitiesA Goal Must Be Skill BuildingThere Must Be a Data Collection Strategy that Supports the Measurability of the Goal(These notes are from: Measurable Annual IEP Goals, Massachusetts Department of Education, 8/2005)
38 Annual GoalsIf a large number of needs are identified in the present level, the IEP Team must consider how each need impacts the students’ progress in the general education curriculum.Select the need that has the greatest impact on progress, and develop a goal to address that need.
39 Annual Goals Academic goals are based on: Alabama content standards listed in the Alabama COS orAlabama Extended Standards (for students with significant cognitive disabilities)
40 Annual Goals Five Components Who Time frame Conditions Behavior CriterionA goal will be considered measurable if it contains all of the defined components of a goal and responds to a “Data Collection Strategy’.If we are going to be able to measure or assess progress, DATA must be collected in our Data Collection System, and the Team must be able to answer:What data will be collected?What is the source of the data?What is the data collection schedule?Who will collect the data?(These notes are from: Measurable Annual IEP Goals, Massachusetts Department of Education, 8/2005)
41 Annual Goals Measurable annual goals must include the following: The student …(WHO)Will do what …(BEHAVIOR)To what level or degree…(CRITERION)Under what conditions…(CONDITIONS)In what length of time…(TIMEFRAME)The Data Collection Strategy Must be considered as thegoal is developed!Data to be CollectedSpecific to goal, student, environmentData Collection SourcesExamples: rubrics, checklists, observation, record of verbal responses,portfolios, shortened tests, open book tests, teacher-made tests, illustrations,reports/observations from internships and vocational experiences, hands-onperformance, self-evaluationData Collection ScheduleExamples: quarterly, by mid-year, monthly, 30 consecutive days, last week ofeach monthData Collection PersonExamples: general educator, special educator, related service provider,paraeducator(These notes are from: Measurable Annual IEP Goals, MassachusettsDepartment of Education, 8/2005)
42 Example of Annual Goal with Five Components Jacob will read words of connected text per minute with 100% accuracy at the end of 36 weeks. The student (Jacob) Will do what (read words per minute) To what level or degree (100% accuracy) Under what conditions (connected text) In what time frame (end of 36 weeks)
43 Annual Goals Remember…! The IEP goal is NOT the content standard. The IEP goal is part of a plan to make the content standard immediate and individualized for the student.Do not copy the content standard word for word to become an IEP goal.
44 Incorrect Standards-Based IEP Annual Goal 7th Grade Content Standard Apply strategies appropriate to the type of reading material, including setting purposes for reading and making generalizations, to comprehend seventh-grade reading material (LA 7.1). By the end of the ninth grading period, Sami will apply strategies appropriate to the type of reading material, including setting purposes for reading and making generalizations, to comprehend seventh grade reading material with 90% accuracy.
45 Example of Correct IEP Annual Goal Present Level notes that Angela has difficulty making generalizations and answering comprehension questions. IEP Goal By the end of the sixth grading period, Angela will use prior knowledge and life experiences to make generalizations from her personal experience to answer comprehension questions from Grade 7 recreational reading materials (LA. 7.1) with an average of 90% accuracy on classroom assessments.
46 BenchmarksIndividualized Education Programs § Definition of individualized education program. General. As used in this part, the term individualized education program or IEP means a written statement for each child with a disability that is developed, reviewed, and revised in a meeting in accordance with §§ through , and that must include… (ii) For children with disabilities who take alternate assessments aligned to alternate achievement standards, a description of benchmarks or short-term objectives;In the past, benchmarks or short-term objectives were required elements in every student’s IEP. Now, benchmarks are required only for students with significant cognitive disabilities who take alternate assessments…Students with significant cognitive disabilities:Require extensive supports to engage in typical daily activitiesLikely require ongoing support in adulthoodHave complex needs in areas such as communication, health care, behavior support, skill acquisition (e.g., academic, self-help, social, vocational), and generalizationMay experience sensory deficits and motor challenges which require targeted interventions to support their participation in routines and activitiesKey Questions:What will the child need to be able to do to achieve each goal?How do we get to the goals?What are the intermediate steps (short-term objectives) to achieving the goal? orWhat are the major milestones (benchmarks) to achieving the goal?Purpose: To outline measurable, intermediate steps between a student's present level of performance and the annual goal.Definition:Short term objectives - intermediate steps to a goalBenchmarks - major milestones to a goal
47 Benchmarks Measurable Minimum of 2 per goal A logical breakdown of the major components of an annual goalBenchmarksMeasurableThere should be a minimum of 2 benchmarks per goalA logical breakdown of the major components of an annual goalGeneral indicators of progress, not a detailed instructional planSpecifies the behavior to be performedShort term objectives often specify conditions under which the child will perform the behaviorBenchmarks often indicate a time frameMay be a precursor step or a building block skillMay be sequential (crawl, then walk) or parallel (decode accurately and understand what is read)
48 BenchmarksShort-term objectives and benchmarks are steps that measure the child's progress toward the annual goals in the IEP. When written correctly, short-term objectives provide teachers with a roadmap and a clear mechanism to evaluate the child's progress.Wright, P. and Wright, P. (2006). Wrightslaw: From Emotions to Advocacy, 2nd Edition. Hartfield, VA: Harbor House Law Press, Inc.Benchmarks & ObjectivesBreak the measurable annual goal into discrete components that are short-term, measurable, intermediate steps orBreak the measurable annual goal into major milestones that the student is expected to reach within a specified period of time
49 Remember… The Present Level has three required components. Student’s strengthsStudent’s needsHow the student’s disability impacts progress in the general education curriculum
50 Remember… Annual IEP goals should have the following five components. WhoTime frameConditionsBehaviorCriterion
51 Developing SMART IEP Goals Specific – based on the student’s Present Level of Academic Achievement/Functional PerformanceMeasurable – progress is objectively determined at frequent data pointsAchievable – realistic, related to the most critical needsResults-oriented –developed with a standards’ outcome in mindTime-bound – clearly defined beginning and ending dates
52 IEP Goals Extended Standards… Students must have IEP goal(s) for each of five academic areas (math, reading, science, social studies, and English/language arts); and any other areas of need.General Education Course of Study…General Education Course of Study…Students must have IEP goal(s) for areas of academic need; and any other area of need.What are possible areas of need for Students working toward extended standards?What are possible areas of need for students working toward general education standards?Where do the goals in social studies and language arts come from for students working toward extended standards. (the general education course of study)
53 Instruction and Assessment Extended Standards…All extended standards must be taught and evidence must be submitted for each standard regardless of number of IEP goals.General Education Course of Study…General Education Course of Study…All course of study standards must be taught at the high school level in order for the student to receive course credit regardless of number of IEP goals.Accommodation vs. ModificationAccommodations are not the same as modifications. Accommodations are intended to lessen the effects of a student’s disability; they are not intended to reduce learning expectations. Changing, lowering or reducing learning expectations is usually referred to as a modification or alteration. Unlike accommodations, consistent use of modifications can increase the gap between the achievement of students with disabilities and the grade level expectations. This may have a negative impact on the student’s educational career as the student may not continue to progress and be able to obtain a regular diploma.Accommodations are generally grouped into the following categories:• Presentation (e.g., repeat directions, read aloud, use of larger bubbles on answer sheets)• Response (e.g., mark answers in book, use reference aids, point, use of computer)• Timing/Scheduling (e.g., extended time, frequent breaks)• Setting (e.g., study carrel, special lighting, separate room)(National Center for Learning Disabilities, 2005, NCLB: Determining Appropriate Assessment Accommodations for Students with Disabilities)
54 Grade of Enrollment Extended Standards… IEPs must be developed based on extended standards in the student’s grade of enrollment.General Education Course of Study…General Education Course of Study…Best practice is to look at the standards for the student’s grade of enrollment, plus one or two years back; while simultaneously addressing deficit areas in reading and mathematics, and other areas of critical need.
55 Assessing Progress Extended Standards… The AAA, not the IEP, is the state assessment that measures how well students have achieved the standards.General Education Course of Study…General Education Course of Study…The ARMT, SAT, ALHSGE are the state assessments that measure progress on general education standards.The Progress ReportAnswers the following questions:What is the student’s progress towards meeting the annual goal?Is the progress sufficient to enable the student to achieve the annual goal by the end of the IEP period?
56 Teaching to Mastery Extended Standards… All pieces of evidence submitted for the AAA should show that the student has achieved the standard rather than demonstrate progress the student has made on the standard.General Education Course of Study…
57 Sample IEPs www.alex.state.al.us/specialed Sample IEPs They are available as a resource.They aren’t perfect.They are on the forms that were in effect at the time they were written.
58 Transitioning to Alabama’s College and Career Readiness Standards Are there gaps?and if so, what specific gaps need to be addressed when transitioning from the current standards to the new standards?What do these new standards mean for instruction?What do districts need to do in preparation for their implementation?
59 Transitioning to Alabama’s College and Career Readiness Standards Phase IPhase IIComponents of the Course of StudyHigh School Course ProgressionsStandards for Mathematical PracticeLiteracy Standards for Grades 6-12Domains of Study and Conceptual CategoriesAnalyzing the StandardsSample Units of StudyBuilding Teacher CapacityFormative AssessmentsDifferentiating Instruction for RtIResources
60 Transitioning to Alabama’s College and Career Readiness Standards Phase IIIDesigned for continuous support based on Local Education Agency needs